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Motivation for Research Study A U.S. Department of Education meta-analysis and review of online learning studies concludes: “ Online learning can be enhanced by giving learners control of their interactions and prompting learner reflection . Studies indicate that manipulations that trigger learner activity or learner reflection and self-monitoring of understanding are effective when students pursue online learning as individuals” (Means, Toyama, Murphy, Bakia, & Jones, 2009, p.xvi).
Self-Regulated Learning & Reflection Self-regulated learning (SRL) has been demonstrated to be associated with learning outcomes (Pintrinch, 2000) Learners who engage in reflective thinking have been shown to be better self-regulated learners (Zimmerman, 1998, 2000) Most students do not reflect spontaneously on their learning processes (Van Velzen, 2002) When learners are prompted to reflect, learning outcomes are improved (Bixler, 2008; Butler, 1998; Chang, 2007; Chi, De Leeuw, Chiu, & LaVancher, 1994; Chung, & Severance, 1999; Cook et al., 2005; Crippen & Earl, 2007; Lee & Hutchison, 1998; Nelson, 2007; Saito & Miwa, 2007; Shen, Lee, & Tsai, 2007; Sobrol, 2000; van den Boom et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2006)
Growth in Online Higher Education Online enrollments growth rates > Total traditional enrollment growth rate No signs of this growth slowing 25% (4.6 million) took at least one online course during Fall 2008 17 % increase from 2007 1.2 % increase in total traditional enrollment (Allen & Seaman, 2010)
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Problem Statement The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of a reflective journal with prompts and exemplars on learner outcomes. Learner outcomes are SRL skills and knowledge of TMU. The prompts and exemplars have been designed to promote learner outcomes.
Research Hypothesis It is hypothesized that the combined effect of prompts and exemplars for a reflective learning journal will promote greater learning outcomes than prompts alone. Learning outcomes are defined as SRL skills and knowledge of TMU .
Participants Participants for the study will be graduate students enrolled in a fully online course offered through the BLS. The participants are prospective or current elementary school teachers. The student population contains 18 students, all female, ? age range. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. Thus, each treatment group will be composed of 9 participants. only possible source of bias will be limited generalizability of the findings resulting from the limited size and diversity of the population.
Reflective Journal Entries to measure level cognitive presence
Final course average to measure knowledge of TMU
Experimental Design Groups Treatment Posttest Group 1 n=9 R Prompts&Exemplars CoI MSQL Group 2 n=9 R OnlyPrompts CoI MSQL
Prompts “You have completed a learning module. Before moving on to the next module, I'd like you reflect on what you learned as well as your performance during this module. I would like you to reflect on three things: a) What math you learned b) What you learned about teaching mathematics c) Your overall online performance”
What math have you learned? Pictures Symbols Words
What have you learned about teaching Math? ...
Reflect on your online performance Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Example Goal Setting Time Management Persistence Using Strategies Monitoring my Understanding
Math Exemplar Pictures Symbols Words 2 + 3 = 5 5 – 2 = 3 Addition and subtraction are inverse operations
Teaching Math Exemplar Students can use what they know (addition) to figure out how to subtract on their own. Using a manipulative or drawing a picture can help them (active, inquiry based learning). Before teaching the algorithm for subtraction let students figure it out on their own (constructivism) or work together (social constructivism). There is more than one way to think of subtraction (cognitive flexibility).
SRL Exemplar Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Example Goal Setting I set goals in the beginning of the module. My main goal was to understand all of the content. I achieved this by taking my time and completing all of the assignments to the best of my ability. Time Management I put all of the due dates on my personal calendar. I worked through the module in stages. I took breaks. Persistence The reading was boring. The assignments were difficult. I have a busy life. However, I persevered despite these obstacles. Using Strategies When do the readings I skimmed the text, then focused on the big ideas, took notes while reading, and re-read the confusing parts. When doing the assignments I did several revisions before submitting my final draft. Monitoring my Understanding In this journal I am recording what I learned.