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    Development of engineering geology in western united states Development of engineering geology in western united states Document Transcript

    • Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 www.elsevier.nl/locate/enggeo Development of engineering geology in western United States George A. Kiersch a,b,* a Professor Emeritus, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA b Kiersch Associates, GeoScience Consultants, 4750 Camino Luz, AZ 85718, USA Abstract Geologic concepts and scienti®c-technical guidance for the planning-design and construction of engineered works was recognized in Europe by the 1800s and by the early 1900s in North America. This early geologic knowledge and experience provided the rudimentary principles that guided practitioners of the 19th century in serving the emerging projects in western United States. Case studies review the scienti®c-technical lessons learned and the legacy of geologic principles established in the planning and construction of major civil, mining, and military engineered works in the western states. These contributions to GeoScience knowledge and engineering geology practice include: ² Tunnels and aqueducts across active fault zones, beneath young volcanic features, groundwater-charged faults, and land subsidence mitigation. ² Controversial foundation design, Folsom and Auburn dams, Golden Gate Bridge. ² Protective underground construction chambers, safety dependent geologic setting. ² Geologic mapping as database management leasing, maintenance railroad trackway. ² Causeway Great Salt Lake, geo-risks calculated, mitigated `as-constructed'. ² Nuclear powerplants seismic design. ² Urban Land-Use, on-going processes, acceptable geo-risks. ² Dwelling Insurance, insuree's responsibilities. ² Selecting technique/method to mitigate risk, preferably based on extensive database, evaluation of characteristics and historical origin adverse features/conditions that constitute a geo-risk. q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lessons learned Ð geoscience legacies; Principles of practice; Natural processes Ð acceptable geo-risks; Aqueducts/tunnels Ð active faults; In¯ow groundwater; Dam foundations Ð concrete/earth®ll; Golden Gate Bridge; Nuclear plants; Land-use risks; Protective underground construction; Railroad causeway; Calculated risks; Landslide destruction; Insuree's responsibilities; Drill-core Ð inadequate interpretation; Impacts tunnel design; Mining method; Unit-bid prices; Safety 1. Introduction mining on the Sinai Peninsula over 15,000 years ago (Stone Age), and tunneling (adit) was started about 1.1. Historical `engineered' works 3500 BC. Initially, `geologic' craft and lore was utilized to The history of remarkable engineering construction evaluate natural sites and the remnants of remarkable feats is as old as man's records that began with copper construction feats are a legacy to these early skills. Use of `geologists` to evaluate natural risks and sites * 400 Prospect St., Apt. 234, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. for engineered works has a long history that 0013-7952/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0013-795 2(00)00063-6
    • 2 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 developed from the lore of our forefathers: Leonardo project demands of the mid- to the late-1800s. By the da Vinci (Faul and Faul, 1983; Clements, 1981), Henri 1900s, the activities of applied geological practi- Gautier (1721) and William Smith (Adams, 1938). In tioners in North America were of a scope and North America early assistance, geological insight acceptance-level to their counterparts in Europe. and counsel for engineering purposes was fostered by a small group of practitioners. However, any over- view of these early efforts for projects in the western 2. Early projects and practitioners states bene®ted from the substantial legacy of experi- ence and knowledge acquired earlier by pioneers in 2.1. Introduction Europe and Asia. The brief case-reviews of milestone engineering Professor William O. Crosby of the Massachusetts projects and the rudimentary geologic principles and Institute of Technology offered the ®rst continuous concepts that follow are more fully described in the training with lectures and a syllabus text on geology recent Heritage volume (Kiersch, 1991). The emphasis and engineering in 1893 (Kiersch, 1991, p. 23). The is on Ð `How and in what way have the efforts of ®rst formal lectures on `Geology for Engineering engineering geology practitioners resulted in scienti- Students' were given in 1875±1876 by Theodore B. ®c-technical advances in the GeoSciences, while Comstock at Cornell. Professor R.S. Tarr included the protecting the safety, health, and welfare of the public?' subject in his Practical/Dynamic Geology course at Cornell in 1894, and by 1898 with Heinrich Ries 1.2. Early concepts Ð engineers accept geologic they offered three geology courses for engineering counsel students. This led to the early `Engineering Geology' text by Ries and Watson (1914, 1936). The concept that geologic conditions can in¯uence Crosby became the leading practitioner and consul- the planning and construction of large-scale engi- tant for engineered works (1893±1925) and is consid- neered works, such as roads, canals, tunnels, and ered the `Father of Engineering Geology in North water supplies, was recognized during the eighteenth America' (Kiersch, 1991, pp. 44±45). He was the century in Europe and by the nineteenth century in ®rst to serve as a consulting geologist for: the US North America. Bureau Reclamation (Arrow Dam, Idaho); the US The application of geology for engineering Army Engineers (Muscle Shoals Dam, Tennessee); purposes played a small role in the early history and the Board of Water Supply New York City; and for expansion of the United States up to the 1880s, as some 50 other dams and tunnel projects in States, as documented by Radbruch-Hall (1987). Accordingly, well as projects in Spain, Mexico, and Canada. In America's westward expansion by the 1820s initiated California, Crosby served as a consultant for early the construction of an improved network of roads and dams on the Feather River during 1920s, e.g. Big canals. Yet suddenly in the middle of the century, road Bend and Meadows Dams for Great Western Power and canal building was curtailed in favor of construct- Co. (forerunner P.G.E.). ing a nationwide railroad network (1850s±1870s). The innovative investigation of the Boston Harbor This rush to western lands and the Paci®c region environs by Professor W.O. Crosby a century ago required bold planning and unusual human efforts to (1900±1903) warrants study by today's aspiring complete rail links with the central states. practitioners (Cozort, 1981, pp. 203±212). The Historically the early geologic concepts and proposed Charles River Dam, Boston was of deep principles that assisted the builders of engineered concern to the chief engineer, Freeman (1903). works in North America were largely due to the Would damming the river estuary system allow the accomplishments and scienti®c-technical advances preservation of the shoals and natural channels of of European investigators in the eighteenth and nine- Boston Harbor, or conversely would the dam change teenth centuries. These European experiences and the harbor? Crosby's investigation of the Charles proven principles were available to North American River basin, other coastal estuaries, and offshore geologists and engineers when called on to serve the islands concluded that surging of the tidal prism did
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 3 Fig. 1. Boulder (Hoover) Dam site under construction in the early 1930s. Note diversion tunnels in each abutment, and blasting for the keyway of the dam in volcanic rocks (photo courtesy of the Heinrich Ries collection, Cornell University). more to shoal the harbor than deepen it. The dam for an accurate description and classi®cation of rock would not cause environmental changes and his units involved in engineering contracts (Hall, 1839) conclusions of 1903 have proved correct. and landslides (Mather and Whittlesey, 1838). Gilbert (1884) was the ®rst modern geologist in Professor Warren J. Mead, a pioneer in teaching the North America to relate the principles of mathe- applications of geology to engineering students at matics, physics, and engineering to the solution of Wisconsin and MIT, was known worldwide for his geological problems (Wallace, 1980); he seemed to research and geological expertise (Shrock, 1977, p. solve puzzles in the manner of an engineer. For 692). His studies on rock properties and failure example, Gilbert (1909) was one of the ®rst to mechanisms (Mead, 1925, 1930) established early investigate forecasting of earthquakes. His studies principles relative to stress and a rock mass which of sediment transport in running water (Gilbert, constituted the forefront of thinking on `rock 1914) and debris ¯ows as related to the mining mechanics' in the 1920s. As a consultant on Boulder debris of the Sierra Nevada (1917) together estab- Dam, he demonstrated that minimal support only was lished engineering geology principles practiced required throughout the four diversion tunnels today. Even more fundamental was Gilbert's identi- (Fig. 1), an early ®rst that lowered tunnel-construction ®cation of the subsidence and rebound phenomena costs on many subsequent projects. associated with loading and unloading of ancient Kirk Bryan spent many years on ®eld-oriented Lake Bonneville, a concept critical to the design- projects in the western states with the US Geological operation of many engineered works (Yochelson, Survey and was an early author on the `Geology of 1984). The physical properties of rock masses were reservoir and dam sites' (Bryan, 1929; AIME, 1929). recognized in a very early paper concerning the need Later Bryan (1939), recognized that three distinct
    • 4 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 2. The San Andreas fault zone, strike-slip movement of 1906 in Marin County, California is cited by Reid (1911) in his concept of elastic rebound (from Heinrich Ries collection, Cornell University, in Kiersch, 1991, p. 33). geologic uncertainties are critical to planning- fundamentals of sur®cial geology to engineering operating engineered works: (1) control of natural students at the Stanford University (Branner, 1898) agents, processes, and phenomena; (2) stability and and consultant on St. Francis dam (1925). Later, durability of rock masses; and (3) the control of Professor Bailey Willis on numerous projects, e.g. ground-water circulation, permeability and ¯ow of Golden Gate Bridge controversy. Professor Andrew ¯uids. Similarly, Twenhofel (1932, 1939) was C. Lawson, UC-Berkeley served many engineering another early contributor to the geological literature related projects, such as the evaluation of San Francisco for applied geologists with geological treatises on earthquake damage in 1906; preparation of USGS folio sedimentation. These volumes described the proper- on City of San Francisco; construction UC-Memorial ties of soft, unconsolidated, and soil-like deposits stadium with inclusion of design for displacement of common to engineering sites. foundation by the Hayward fault; and the stability Other early consultants and engineering geology controversy serpentine rock surrounding Golden Gate practitioners in the Western States were prominent Bridge construction with A.E. Sedgwich, USC-Los contributors to the knowledge and growth of geology Angeles. Professor G.D. Louderback, UC-Berkeley, for engineered works prior to 1940. This group was consultant on damsites for Federal and State agen- included: Professor John C. Branner who taught the cies as was Professor John P. Buwalda (Buwalda, 1951),
