• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Smiljana Antonijevic - Second Life, Second Body
 

Smiljana Antonijevic - Second Life, Second Body

on

  • 3,205 views

Lecture from the BEST Summer Course "REAL IT: From Academia to Industry" (Nis, Serbia) in July 2008.

Lecture from the BEST Summer Course "REAL IT: From Academia to Industry" (Nis, Serbia) in July 2008.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,205
Views on SlideShare
3,194
Embed Views
11

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
0
Comments
1

2 Embeds 11

http://www.slideshare.net 6
http://www.cirip.ro 5

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Bravo Smiljana!
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Smiljana Antonijevic - Second Life, Second Body Smiljana Antonijevic - Second Life, Second Body Presentation Transcript

    • Second Life, Second Body Nonverbal Communication in Multiuser, 3D Virtual Environments Smiljana Antonijevi ć Virtual Knowledge Studio for the Humanities and Social Sciences BEST, Nis July 22, 2008
    • Overview
      • Why Second Life ?
      • Why nonverbal communication?
      • Computer-mediated nonverbal communication
        • orientation of correspondence
        • orientation of autonomy
      • Second Life, Second Body
        • digital nonverbal act as: communicative device; socio-cultural phenomenon; new media object
        • six-month long observational study
        • structural and functional analyses
        • digital nonverbal act: an epistemic tool juxtaposed with users’ agency; computer-mediated nonverbal behavior: a field of tension between the User discourse and the Designer discourse.
    • Why Second Life?
      • Internet-based, multiuser virtual environment
      • Launched in 2003; 13 million accounts (March, 2008)
      • Capitol Hill, BBC, Harvard, IBM, NASA, Toyota, The Second Louvre Museum, Barack Obama …
      • The future of online communication
    •  
    • Why Nonverbal Communication?
      • “… all of the ways in which communication is effected between persons when in each other’s presence, by means other than words.” (Kendon, 1981:3).
      • Communicative use of: body ( kinescis ), space ( proxemics ) , artifacts ( objectics ) , touch ( haptics ) , voice ( vocalics ) …
      • The first communicative ability a person develops.
      • Two thirds of behavior in dyadic interaction.
    • Gesture
      • Facial Expressions
    • Artifacts
    • Dress
    • Interpersonal Distance
    •  
    • Why Nonverbal Communication?
      • “… all of the ways in which communication is effected between persons when in each other’s presence, by means other than words.” (Kendon, 1981:3).
      • Communicative use of: body ( kinescis ), space ( proxemics ) , artifacts ( objectics ) , touch ( haptics ) , voice ( vocalics ) …
      • The first communicative ability a person develops.
      • Two thirds of behavior in dyadic interaction.
    • Why Nonverbal Communication?
      • “… all of the ways in which communication is effected between persons when in each other’s presence, by means other than words.” (Kendon, 1981:3).
      • Communicative use of: body ( kinescis ), space ( proxemics ) , artifacts ( objectics ) , touch ( haptics ) , voice ( vocalics ) …
      • The first communicative ability a person develops.
      • Two thirds of behavior in dyadic interaction.
    • Digital Nonverbal Communication
      • Wiener (1948), parallels between electrical communication systems and human nervous system, perception, and motion; cybernetics: communicative rather than expressive aspects of nonverbal behavior.
      • Computer Sciences; Internet Studies; Social Sciences; Communication Studies.
      • The orientation of correspondence
        • aims to identify the corresponding patterns in the perception and use of physical and digital nonverbal cues.
      • The orientation of autonomy
        • aspires to recognize the distinctiveness of digital nonverbal behavior.
    • The Orientation of Correspondence
      • Kiesler et al . (1984); cues-filtered-out approach
      • Bates (1994); a believable agent – a believable illusion of life.
      • Guye-Vuilleme et al. (1999); Virtual Life Network -- mimetic system design, tries to represent social cues from the physical world, as literally as possible, in the digital domain.
      • Fabri et al. (2002) ; nonverbal abilities of human-like agents the essence of their capacity for behavioral resemblance.
      • Allbeck and Balder (2002) ; PARSYS program – generates realistic movement through dynamic simulation.
      • Yee et al. (2007); people behave according to the same social rules in both physical and virtual worlds; it is possible to study social interaction in virtual environments and generalize about social interaction in the “real world”.
    • The Orientation of Autonomy
      • Haraway (1991); the fusion between the human body and technological devices .
      • Emoticons ( Rivera et al. 1996; Walther et al. 2001; Riva 2002 ).
      • Erickson and Kellog (2000); abstract design approach; digital representation of nonverbal cues that are not closely tied to their physical analogs.
      • Talamo and Ligorio (2000); the construction of identity in “Euroland”.
      • Walther et al. (2005); social information processing theory.
      • Munster (2006); to think through what the experience of having a body means in information cultur e, our understanding of the body must be reconsidered.
      • Communicative Device
      • Digital Nonverbal Act
      • Cultural Phenomena New Media Object
    • Digital Nonverbal Act as a Communicative Device
