Kiesler et al . (1984); cues-filtered-out approach
Bates (1994); a believable agent – a believable illusion of life.
Guye-Vuilleme et al. (1999); Virtual Life Network -- mimetic system design, tries to represent social cues from the physical world, as literally as possible, in the digital domain.
Fabri et al. (2002) ; nonverbal abilities of human-like agents the essence of their capacity for behavioral resemblance.
Allbeck and Balder (2002) ; PARSYS program – generates realistic movement through dynamic simulation.
Yee et al. (2007); people behave according to the same social rules in both physical and virtual worlds; it is possible to study social interaction in virtual environments and generalize about social interaction in the “real world”.
Digital Nonverbal Act as a Communicative Device
Origin : the way in which a certain nonverbal act has become part of a person’s nonverbal repertoire.
Coding : the principle of correspondence between the act and its meaning.
Usage : circumstances under which a nonverbal act occurs.
Functions : communicative functions of nonverbal cues in human interaction.
Digital Nonverbal Act as a Cultural Phenomenon
Marcel Mauss , Techniques of the Body
Not: natural; culturally universal; individual.
Learned through “prestigious imitation”; shaped and legitimized by the social authority.
Mary Douglas, The Physical and the Social Body
Consonance among the semiotic systems; the use of the body synchronized with other means of expression.
The forms of bodily control correspond to the forms of societal control; both types of control stem from the same cultural premises.
Pierre Bourdieu, Habitus and Body Hexis
Body hexis the basis of habitus; functions beyond the oral and/or the written discourse.
Theory of practice; a scientific model of practice can never account for all the instances that can and do happen in practice; a practical activity never actually has the form represented in a scientific model.
Digital nonverbal act: an epistemic tool juxtaposed with user agency.
Double objectification of digital nonverbal behavior; a nonverbal act becomes a new media object .
Digital nonverbal behavior: field of tension between the User discourse and the Design discourse.
User discourse: the virtual body augments the user’s physical body and acts in a way called for by a particular interactional situation. Design discourse: the virtual body is acted upon in a way called for by the system epistemology and pragmatics.
T he design discourse is detached from actual practice of user interaction and linked to abstract, precoded practice built into the system .
U ser discourse realized through users’ interaction with current capacities and limitations of the system ; confluence between technology and the user.