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 5 California Institute of Technology. Chester Marliave, a (Richter, 1966). An early major earthquake affected private consultant served such projects as Folsom dam a wide area around the San Francisco Bay area in and Broadway tunnel, San Francisco, and Haiwee dam 1868, but little is known or on record. Right-lateral for Los Angeles Water and Power. movement occurred along the now-designated Hayward fault that destroyed the village of Hayward 2.2. Urban planning Ð mapping of cities as reported by George Davidson (US Coast Survey). Lawson in 1908 reported that authorities at the time Circa 1900, the US Geological Survey formu- feared the release of data on the earthquake and the lated an ambitious program to topographically and severity of damage would hurt the reputation of the geologically map a group of major cities. The map San Francisco Bay area and suppressed the report. No folios were released with supporting information copies of a report on this Hayward-fault event are on on the surface and subsurface `environmental' record. At UC-Berkeley campus the Hayward fault features and provided a terrain evaluation database crosses beneath the Memorial football stadium for the expected urban expansion and construction. which was built in two separate halves; the structure This series began with such cities as the Sacramento can shift laterally without major damage should folio by Lindgren (1894) and the San Francisco folio movement occur on the fault. The regional geologic by Lawson (1914). processes active in the San Francisco Bay area have 2.3. EarthquakesÐresearch and forecasting been studied for decades; risks from geologic and man-made conditions are summarized in Fig. 3A World attention was directed to a major branch of and B and show a correlation between the 1906 and engineering geology interest by the great earthquake 1989 earthquake damage (Fig. 4) in the Marina disaster in San Francisco, California, on 18 April District of San Francisco. 1906. Reports by the US Geological Survey (Gilbert Much progress in the ®eld of engineering seismol- et al., 1907) and the Carnegie Institution (Lawson, ogy is due to the efforts of scientists and engineers in 1908) on this cataclysm are classic in their scope California; they founded the Seismology Society of and thoroughness. All geologic phases were covered America in 1907 and committees of American Society in the reports including the effects of shock intensity of Civil Engineers reported on earthquake effects on various rock and soil foundations. This event from 1907 to 1925. The major Santa Barbara earth- awakened the engineering profession to the potential quake occurred in California on 1 July 1925, soon importance of a natural phenomena and the need for after the Congressional Act of January 1925, which constraints which have commanded the attention of authorized the US Coast and Geodetic Survey to make many engineering geologists, e.g. the shock intensity investigations and release seismological reports. This on marshlands and saturated, man-made ®ll are far milestone act was the beginning of our current meth- greater than on rocky hills and natural, well-drained ods of earthquake engineering studies in the United soils (Engle, 1952) and such engineered structures are States. Since another major earthquake in 1933 at so modi®ed in design. Reid (1911) developed the Long Beach, California, research in earthquake engi- concepts of elastic rebound and strike-slip move- neering has advanced at an ever-accelerating pace. ment from observation along the San Andreas The ®rst records of strong earthquake movements fault zone, a milestone in understanding the causes obtained from the Long Beach earthquake (Neumann, of seismic events (Fig. 2). The widely circulated 1952) led to the strengthening the building codes, e.g. photograph of a barn and manure pile torn apart the Field act. by lateral movement (Kiersch, 1991, p. 31) illus- trates the slip-displacement common to the San 2.4. Railroads across western territory, 1850s±1870s Andreas fault zone. The historic record of earthquakes in California The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in California dates back to 1769, but only since the early 1930s in 1848 sparked a frenzied migration across the have earthquake studies become oriented to the safe nearly trackless western territories that was with- and economical design of engineering structures out precedent in this country's history. So rapid
    • 6 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 3. (A) An early seismic zonation map of the San Francisco area, based on relative intensities felt throughout the city during the 1906 earthquake. (B) Note the correspondence between sur®cial materials and felt intensities (from Borcherdt, 1975). was the settlement of the West Coast, with a hub coast, but also aid in the settlement of selective city on the San Francisco Bay, that railways were broad regions between the Mississippi River and proposed to cross the entire continent. The rail Paci®c Ocean; a brief summary after Radbruch- lines would not only serve the population on the Hall (1987) follows.
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 7 Fig. 3. (continued) 2.5. Land grants encourage construction of railroads; grants had gone to 12 states by 1862 (DeFord, 1954, p. 4). The ®rst The federal government gave land grants in 1850 to western land grant was made to the Union Paci®c and the states of Illinois, Mississippi and Alabama to Central Paci®c Railroads on 1 July 1862, to build a
    • 8 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 4. Vertical velocities during a magnitude 4.6 aftershock of the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October, as recorded 21 October 1989, at the three temporary seismograph stations in the Marina district of San Francisco. Note comparative ampli®cation of ground motion in damaged (LMS) and undamaged (PUC) areas, and areas of bedrock (MAS) (modi®ed from Plafker and Galloway, 1989 in Kiersch, 1991, p. 374).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 9 Fig. 5. Grant lands and associated areas of California, Nevada, Utah, mapped by regional geologic survey of the Southern Paci®c Corporation, 1955±1961. Extent of the original Central (Southern) Paci®c land grants of 1862±1871 is inferred; parts disposed of prior to 1949 are based on a 1909 survey (from Kiersch, 1991, p. 369). transcontinental line from the Missouri River to the granted the Central Paci®c Railroad a right-of-way Paci®c Ocean via Nebraska and Wyoming (UP) and and alternate odd sections of land for 20 miles on connect with a line (CP) across California, Nevada, each side of the railroad from Roseville, California and Utah (Fig. 5). A Congressional Act, 25 July 1866, to the Oregon border; and a second act on 27 July
    • 10 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 11 1866, granted the Southern Paci®c Railroad a similar a professor of geology at the University of Texas strip from Needles, California, to San Jose, via and Director Third Texas Geological Survey Coalinga. Another act of 1871 granted alternate (1888±1894). odd-section holdings to the Southern Paci®c Railroad The principal objective of the survey was to select from the Tehachapi Pass near Mojave, California all lands for patent that were considered nonmineral southward to Yuma, Arizona (Fig. 5). Similar grants and negotiate the release of known mineral-bearing were made to the other western railroads in 1864, 1866, lands. Although the survey was active between 1909 and 1871; Santa Fe Railroad across northern New and 1925, SPCo had organized an active geological Mexico and Arizona, the Northern Paci®c Railroad group in 1897 under consultant E.T. Dumble to across Dakotas, Montana and Washington State. Only oversee operation of Rio Bravo Oil Company and lands with coal and iron were retained by the govern- other coal and oil interests. The geological staff ment (Henry, 1945). The land grants and rail lines were responsible for many pioneering ®rsts in the across the barren `wastelands' of that day enhanced application of geology for industrial exploration that their value and the tax revenue from railroad real estate included: techniques for geological logging of core- became a major source of local income. hole cuttings; correlation of subsurface data between By 1867, developing industries in America were wells within a ®eld; use of micro-paleontology as an making radical demands on the nation's natural exploration tool, and other techniques in the 1910s resources. Congress reacted and funded western geolo- (Underwood, 1964). Many well-known California gical explorations. The Fortieth Parallel survey, was geologists served on this early survey: J.T. Taff, authorized in 1867, to explore routes for the transcon- S.H. Jester, F.S. Hudson, D. Clark, L. Melhase, tinental railroad (UP/CP) under direction of Clarence W.L. Moody, and C.L. Cunningham. King and the US Army Engineers. An earlier survey The survey identi®ed the Coalinga region of (US War Department 1856) explored several routes for California by 1920 as lands with an excellent potential a railroad from Mississippi River to Paci®c Ocean in for petroleum. These SPCo lands were subsequently 1853±1854. After three successful years the King acquired by a rising new company, Standard Oil of survey was placed under the Secretary of the Interior California (Chevron today), and the Coalinga area in 1870 (King, 1880). Three other surveys followed, became its principal producing ®eld for over two led by F.V. Hayden, Lt. George Wheeler, and Major decades. Several geologists associated with SPCo's John Wesley Powell's exploration of the unknown survey became the nucleus of Standard's exploration Colorado River Canyonlands. All four surveys were staff; and S.H. Jester became chief geologist, serving under the control of Congress by 1874, which led to into the 1940s. establishing the US Geological Survey in 1879. 2.7. Aqueducts for Los Angeles area 2.6. Geological survey Ð Southern Paci®c lands 1909±1920s During the 1900s, a major water-supply system was undertaken for the greater Los Angeles area. The ®rst The western railroad land grants of 1862±1871 Owens River aqueduct was constructed in 1907±1913 initiated little controversy over mineral rights and by the Department of Water and Power, Los Angeles land values until 1900s when industrial development (LADWP). These works accomplished many `®rsts' brought railroad land holdings into the spotlight. As in engineering geology practice with respect to an outgrowth, a far-sighted geological and mineral tunneling and excavation through active fault zones, evaluation of the Southern Paci®c grant lands was as did the later construction of the Mono Basin exten- undertaken in 1909 under D.T. Dumble, formerly sion between 1934 and 1940 (Fig. 6). Los Angeles Fig. 6. Map of the Los Angeles Aqueduct system, Los Angeles to Owens River sector completed in 1913. Mono Basin extensions northward completed in 1941 with intake at Lee Vining. The Second Aqueduct project completed in 1969 parallels the original aqueduct system, begins with an intake south of Owens Dry Lake/Olancha. This water-supply network of tunnels, canals, dams, and powerhouses crosses many active fault zones in the eastern Sierra Nevada and Los Angeles region (from Kiersch, 1991, p. 27).