      • Origin : the way in which a certain nonverbal act has become part of a person’s nonverbal repertoire.
      • Coding : the principle of correspondence between the act and its meaning.
      • Usage : circumstances under which a nonverbal act occurs.
      • Functions : communicative functions of nonverbal cues in human interaction.
    • Digital Nonverbal Act as a Cultural Phenomenon
      • Marcel Mauss , Techniques of the Body
        • Not: natural; culturally universal; individual.
        • Learned through “prestigious imitation”; shaped and legitimized by the social authority.
      • Mary Douglas, The Physical and the Social Body
        • Consonance among the semiotic systems; the use of the body synchronized with other means of expression.
        • The forms of bodily control correspond to the forms of societal control; both types of control stem from the same cultural premises.
      • Pierre Bourdieu, Habitus and Body Hexis
          • Body hexis the basis of habitus; functions beyond the oral and/or the written discourse.
          • Theory of practice; a scientific model of practice can never account for all the instances that can and do happen in practice; a practical activity never actually has the form represented in a scientific model.
    • Digital Nonverbal Act as a New Media Object
      • Lev Manovich (2001); the principles of New Media objects
        • numerical representation
        • modularity
        • automation
        • variability
        • transcoding
      • Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza (2005); Semiotic Engineering
        • human-computer interaction as a process of continuous meaning-exchange between the new media object designers and the new media objects users
        • new media objects as intellectual and metacommunicative artifacts
        • the design structure of new media objects determines both the available and the appropriate forms of users’ interaction
    • Methodology
      • 6 months long ethnographic study (October 2006-March 2007)
      • 108 Second Life locations selected in a non-structured manner
      • Short behavioral episodes
      • 843 episodes of naturally occurring user interaction
      • Blaze Media Pro software
      • Analysis focused on proxemic and kinesic cues (interpersonal distance, body orientation, posture, gesture)
    • Structural Analysis
      • Classification of nonverbal cues in Second Life
        • User-Defined Cues
        • Predefined Cues
        • Blended Cues
        • Missing Cues
    • User-Defined Cues
      • The user deliberately performs and individually encodes a nonverbal act.
      • Proxemic cues (interpersonal distance, body orientation).
      • Important role: communicating interactional intent; structuring interaction; sending relational messages.
      • Closely related with co-occurring textual discourse.
      • Not significantly correlated with the users’ physical appearance (human or other) and gender, or with the communicative context.
    • Signaling interactional intent
    • Signaling interactional intent
    • Signaling interactional intent Can I steal a dance?
    • Signaling interactional intent
    • Signaling interactional intent
    • Signaling interactional intent
    • Signaling interactional intent Hi Lucy
    • Signaling interactional intent
    • Signaling interactional intent
    • Signaling interactional intent Hi
    • User-defined cues: sending relational messages
    • User-defined cues: sending relational messages
    • User-defined cues: sending relational messages
    • User-defined cues: sending relational messages
    • User-defined cues: sending relational messages
    • Predefined Cues
      • System generated and encoded nonverbal acts.
      • Kinesic cues (hand movement, gaze, posture).
      • Indicate communicative activity; mimic interactional synchrony.
      • Unrelated with co-occurring textual discourse.
      • Not related with the users’ physical appearance (human or other) and gender, or with the communicative context.
    • Predefined cues: indicating communicative activity
    • Predefined cues: indicating communicative activity
    • Predefined cues: indicating communicative activity
    • Predefined cues: mimicking interactional synchrony
    • Predefined cues: mimicking interactional synchrony
    • Blended Cues
      • The user deliberately performs a nonverbal act but does not encode it.
      • Kinesic and proxemic cues.
      • Simulate various communicative functions.
      • Highly context and gender dependent.
      • Often in collision with co-occurring textual discourse.
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Hi, V
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Hi
    •  
    • How are you?
    • Please May I?
    •  
      • Digital nonverbal act: an epistemic tool juxtaposed with user agency.
      • Double objectification of digital nonverbal behavior; a nonverbal act becomes a new media object .
      • Digital nonverbal behavior: field of tension between the User discourse and the Design discourse.
      • User discourse: the virtual body augments the user’s physical body and acts in a way called for by a particular interactional situation. Design discourse: the virtual body is acted upon in a way called for by the system epistemology and pragmatics.
      • T he design discourse is detached from actual practice of user interaction and linked to abstract, precoded practice built into the system .
      • U ser discourse realized through users’ interaction with current capacities and limitations of the system ; confluence between technology and the user.
      • Questions?
      • Smiljana Antonijevic
      • [email_address]