    • 12 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 purchased 307,000 acres in Inyo and Mono Counties high ¯ow of carbon dioxide gas in an area of calcar- to protect the water rights that supplied the aqueduct. eous rocks (nearby volcanic activity); and squeezing The drama, intrigue, and legal maneuvers by the land- and ¯owing ground at the fault contacts between owners to retain the water and by the builders metamorphic and granitic rocks where the deeply (LADWP) to gain the water rights and the right-of- weathered material air-slaked on exposure. way for construction were depicted in the movie Chinatown in the 1970s. The Second Los Angeles 2.8. Western dams aqueduct, constructed in 1965±1970, increased The Reclamation Act of 1902 authorized the water delivered to city by 50% (Fig. 6). federal government to start a reclamation and irriga- The ®rst aqueduct of 375 km tapped the fresh tion program in the western United States under the waters of the Owens River that ¯owed into saline Reclamation Service, an agency separated from the Owens Lake; the later Mono Basin extension (1940) US Geological Survey Hydrologic Branch in 1907, extended the system 170 km northward for a total of and designated the Bureau of Reclamation in 1923. 545 km (Fig. 6). This system of engineered works One of the earliest irrigation projects to be authorized consists of more than 100 tunnels (120 km), many was the development of the Salt River in Arizona, of dams and powerhouses, and more than 400 km of which Roosevelt Dam (1906±1911) was the ®rst con®ned, or open canal ¯ow. The tunnels and canals project. The principal investigation of the site was have required continued maintenance owing to the by drilling several holes in the channel section; the numerous fault zones crossed and the varied/contrast- good-quality foundation of sandstone and quartzite ing rock conditions. required very little excavation. Roosevelt Dam and The Elizabeth tunnel, part of the original 1913 most of the other early dam projects had little aqueduct, carries water from the Fairmount Reservoir occasion to call on geologic counsel Ð the good- across a ridge and the San Andreas fault zone and quality, natural sites available accommodated the discharges into a canyon for hydroelectric plants moderate-height dams. Interestingly, Roosevelt Dam downstream. The horseshoe-shaped pressure tunnel, was an early `Old Dam' to undergo rehabilitation and 8 km long, is mainly in granitic rock that varies modi®cation in 1988 (Fig. 22). from a hard to an altered and thoroughly crushed The Arrow Dam in Idaho was another early Bureau rock mass. The active San Andreas fault zone (about of Reclamation project that was followed by many 1.5 km wide) is crossed orthogonally by the tunnel, large-scale dam projects of 1920s±1980s. The most another early `®rst' in applied geology. This sub- widely known Boulder/Hoover Dam on Colorado surface exposure of the active fault zone has been River near Las Vegas, Nevada was a professional widely used for scienti®c research; no signi®cant milestone in the acceptance of geologic guidance for movement or damage to the tunnel has been reported planning and construction of major engineered works. to date (Wilson and Mayeda, 1966; Proctor, 1999). The Mono Craters tunnel of 1934±1940 experi- 2.9. Boulder/Hoover dam enced a series of different geological problems, as described by Wilson and Mayeda (1966). The tunnel, On 12 March 1928, the dramatic and complete 18 km long (3 m diameter), pierces the volcanic necks failure, within a few minutes, of the St. Francis that underlie the Mono Craters and some 20 inactive dam near Saugus, California, was a convincing volcanic pumice cinder cones between Mono Basin disaster in the history of large engineering struc- and Long Valley. Excavation required ®ve and a half tures. One repercussion was a symposium (AIME, years from six headings; 67% of the tunnel is 1929) to consider problems of dam and reservoir supported due to the wide variety of rocks penetrated, geology, that directed attention to the importance i.e. mainly rhyolite, tuff, volcanic ash, granite, meta- of adequate geological investigations and counsel morphics, sandstone, glacial deposits, lake beds, and in erecting dams. The results, which were widely alluvium. Nearly every serious dif®culty inherent to publicized, focused attention on the importance of tunneling occurred: exceptional volumes of water geology as an indispensable aid in civil engineer- under high pressure with ¯ows to 35,000 gpm; a ing (Kiersch, 1955, p. 23).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 13 Reverberations of the St. Francis disaster intensi- Central Valley plan along with the Delta±Mendota ®ed the differences of opinion and uncertainties Canal that moves San Joaquin River water southward concerning construction of a proposed high dam at from a pumping station near Tracy for irrigation usage Boulder Canyon on the Colorado River. Finally, to in the Mendota-region. appease all parties concerned, Congress, on 29 May The US Army Corps of Engineers was authorized 1928, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to to build ¯ood control dams and related works in many appoint a board of ®ve eminent engineers and geolo- western states by the Flood Control Act of 1936. gists to examine the proposed site of the dam and Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, Oregon- advise as to matters affecting the safety, economic Washington was a major early project followed by and engineering feasibility, and adequacy of the other dams upstream. A series of ¯ood control dams proposed structure (USBR, 1950, p. 11). The two were built in Central California on rivers ¯owing into geologists on this board were Charles P. Berkey and the Central Valley beginning in 1940s with: Pine Flat Warren J. Mead. The board's recommendations are dam on the Kings River; Isabella Dam on Kern River; now history, yet, ironically, it required an engineering Success Dam on Tule River at Porterville; and the failure and catastrophe (St. Francis dam) to gain due Folsom project east of Sacramento on the American recognition of the importance geologic conditions River. Folsom was the ®rst joint-undertaking by the may attain in large-scale construction projects. Corps of Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation for Oddly, these events led to the ®nal authorization and ¯ood control and power generation facilities under construction of the world's highest dam (726 ft) at the `Folsom Formula' legislation in 1949 (exploration that date. The major recommendations of the board and construction geology described below). members in 1928 proved engineering wise and economically sound, and many `®rsts' in engineering geology were recorded at Boulder dam, among them 2.10. Attitudes change among engineers re: geology was F.A. Nickell the ®rst resident geologist, on a Bureau project. The St. Francis dam catastrophe By the 1930s, the civil engineering profession and public's concern resulted in State of California realized the need for greater geological input and establishing an of®ce, Supervisor of Safety of Dams guidance for major works. Unfortunately, geological in 1929. science did not respond immediately to the requests of The USBR constructed the Grand Coulee dam on the civil engineers for an improved knowledge of the Columbia River, Washington (1933±1942) in a glacial physical properties of rocks and/or soft, unconsolidated scoured, complex geologic environs of extensively sediments and soils. Consequently, civil engineers jointed/fractured fresh granitic rock and associated themselves began to provide input. A leader among glacial deposits (Irwin, 1938). They also undertook the group of concerned engineers was Karl Terzaghi, construction of Parker dam downstream from Boulder an early specialist in earth materials. He worked for dam on Colorado River. This project became the the US Reclamation Service from 1912 to 1915, but deepest concrete dam below the riverbed (233 ft. to returned to Europe to advance the combined ®elds of bedrock) and only 87 ft. above; the concrete experi- soil mechanics and geology for engineered works as enced an early case of cement-aggregate reaction and professor at Roberts College, Constantinople and the sur®cial cracking. Technical Hochschule, Vienna. He returned to America Subsequently, the USBR undertook construction of as Professor of Foundation Engineering at Harvard Shasta Dam on the upper Sacramento River in (1938±1963) and served as a prominent consultant for northern California (1938±1943) a key unit of engineered works in North America. Terzaghi based his Bureau's California Central Valley plan. The dam soil mechanics techniques on sound geological foundation of intruded metamorphic rocks is traversed knowledge (Terzaghi, 1955) and believed every soil- by a variety of faults and shear zones with associated mechanics specialists (`geotechnical' today) should be joints and altered materials. During this period the half geologist; a combination he acknowledged later had Friant Dam on San Joaquin River east of Fresno was not been followed by his successors, and was a major undertaken. It is the southern link in the Bureau's professional disappointment (Terzaghi, 1963). Reviews
    • 14 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 of Terzaghi's accomplishments are given by Goodman of some sandstones induced swelling and squeezing; (1999) and Shlemon (1999). and dif®culty dealing with substantial quantities of During the early 1900s, Homer Hamlin ®rst methane and sulfuretted hydrogen gas (McAfee, engaged in geology and then in engineering for 1934). These problems served to develop the use of several large California municipalities, and became gunite as a sublining to control-support in squeezing one of the early engineer-geologists. Ultimately, his ground. Some faults traversed by the tunnel are now studies for municipalities on control of the Colorado known to be active. River culminated in a 1920 proposal to put a dam in Boulder Canyon Ð a site later used for Hoover Dam 2.13. Broadway tunnel, Berkeley Hills, 1935±1937 (Nickell, 1942). Another early geologist involved with the investigation of dam sites along the Colorado Another early northern California tunnel that also River in the 1920s was Sidney Paige, who became an in¯uenced engineering geology practice was the twin- eminent practitioner of engineering geology from the bore highway tunnel through the Berkeley Hills that 1930s to 1950s (Paige, 1950). links the Orinda and Walnut Creek areas to the East Bay and San Francisco Bay bridge. Benjamin M. 2.11. Highway construction materials Ð early Page, of Stanford, served as geologist for the contrac- investigations tor and described the tunneling dif®culties largely due to the unexpected geological conditions encountered The use of geologists to locate sources of adequate (Page, 1950). The Miocene±Pliocene rocks involved materials and provide guidance in planning routes for consist of sandstone, shaley sandstone, shale, the developing nationwide highway system became a mudstone and conglomerate. Part of the tunnel major category of applied geology in the early 1900s. cross-cut an overturned limb of a syncline and the By the year 1918, some 50 papers on geology as folded beds with dips up to 608 were fractured and applied to highway engineering had been published displaced by the many associated faults. in America (Huntting, 1945). This included the road- Although a pre-construction geologic investigation material sources of 24 states and reports on the and report was made by a prominent Berkeley relation of mineral composition to the engineering geologist, it re¯ected no serious concerns. In reality, characteristics of the rock. An early report by Pearson the `as-encountered' tunneling conditions presented and Loughlin (1923) of a concrete failure traced the serious dif®culties and work stoppages owing to: cause to a cement-aggregate reaction from a source in lateral pressures active at the southwest portal; San Gabriel Mountains, California. Reactive-aggre- instability and `running ground' with `cave-ins'; gate became a serious problem in highway pavements unstable contacts between some bedded rock units; and caused cracking on concrete surfaces at Parker and treacherously weak and altered plastic diabase Dam on Colorado River. Soon thereafter methods dikes. The construction contract by The Six Companies were devised to counteract the causes (McConnel et (builders Boulder Dam), was canceled by the California al., 1950). Highway District due to slow progress in 1936, and 2.12. Hetch Hetchy aqueduct, 1927±1934 the tunnel was completed in 1937 by a replacement contractor. This action led to a major lawsuit in which Another early water supply project, the Hetch `Six Companies' contended that the inaccurate pre- Hetchy aqueduct serving San Francisco, in¯uenced construction geologic report was a major cause of engineering geology practice. The alignment required their slow progress (unexpected adverse rock condi- a Coast Range tunnel 46 km long, the ®rst long-bore tions). The California Highway District contended tunnel driven in the Paci®c Coastal region. Very dif®- they assumed no responsibility for the accuracy or cult rock conditions were encountered in tunneling views of the geologist. The Court accepted this from near Wesley in Central Valley to the outskirts proviso (no accountability) and `Six Companies' of Livermore that included: active rock stresses in was denied any consideration for the misleading which parts required realignment due to the highly pre-bid report and thus lost the suit. contorted and sheared sediments; the clayey matrix This pioneer tunnel in the East Bay Hills provided
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 15 extensive geologic information and a database of more than a generation (Henderson, 1951, oral great assistance in planning-design of the Bay Area communication; Proctor, 1999). Rapid Transit (BART) system tunnel built nearby in 1960s. 2.15. Golden Gate Bridge controversy, 1931±1934 2.14. San Jacinto tunnel of Colorado River aqueduct, Engineers were aware of the need for geological 1934±1936 input into the planning and design of major works by the 1930s. Yet, this guidance could interject The San Jacinto tunnel driven through the San confusion and adverse effects into the planning Jacinto Mountains experienced serious setbacks in and construction, if the geological conditions were the early stages of construction due to geologic condi- misinterpreted. Often meddlesome or adversarial tions largely unknown to the contractor (Henderson, approaches to planning a project are advanced by an 1939). This experience emphasized the seriousness intervenor/group, who have invested minimal tech- and challenges associated with driving a large-size nical effort to support their concepts and accusations. tunnel through a highly faulted mountain range with Such intervention can require the project's owner to known active faults and minimal `as-is' geologic perform additional exploration, prepare arguments information. Some fault zones caused costly delays and special reports to counter the criticism; frequently and experienced enormous water in¯ows, from 7500 public hearings are held to resolve the issues Ð a to 16,000 gpm at one location. The San Jacinto costly and time-consuming effort for the project experience con®rmed the necessity for a suitable sponsor. Use of scienti®c and engineering concepts pre-construction geological investigation to establish by intervenors became popular in the 1950s±1980s the least hazardous tunnel alignment and a construc- during the construction and/or licensing of nuclear tion plan. For example, approaching the fault zone power plants in North America. from the hanging-wall side can control the ground- A much earlier case of intervenor opposition water in¯ow from a fault zone into an advancing occurred in the exploration for and design of the foun- tunnel heading. This allows a more gradual in¯ow dation for the South Pier of the Golden Gate Bridge, of water at the tunnel face to drain from the inter- San Francisco, during 1931±1934 (Lutgens et al., connected fractures of the zone, before the tunneling 1934; Strauss, 1938; Schlocker, 1974). Opposition advances and passes through the fault zone. The to the Golden Gate Bridge was supported by some original San Jacinto alignment was changed after San Francisco area corporate interests and citizen detailed geologic mapping located and evaluated 21 groups alike with public challenges in the 1920s and fault zones; the new alignment intersected only 11 early 1930s which delayed the construction. zones. Other measures used to reduce risks and One accusation contended that foundation condi- tunneling costs included: drilling `feeler' holes tions for the South Pier were unsafe and a redesign ahead of face; placing small pioneer bores ahead of was required. The pier was located within a body main face in dangerous `grounds'; grouting off water of serpentine rock at a depth of 100 ft below the ahead of face; and using gunite techniques on fresh channel surface (Fig. 7). The consulting geologists exposures (Thompson, 1966, pp. 105±107). Andrew C. Lawson (UC-Berkeley) and Allan E. Another critical groundwater principle was learned; Sedgwich (USC-Los Angeles), after further review a low annual precipitation in an arid region is not in 1932, concluded that the foundation, as designed, necessarily indicative of a dry tunnel in a highly was safe and beyond question (Lutgens et al., 1934). faulted terrain. The water drained from the numerous Although this argument was temporarily dropped, faults cross-cut by the tunnel depleted the ground the opposition took a different tack. They chal- water supply to surface springs and wells. An assess- lenged the legality of the Bridge District to ®nance ment of the damage to local ground-water supplies construction based on plans for marketing bonds at was further complicated because no systematic data- a 5.25% rate of interest, when district approval was base on the ¯ow of springs and wells was made before only at a 5% rate. This maneuver was defeated construction. This resulted in costly litigation for when A.P. Giannini, Chairman of the Bank of
    • 16 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 7. The south pier of Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, was the focus of a geological controversy in 1930s to redesign its foundation. A contention that faults occurred in a poor-quality serpentine foundation rock led geologist Bailey Willis to challenge ®ndings of the consulting geologists A.C. Lawsen and A.E. Sedgwich. The differences of interpretation are shown on subsurface sections of the south pier (from Kiersch, 1991, p. 35).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 8. Geologic map of south pier area and subsurface section showing location of `faults' believed by Bailey Willis to occur and endanger the integrity of south pier foundation (from Kiersch, 1991, p. 36). 17
    • 18 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 America (originally Bank of Italy) pledged his 3. Growth of engineering geology-practice bank's support Ð and quickly sold $3 million worth of district bonds at 5%. New bids were 3.1. Overview tendered on 14 October 1932, and construction began on 5 January 1933. The advent of World War II (1939±1945) brought As construction progressed into 1934, safety of about the proliferation of applied geology on a scale the South Pier became the opposition's sole hitherto unimagined. Among the many new phases, argument for delaying the bridge. Bailey Willis, the applications of geology to military operations as professor emeritus at Stanford University, began a developed in Europe and South Paci®c were among concerted drive to discredit the consulting geolo- the most important advancements in engineering gist's interpretation of geologic conditions surround- geology of the mid-century (Kiersch, 1955, 1998). ing the pier's foundation (Fig. 8). Willis submitted Additionally, applications of marine geology and his ®rst report on 7 April 1934, to the Bridge District sedimentation principles were developed for naval and later sent a report to Chief Engineer J.B. Strauss operations, such as, the use of underwater sound, on 22 August 1934. He recommended that construc- marine mining, installation of underwater equipment, tion be stopped until his geologic contentions were shore installations, and amphibious operations clari®ed. Additionally, on 19 October 1934, Willis (Russell, 1950). Aerial-detection and geophysical (1934) published a two-page discussion and his techniques developed for naval and army warfare technical points with diagrams and a model of the have been modi®ed and successfully adapted for a site. He contended the serpentine foundation rock wide range of geological-geophysical exploration was an inadequate and treacherous material that purposes (Bates et al, 1982; Kiersch, 1998). Trask would swell and decompose and large-scale fault (1950) reviewed the importance of soft rock and sedi- movement would occur along the faults (as no. 3, ments in the major areas of geological practice, for Fig. 8). Again Willis requested the district to stop civil and military works. construction and redesign the South Pier of the The post-World War II period witnessed the growth bridge; his solution was a foundation on the `sand- of applied geosciences and a substantial improvement stone mass' at a depth of some 250 ft beneath the in the professional status of engineering geology `as-constructed' level (shown Figs. 7 and 8). This practice. The greatly increased demand for geologists proposal would greatly increase construction costs. to plan and participate in the construction of the major After an extensive hearing in which each argu- engineering works approached the number of applied ment by Willis `was carefully scrutinized and geologists participating in the discovery and exploita- found erroneous as to fact or inference,' the Building tion of mineral resources in western states. This was a Committee concluded: a `sandstone mass' did not dramatic change in practice for the Geoscience occur at depth nor did a fault plane beneath the community (Betz, 1984, p. 241). These changing pier site (Fig. 8), and furthermore, the serpentinized demands required a modi®cation of emphasis for rock mass was a competent body, when con®ned, to professional practice of engineering geologists. The carry the static load imposed by the bridge. The new concerns were more focused on the scienti®c Building Committee recommended the directors aspects that included: the natural physical processes; disregard the arguments and recommendations of dating of tectonic and associated events; reaction of Professor Willis on 27 November 1934 (Lutgens et the environs to operating works and man-induced al., 1934, p. 16). The long, sometimes bitter, and actions; and the geologist's responsibilities to protect costly battle over geological arguments/concerns the health, safety, and welfare of the public (Kiersch, that the Golden Gate Bridge design was unsafe was 1955, 1991). closed. The bridge was open to vehicular traf®c on After World War II state agencies became more 27 May 1937; the construction costs and bond were active in addressing a wide range of engineering fully repaid on 1 July 1971 and over time no stability geology problems, particularly in connection with problems have been experienced in spite of several highways, water supply, urban zoning, ¯ood plains strong earthquakes. and conservation measures. Typical of the trend was
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 19 the planning and development of statewide water projects by the California Division of Water Resources under the chief geologist E.C. Marliave in the 1950s and L.B. James in the 1960s and 1970s when more than 100 geologists were engaged with the many phases of the California State Water Project. Oroville dam and power facility on the Feather River, a key installation of State Water Project, supplies the California Aqueduct that moves water southward to the Los Angeles area and the Mojave high-desert east-branch to the San Bernadino region. The aqueduct alignment crosses an extensive region underlain by hydrocompactable soils/sediments in the San Joaquin Valley. Areal land subsidence became a serious geologic problem/risk due to both (a) heavy groundwater withdrawal at depth; and (b) collapse of the low-density near-surface deposits when saturated. This high-risk, probability was eliminated by using ponds along the alignment to presubside and stablize the canal foundation (James, 1991; Borchers, 1998). The land subsidence phenomena are also common in parts of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. Concurrently, the California Division of Mines and Geology under Ian Campbell (1958±1969) initiated geologic mapping that de®ned the surface features and the potential geo-risk of active processes during a period that witnessed a burgeoning of concerns for Fig. 9. San Francisco Bay Bridge, Oakland East Bay span showing the environmental and engineering applications of the the failed section caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 Octo- ber 1989 (photo courtesy US Geological Survey/H. Wilshire, in geosciences (Oakschott, 1985, p. 332). This attention Kiersch, 1991, p. 59). to practical geologic concerns has continued since the 1970s under the current chief of CDMG, James F. Davis. cities after the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October Employment of engineering geologists by the 1989, damaged and closed the Bay Bridge (Fig. 9). 1960s was mainly in one of the two categories: on a Subsequently, Caltrans embarked on a statewide large-scale focus related to regional/areal features and seismic retro®t program and by 1997 concluded that how they might impact the planning-construction of the East Span of Bay Bridge, Yerba Buena Island to engineered works; or on a detailed scale, con®ned to Oakland mole, should be replaced. Geologic investi- small areas and site-speci®c geology that included the gations were undertaken in 1998 and planning has construction of works. progressed for the replacement structure SFOBB Underground rapid transit systems were being East Span project (McNeilan et al., 1998). installed or planned in a number of cities throughout Since the World War II, airport programs have the States by 1960; most projects required large-scale created demands for larger sites with greater bearing geological investigations for the planning-design with capacities that created enormously expanded an on-going input during construction. The Bay Area construction-material needs. Creating similar Rapid Transit (BART) was built in 1966±1973 demands have been the expansion of state and federal (Taylor and Conwell, 1981). The BART tube to the conservation measures, urban developments, reclaim- East Bay region beneath the San Francisco Bay ing marginal lands, and military planning involving became the only direct connection between the area air, land, and underwater applications of geology. In
    • 20 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 21 the 1960s, demands required the active participation were disposal and deep burial of nuclear waste, of applied geologists in lunar and planetary explora- disposal of garbage and refuse in land®lls, the health tion (Green, 1962). concerns of trace elements and contaminating in The deterioration of highways during World War II ground-water supplies, and the safety of ¯ood plains emphasized the realization they are defense lines which and ¯ood-hazard zoning of these lands. Two new caused highway construction to dramatically expand areas of specialized practice emerged: the identi®ca- with improved design standards. Freeways and inter- tion and mitigation of `geologic risks' (Fig. 10) state highways became the trend, and by design spurred by safety concerns and notable failures of required a greater use of geologic guidance for planning large-scale engineered works; and the disposal of and construction. In 1955, the US Congress supported a waste and deep burial projects that focused on ground far-sighted nationwide interstate highway system for water as a contaminant carrier. construction over a 10-year period. This activity engaged a large group of applied highway geologists throughout the western states in state and local agencies 4. Some representative major projects Ð since and private consulting and engineering ®rms. 1948 Eight major dams failed around the world between 1959 and 1964. Two reservoir±dam failures in 1963, 4.1. Underground protective construction Vaiont, Italy (Kiersch, 1964, 1988), and Baldwin Hills, California, (James, 1968), coming after the Realization of the destructive force of the atomic earlier failure at Malpasset, France in 1958, initiated bomb in 1945, and later the hydrogen bomb, created a period of reconsideration and evaluation of dam concern that defense against their effects was nearly safety. This led to mandatory inspections of dams impossible. In response, the US Corps of Engineers and reservoirs by the 1970s and frequently such and government-sponsored research groups made modi®cations as improving the stability of reservoir tremendous strides in the design of protective slopes (James and Kiersch, 1988). The need for construction to resist large-scale blasts. This approach increased electrical generating capacity could not be relied on knowledge of the geologic environs and met by more hydro-projects and contributed to the properties of rock masses. Developments in destruc- large-scale planning and construction of nuclear tive weapons dictated some underground locations for power plants. military command centers and storage facilities; two By the late 1960s, concern was building for strategic installations were built by the 1960s, the protection of the natural environment and the impact Omaha, Nebraska, Command Control Center and of proposed or operating engineered works. The 1969 the NORAD Center in Cheyenne Mountain near leakage of an operating oil well in Santa Barbara Colorado Springs, Colorado. Geologic principles Channel, California focused nationwide attention on relevant to the location, construction, and operation the spill and led to enactment of many federal laws of subterranean installations to resist modest-scale and regulations such as the National Environment subsurface explosions were reviewed by Kiersch Policy Acts (NEPA) of 1969, the US Environmental (1949, 1951) and O'Sullivan, (1961). Protection Agency (USEPA) of 1970, and the Water The underground Explosion Test Program of US Quality Improvement Act of 1970. Many other Corps of Engineers with engineers, geologists, and national, state, and local regulations followed in the technical staff of Sacramento District performed 1970s and 1980s and overall become the major ®eld studies at sites in Utah and Colorado. Under- guidelines for the practice of applied geosciences ground chambers were constructed at various depths relevant to the environment. Speci®c projects in sandstone and granite followed by live-detonations expected to have a serious environmental impact to test scale models (1947±1950). Further research by Fig. 10. The common natural geologic-hydrologic phenomena/geo-risks; man-induced phenomena/geo-risks; and natural atmospheric-hydro- logic phenomena/hazards (from Kiersch, 1991, p. 55).
    • 22 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Engineering Research Associates (ERA), Minneapolis evaluating the expected rock and soil-overburden condi- (1952±1953) emphasized the principal geologic factors tions along the urbanized, built-over tunnel alignment that impact on the design of a large-scale underground (Cooney, 1952). The consultant's feasibility study protective chamber (ERA, 1952a,b). The Rand reported the occurrence of many small faults, some Corporation sponsored an underground construction breccia and shear zones, and considerable deformation symposium (1959) that recorded the `state of knowl- of the Franciscan rock mass. Unfortunately, the full edge' on the design and construction of underground geological implications and meaning of the boring protective chambers (USCE, 1961). data, both physical and `fugitive,' were not realized and the in-place rock conditions were incorrectly 4.2. Broadway tunnel, San Francisco, 1945±1952 interpreted (Forbes, 1945). Evaluation of the low-core recovery (under 50%) was erroneously attributed to The Broadway tunnel project under the historic some natural fracturing but mainly excessive mechan- Russian Hill area was approved in 1946 and ical grinding, blocking, and overruns by the driller. Morrison±Knudsen Company began construction in Insuf®cient attention was paid to the highly fractured May 1950. The tunnel consists of two bores, 28.5 ft conditions of the recovered core as an indication of wide and 35 ft apart, to provide a traf®c artery from rock-in-place. Forbes' (1945; 1951) description of the downtown San Francisco to the northwestern part of expected rock conditions in¯uenced the contractor to the city and the Golden Gate Bridge (Fig. 11). bid his costs on a full-face mining method. The city of San Francisco had previously engaged a Tunneling quickly revealed a more extensively consulting engineer/geologist in 1944 (Hyde Forbes) fractured and less-healed rock mass than expected, to supervise the drilling of cored-borings to tunnel-grade and deterioration of rock by weathering was serious and interpret/evaluate the site area and geological and widespread. Surprisingly, the consultant had not exploration data for planning-design and bid-contract studied the surface outcrops near the tunnel alignment purposes. Subsurface investigations were critical to as an aid in evaluating the characteristics of the Fig. 11. Broadway Tunnel alignment through Russian Hill provides a low-level traf®c artery from downtown San Francisco to Golden Gate Bridge. Note Ð location coincides with topographic saddle between Nob and Russia Hill (from Wadsworth, 1953).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 23 Fig. 12. Broadway Tunnel, San Francisco. Geologic cross section of station 18 1 08 of the southbound lane. The typical conditions encountered in the Franciscan rock complex are represented, along with a plot of faulted and sheared rock units and mining methods (after ®eld notes M.G. Bonilla, 1952; US Geological Survey Library, in Kiersch, 1991, p. 53). sandstone and shale units at tunnel-level (Marliave, contractor from the bid documents, and Chester 1951), a serious error of geological judgment. The Marliave was engaged by contractor to make a geolo- alignment largely coincides with the topographic gical investigation. By mid-1951 the city of San saddle between Nob and Russian Hills (Fig. 11), Francisco was also concerned and sponsored two which commonly indicates faulting in Franciscan separate studies; one by consultant John P. Buwalda bedrock. Moreover, the east portal area of Russian of Caltech (1951), and the other by consultant Karl Hill was inadequately investigated; instead of Terzaghi of Boston. In addition, the as-encountered bedrock, the area was an old, back-®lled stream geologic conditions throughout the tunnel were channel with no bedrock. This condition required mapped by US Geological Survey personnel (M.G. use of costly Type-A steel supports. Bonilla and co-workers). All three consultants and As the tunnel progressed, geologic conditions the USGS investigators concluded that the geologic continued to be very different than expected by the setting of the tunnel site had not been fully evaluated
    • 24 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 nor adequately correlated with the cored-boring data the rock mass from mechanical ¯aws created by drilling for either the design or bidding purposes. operations. Such ability is largely a matter of good judgment by an experienced applied geologist. 4.2.1. Changed conditions The Broadway tunnel project became the center of 4.3. Folsom dam, 1948±1956 a long public controversy between the contractor and the city during 1951 and the `as-is' rock conditions. The multi-purpose Folsom dam and reservoir The contractor contended the original consulting project east of Sacramento, utilized geologic guidance report of 1945 was misleading, and substantially for the site selection, planning-design and construc- changed conditions were encountered because the tion phases. The 4.8 miles of dams consist of a high bid documents stated or implied there were: (1) no concrete gravity dam with earthen wing embankments bedding planes in sandstone unit, no faults occur on the American River and nine saddle dams on small parallel to tunnel alignment, and all faults healed tributaries. The Mormon Island auxiliary earth®ll dam with rock mass generally intact; (2) no slickenside was built across the ancestral Blue Ravine channel of features or swelling noted in the cores (implied for South Fork American River. mass), and no indication of swelling ground; (3) no The main dam and most saddle embankments are air-slaking materials known from cores and shales of founded on extensively fractured/sheared and limited extent; and (4) no ground-water in¯ow is weathered quartz diorite; on-site `outcrops' were expected. usually residual weathered boulders underlain by The contractor was convinced that a top-heading erratic depths of highly weathered rock. The stages or a full-face tunneling method as planned was of weathering Ð slight, moderate, highly Ð were impractical. The rock mass varied from hard to established by their respective petrographic and soft, the highly weathered, sheared, and fractured physical properties. This classi®cation strengthened rocks air-slaked on exposure, and large slabs the geologist's ability to estimate depths to suitable could be air-spaded or chipped off easily, and blast- foundation rock. Conventional subsurface explora- ing was controlled and used sparingly. tion techniques investigated the main dam with Consequently, the contractor changed mining cored-borings, geophysical surveys, bore hole methods to the plumb-post method (Cooney, 1952) camera photography, down-hole logging of man- after driving the north bore 178 ft from the east portal. sized openings, and 48-in. auger/calyx holes. Mining progressed from two header foot-block drifts Foundation excavation for the main dam 9 ft wide on each side at the base of the tunnel section progressed in three separate contract stages, based (Fig. 12). The remaining 60% of the face excavation on the design investigations. Extensively weathered were removed with a breast-board machine. A design rock at each successive excavation-level veri®ed the controversy immediately arose because the contractor limitations of small-diameter cored boring data to had originally recommended the stronger Type-B (full clarify the complexity of a weathered rock mass. circle) tunnel support in sectors of the tunnels with Additional exploration was required prior to the soft-weak rock conditions but the city rejected this second and third stages of excavation, by shallow proposed change in design. percussion drill holes, shafts, adits, and man-sized holes. The degree and extent of weathered rock at 4.2.2. Overview excavation-levels are shown on three-dimensional The Broadway tunnel experience emphasizes the diagrams as are faults delineated in foundation rock importance of an accurate interpretation of drill core and zones requiring dental treatment (Fig. 13). data, and the ability to distinguish geologic defects in Core trenches of earth®ll and saddle embankments Fig. 13. Three-stage block diagram of excavation, right abutment (west) Folsom dam that illustrates the diverse weathering characteristics of foundation rock and associated geologic features. Conditions exposed at each level aided in predicting the extent and type of weathered rock at subsequent levels and the ®nal foundation elevation (Kiersch and Treasher, 1955).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 25
    • 26 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 were grouted on a split-method pattern. Grouting the within the 40-mile strip were mapped for geologic permeable, highly weathered quartz diorite was trends and features that could project onto or impact dif®cult due to the abundance of clayey-®lled SPCo holdings. The alternate odd-numbered sections fractures. Impervious earth®ll was `borrowed' from of Southern Paci®c's land-grant holdings, were 38% areas of highly weathered quartz diorite; permeable of the area investigated (Kiersch, 1958, 1959; Fig. 5). ®ll was supplied from alluvium deposits. Full details The geological survey utilized all the principles and on Folsom project are given elsewhere by Kiersch and geological techniques available in the 1950s and Treasher (1955, pp. 271±310). followed the broad steps outlined in Stages 1±6 The powerhouse was placed in a deep excavation (Fig. 14). Parts of the survey mapping were incorpo- 250 ft below the river channel for additional power rated into the 1959±1969 edition of the Geologic head. The Mormon Island auxiliary dam is founded Atlas and Map of California (Jennings, 1969) and on metamorphic rocks that underlie the auriferous an early edition of the Geologic Map of Nevada gravels of Blue Ravine Channel. The Folsom project (Webb and Wilson, 1962). was constructed prior to knowledge of any seismic The large-scale geologic mapping combined with a history in region. Since, the State of California has systematic inventory of known or potential resources re-evaluated and declared the project susceptible served a host of uses for new construction, mainte- to seismic activity (Sherburne and Hauge, 1975). nance of engineered works, the railroads trackway, Consequently the Mormon Island dam received land management, and a means of attracting new remedial upgrading treatment in 1990s by the US industry and developments for rail service. Resources Corps of Engineers. data on minerals, fuels, water, soils, or engineering materials became an asset, whether for maintaining 4.4. Geological mapping SPCo lands Ð related the railroad trackways in dif®cult and slide-prone engineered works, 1955±1961 terrain, or providing additional freight and/or lease revenue from untapped deposits. `Nonmineral' lands The most ambitious private geological mapping were managed exclusively for their surface value or project of its day was completed between 1955 and ground-water without concern for possible future 1961 by the Southern Paci®c Corporation (SPCo), a mineral leasing. This approach provided a suitable geological survey and evaluation of its landholdings understanding of geologic conditions and their rele- in California, Nevada, and Utah (earlier studies 1909± vance to agriculture, grazing, timber, recreation, and 1925; Fig. 5). The broad-based geologic mapping and commercial plant sites, as well as guidance for litiga- related special projects were designed to provide tion and claims ®led against SPCo. The geological technical guidance and a comprehensive database database was also utilized to select new sites for to manage the SPCo lands for the ensuing 50-year major industrial developments and provide guidance period. The SPCo Board of Directors authorized a on geological problems arising from operation of the geological survey with exploration and evaluation railroad system and the SPCo oil-supply pipeline, of company lands in 1954 for guidance in their such as, mitigation of slides, earthquake damage, management as well as assistance to the industrial and tunnel failures. The Alta landslide is one such and resources departments and related SPCo engi- use of the survey's database. neering projects of railroad and pipelines. The survey was operating at full strength by late 4.4.1. Alta landslide, trans-continental railroad 1955 and consisted of ®ve regional/areal mapping The major slope failure and debris slide of April 1958 crews in ®eld plus supporting researchers and of®ce near Baxter, California, blocked the main west-east staff of professionals along with a separate special- transcontinental railroad and temporarily closed US projects staff that investigated prospects and resource Highway 40. The ®nancial losses sustained by SPCo development in the follow-up phase. Some 22,000 approached $1 million/day. Geological data collected miles, the equivalent of 93, 15 min quadrangles, earlier by the SPCo survey from nearby lands provided were mapped (scale of 1:24,000) on standardized a knowledge of ground-water conditions and physical SPCo-prepared two-township base maps. All lands properties of the unstable tuffaceous Tertiary rock units
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 14. Flow chart for the regional/areal approach to geoscience investigations for site selection and design of engineered works (from Kiersch, 1958, 1964). 27
    • 28 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 15. (A) Alta slide of 14 April 1958. Looking westward along outer track that was undercut and destroyed by caving. Note: Toe of slope intact; area later impacted by the surcharge of waste debris removed for track widening. Shows steep cliff of case-hardened tuff beds with contact between rock units near track-level. For downhill extension of total slide area see (B); pilings indicated area of original caving/sliding (source: Kiersch 4-14-58, 1962). (B) Alta slide California Ð looking uphill from future I-80 Highway alignment in October 1959 after the cut in tuff beds above railroad grade was benched and stabilized. Note: pilings for marker shown Fig. 15-A and the original small-slide that subsequently spread down slope and triggered large-scale movement. Recent ®ll in foreground shows extensive movement that impacted US Highway-40 immediately downhill. Stabilization required deep drains located in the underlying Tertiary gravels. The slide mass of low-shear strength was saturated 30±40 ft below the surface and monitored by a network of borings and water-¯ow test holes (source: Kiersch 10-14-59, 1962). that caused the trackway collapse, and the subsurface of ®nancial loss. Long-term stabilization was conditions downslope from the railroad that affected achieved only after an extensive geologic investiga- and temporarily closed Highway 40 (Fig. 15A and B). tion of the site in the fall of 1959 outlined the total Fortunately, the immediate cause of failure was slide mass. This effort included obtaining cored- temporarily mitigated within four days and the main boring data, installing horizontal drains along hillside line returned to one-way traf®c, which avoided some of trackway, and evaluating a joint effort for long-time
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 29 stability of the slide with the California Department of embankment. Consequently, the `as-built' causeway Highway. This led to construction of an extensive became the `test section,' which was closely moni- drain-system downslope of the SPCo trackway tored and modi®ed according to the `as-encountered' (Fig. 16) to stabilize the area for construction of foundation units. This resulted in successful comple- the I-80 freeway that replaced the damaged Highway 40 tion of the project one year ahead of schedule (Kiersch, 1962, pp. 135±144). (Casagrande, 1965). Success would not have been achieved however, if the consultants had known 4.4.2. Railroad causeway Ð SPCo, Great Salt Lake, before construction the `as-is' strength of the Glauber's Utah salt and clay beds would control the stability of the An outstanding example of a calculated risk is the embankment. Moreover, Southern Paci®c probably design and construction of a Southern Paci®c railroad would not have authorized the project. Based on the embankment across the Great Salt Lake to replace the `as-built' knowledge of the foundation units, the 12-mile-long timber trestle that was built at the conventional factor of safety required would have beginning of this century (inset, Fig. 17). The new forced a design ®ll costing far in excess of the 1955 ®ll, which was built during 1956±1959, started from estimate and $50 million limit established by the the old ®ll sections and ran parallel to the trestle, Board of Directors of Southern Paci®c Corporation. located 1500 ft to the north. This ensured that Although the initial misinterpretation of subsurface construction of the ®ll would not endanger the trestle units and their inherent strengths allowed the project (Casagrande, 1965). to get underway, the adoption of ®eld test data and Preconstruction laboratory strength tests on undis- evaluation of the risk as construction progressed turbed samples of the soft and sensitive silty clay and resulted in its successful completion. Glauber's salt units, which underlie the lake to a great A ®ll built on normally consolidated clay has its depth (Fig. 17) and the foundation for the causeway, lowest factor of safety against foundation failure indicated the design would involve great uncertainties. during construction or immediately after its comple- The Glauber's salt varies greatly in thickness and tion. Since the new railroad causeway was put in strength and underlies the ®ll for many miles, with operation (1959) the rate of settlement has gradually its upper surface at a depth of 20±30 ft below lake decreased in a consistent pattern that re¯ects a bottom. This seriously complicated the design and steadily increasing strength of the clay. construction of the ®ll (Fig. 17); several design stages The Great Salt Lake causeway project is a good for the cross section on soft clay (no salt layer) are example of what Karl Terzaghi liked to call the given by Casagrande (1965). `observational approach,' i.e. the continuous evaluation To achieve an economical design it became neces- of observations and new information for redesigning sary to build full-scale test ®lls and induce failures; as needed while construction is in progress. It also these ®eld tests developed data on the in situ strength illustrates Terzaghi's belief `a design is not completed of the foundation units. Particularly impressive were until the construction is successfully completed' the failures of ®ll founded on the Glauber's salt layer (Casagrande, 1965). (Fig. 17). For practical purposes the salt had to carry The calculated risks involved in this project would the entire lateral thrust of the ®ll. When the salt not be complete without mentioning another risk. The buckled, the ®ll sank into the soft clay with extra- `sand and gravel' used for the main body of the under- ordinary speed. Even the most pessimistic initial water ®ll was largely a silty sand. The question of its assumptions of the consultants did not prepare them stability under dynamic stresses was of serious for the very low in situ strength of the soft clay, gained concern to the consultants and a calculated risk from the analysis of the test section failures and other which could have defeated the design and ultimate ®ll sections. Although the consulting board ®rst construction. recommended construction of full-scale test sections for design data, they soon learned that a test ®ll could 4.5. Auburn Dam controversy, 1948±1979 be built only by mobilizing most of the expensive equipment needed for construction of the entire Major geological and geotechnical investigations
    • 30 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 31 were carried out in the 1950s±1970s in support of the project design. Ultimately the controversies led to a design and construction of the authorized Auburn `deferral' of the proposed dam at the 1948 site. Public Dam at a site on the North Fork of American River, interest in a dam on the North Fork has continued; upstream of Folsom project. This long and expensive other nearby sites and dam designs have been controversy is a classic case of `differing professional proposed, particularly after ¯oods caused damage opinions' concerning the safety and design-costs of to urban areas downstream (after Shlemon, 1999 `the world's largest thin-arch, double-curvature high (written communication)). dam' proposed east of Sacramento, California. Despite the strong diversity of technical opinion, Authorized in 1948, the US Bureau of Reclamation the Auburn controversy provided valuable bene®ts (USBR) spent years and millions of dollars conduct- to the engineering±geology community, even though ing technical and scienti®c investigations to support the investigations and arguments took place when the dam's construction and operation (Gardner et al., environmental concerns were increasing in popularity; 1957). Yet the ®ndings of the USBR's investigations, perhaps the dam was a `victim' of the 1970s trend. interpretation of the data, and conclusions became The various types of investigations and techniques questionable, when evaluated by other experienced used to ascertain the relative activity of faults at the technical groups, after the Oroville earthquake of damsite substantially improved the local geologic and August 1975. This event ruptured the ground surface geotechnical standard-of-practice (Shlemon et al., of the Cleveland Hill fault, a strand of the Sierra 1992). Nevada Foothills fault system, and con®rmed the region was more seismically active than previously believed (Sherburne and Hauge, 1975). Subsequently, 4.6. Nuclear power plants additional site-speci®c and regional investigations were carried out by the USBR, other governmental Increasing electricity demands triggered the plan- agencies, and respected consulting ®rms (Borcherdt ning for construction of nuclear power plants in late et al., 1975; USBR, 1977, 1978; Woodward-Clyde, 1950s. Each plant design required seismotectonic 1977). They collectively expressed concern that investigations to establish the recent last movement faults, known within the foundation area, are poten- on fault zones within the region/area. This Federal tially `active' and the dam had to be re-designed to requirement advanced the scienti®c techniques/ withstand the ground displacement of an active fault methods for dating tectonic events that included a (Davis et al., 1979). sequential history of multiple alluvial units, dating The diverse and strong differences of opinion the associated minerals, and a correlation with concerning the Auburn damsite features were based tectonic and geomorphologic features. Soil science on geological data gained from subsurface-trench techniques proved basic to dating Quaternary sedi- exposures of datable sediments overlying bedrock ments (Shlemon, 1985), and classi®cation of fault faults, either displaced or unbroken (Shlemon, zones as active, potentially active, and/or dormant. 1985). Separate agencies or consultants emplaced In early years the associated geologic features/ trenches side-by-side, yet often arrived at different processes were seemingly not as critical than in later conclusions. The myriad of trenches at and near the years to the designers, constructors, and regulatory damsite resembled a World War I battle®eld. Tech- agencies. Early geological investigations for plant nical controversy abounded concerning the `safety' of sites (1950s±1960s) pioneered the licensing proce- project and hearings were conducted before various dures and ultimate technical requirements leading to regulatory agencies, both for and against the site and termination or delay of four California projects, Fig. 16. Plan View Ð corrective measures that stabilized `lower' Alta slide involving the Interstate I-80 alignment. Lowering water table required 30 in. diameter wells installed on 8 ft centers between the highway and railroad alignment and shown as drainage galleries. The wells are inter-connected at the bottom and the galleries are joined to the transverse stabilization trenches which are spaced on 8 ft centers and are 30 ft deep and 12 ft wide at bottom with 1 1/4:1 side slopes (modi®ed after Cauley, 1962).
    • 32 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 17. Southern Paci®c Railroad, Great Salt Lake causeway. Embankment construction and the reaction of subsurface geologic units, particularly near-surface bed of Glauber's salt. The section shows typical exploration holes and the composition of the lake beds to depths of more than 200 ft at Lucin, Utah (after Haley and Aldrich Co., personal communication; Currey and Lambrechts, personal communications; Kiersch, 1991, p. 552).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 33 Bodega Head, Malibu, and Diablo Canyon, and the However, it became `impossible' to maintain Vallecito test reactor. construction schedules by the late 1970s within the By the 1970s, siting work required a more sophis- allotted funds. This reality and a decreased demand ticated appreciation of geologic constraints such as for electricity resulted in the termination of many earthquake impact, subsidence, slope stability, and nuclear projects by 1980. The lesson learned was Ð foundation integrity (Hatheway and McClure, 1979). `effective management and judgment requires ef®cient The concerns for hazardous constraints were initially communication and the coordinated input of both formalized by the US Atomic Energy Commission scienti®c and technical data to achieve cost-ef®cient (AEC, 1971) in Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power licensing'. An average of 10±13 years were required Plants and after modi®cation released in the Code to satisfactorily resolve all issues and start up a new of Federal Regulations (1977). Based on historical generating facility (McClure and Hatheway, 1979; seismicity, regional geology, and site-foundation Fig. 2). conditions, the seismologist provided a reasonable estimate of the safe-shutdown earthquake. 4.6.1. Bodega Head nuclear site The required federal license to construct and This nuclear project was the ®rst site in the United operate nuclear power plants is awarded through a States for which active faults were an important demanding process and high level of assurance as to consideration (Bonilla, 1991, pp. 253±256). The suitability of the site. Consequently, applicants for Bodega Head site 82 km north of San Francisco is permits and operating license usually organized about 0.3 km from the western edge of 1906 San large teams of scienti®c and technical personnel to Andreas fault trace (Fig. 18). During excavation of compile the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report the shaft for the reactor, a slip surface was found in (PSAR) required for each plant. Geologists were a the unconsolidated sediments overlying the quartz key part of any team both for the site-speci®c and regional assessment of the environs. To avoid costly delays, many owners initiated a regional geological study as the ®rst step toward identifying candidate areas/sites (Kiersch, 1991, pp. 357±361). The licensing organization assessed the risk associated with the safety-related, geologic aspects of sites, and coped with any intervenors who raised real or imagined safety concerns. The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) included an evaluation of the site and geo- logical `®ndings' during construction. Many key geological issues identi®ed in the siting or licensing phases of the 1960s and 1970s were analogous to problems confronting researchers in applied geosciences today, e.g. evaluation of remote imagery, proof of subsurface stratigraphic continuity, evaluation of potential fault activity (Wallace, 1986), recency of fault movement that may involve datable minerals or marker paleosols (Shlemon, 1985), ground-water conditions of site, and the subsidence potential, including dissolution of the foundation material. Both classical and engineering geology Fig. 18. Map showing relation of Bodega Head nuclear reactor principles and practices are invariably required to site to San Andreas fault zone. The 1906 surface rupture on resolve such critical issues. San Andreas fault was near the northeastern edge of the fault The overriding goal of each nuclear plant applicant zone (modi®ed from Schlocker and Bonilla, 1964; Bonilla in was Ð construct a safe power plant within budget. Kiersch, 1991, p. 253).
    • 34 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 diorite bedrock. The slip surface and its characteristics quakes near the Malibu site (Benioff, 1965; Albee and raised several debated questions Ð was it truly a Smith, 1967). tectonics `fault', or merely the edge of a landslide in At Malibu, faults whose most recent displacement unconsolidated sediments? These questions led to a was between 10,000 and about 180,000 years ago thorough review of all surface ruptures accompanying were nevertheless considered capable of surface rupture the 1906 earthquake (Schlocker and Bonilla, 1964). for purposes of reactor design (Atomic Safety and Siting investigations that began in 1958 were Licensing Board, 1966; US Atomic Energy Commis- terminated in 1964 (Novick, 1969) after US Atomic sion, 1967). This ®nding resulted in the Atomic Energy Energy Commission (1962, p. 3510) stated that a Commission deciding the Malibu reactor would have to nuclear reactor should not be placed `closer than one- be designed for fault displacement. The Los Angeles fourth mile from the surface location of a known active Department of Water and Power withdrew their earthquake fault'. This ambiguous criterion was later construction permit on 30 May 1973. The State of modi®ed (US Regulatory Commission, 1977, p. 413) California later formally zoned the Malibu coast fault to `movement at or near the ground surface at least as `active' based on site-speci®c trenching and dating once within past 35,000 years or of a recurring nature (Drumm, 1992; Rzonca, et al., 1991). within past 500,000 years in de®nition of a capable fault'. The US Atomic Energy Commission (1964) 4.6.3. Diablo Canyon nuclear power station concluded that `Bodega Head is not a suitable location The discovery of an offshore fault after the Diablo for a proposed nuclear power plant' on 30 October 1964, Canyon project was under construction (1968) caused and the Paci®c Gas and Electric abandoned their plans many delays and greatly increased the overall costs. three days later (Novick, 1969). The plant site on the central California Coast is 20 km southwest of San Luis Obispo. In 1971, a petroleum 4.6.2. Malibu reactor site publication noted an unnamed fault a short distance This site lies within the Malibu coast zone of offshore from plant site (Hoskins and Grif®ths, 1971). deformation and just south of the Malibu coast thrust This information triggered an investigation by US fault, 45 km west of Los Angeles, California. The major Geological Survey that con®rmed the fault existed east±west fault experienced principal movement (named Hosgri fault) and earthquakes had occurred between late Miocene and late Pleistocene. Investiga- along its length (Wagner, 1974). The US Geological tions related to the project showed that a fault of Survey concluded a magnitude 7.5 earthquake could unknown age traversed the proposed location of the occur on Hosgri fault within 5 km of nuclear plant. reactor containment vessel and that several late Pleisto- The suggested magnitude of 7.5 earthquake and cene faults existed in the Malibu coast zone outside the associated ground-motion parameters were much plant site (Yerkes and Wentworth, 1965). In addition to larger than considered in designing the plant and an these local conditions, the regional setting was an extensive re-analysis and modi®cations were required important factor in evaluation of this site which lies in (Lawroski, 1978; Piper, 1981) at several times the an east±west belt of moderate seismicity that contains original cost estimate. the Malibu coast zone. A combination of local and regional evidence led to the conclusion that the east± 4.6.3. Vallecito nuclear reactor west structural zone containing the nuclear reactor site is An incorrect evaluation of the geologic environs of tectonically active (Yerkes and Wentworth, 1965; a major engineered works can cause the project to be Marblehead Land Company, 1966). The existing data unjustly terminated. Such a case involved the Vallecito relating fault length to earthquake magnitude were used nuclear test reactor (GETR) near Pleasanton, California to some extent in estimating the size of potential earth- (Fig. 19) with a devastating effect on an operating Fig. 19. The Verona fault and controversy relative to the Vallecito, General Electric nuclear reactor facility. The plan map shows the distribution of postulated thrust faults and headscarps of landslides. The section shows an interpretation of landslide slip surfaces and fault slip surfaces in the vicinity of the GETR facility (after Rice et al., 1979; Earth Science Associates/R.C. Harding; in Kiersch, 1991, p. 520).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 35
    • 36 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 industry. The case became controversial due to the quadrangle by Bonilla, Schlocker, and Radbruch possible implications of the `active' Verona fault on (Schlocker, 1974), followed by San Francisco South the test reactor. (Bonilla, 1960), and the Oakland West and East Vallecito, a small facility of General Electric Quadrangles by Radbruch-Hall (1957, 1969). These Company, was the ®rst US-licensed commercial mapping activities extended into the 1960s and reactor in 1959; the neutron-radiography facility included attention to ongoing construction projects, produced one-half of the free world's medical radio- such as the Broadway tunnel, described earlier. The isotopes. In 1977, the US Geological Survey reviewed areal mapping provided both surface and subsurface the geology and seismology of the reactor area, as information critical to understanding common urban required for renewal of the operating license. land use risks in the Bay region such as landslide Extensive trenches and exploration in the vicinity susceptibility (Bonilla, 1960; Brabb et al., 1972) and of the GETR revealed at least three northwest- land use for a housing subdivision (Kachadoorian, trending, thrust-like faults bracketing the reactor site 1956). (Fig. 19). The fault zones exposed in the trenches are McGill, in his mapping in Los Angeles area, made similar to each other in minor structural features and some of the ®rst age classi®cations of the common age of displacement; none intersected the GETR landslide features so widespread in the Palos Verdes foundation (Fig. 19). All rupture planes displace peninsula area and other parts of the region. Further- Plio±Pleistocene Livermore Gravels and younger more, he speci®ed the on-going state of risk of each colluvium and paleosols. The attitudes of the rupture slide feature, based on its origin and recency of move- planes and their relation to local topographic features, ment. McGill later designated the study of geology together with other geologic evidence, suggested two related to city areas as `urban geology' (McGill, plausible origins; tectonic thrust movement (Herd, 1964, 1968). 1977); or large-scale landslides (Rice et al., 1979). Brabb and others initiated a San Francisco Bay area The mapped length of Herd's Verona fault is less study in the 1960s on a wide range of potential urban than 6 miles, and placed the potentially active Verona `risks' and related geologic conditions that affected fault close to the reactor (Herd, 1977); the 1958 map the growth, population, and cost of construction. (Hall, 1958) and basis for the construction license, Subsequently in the 1970s, these investigations were showed a fault about 2800 ft from the reactor. concentrated on a broad `Landslides and Seismic After many technical investigations by US Zonation Study of San Francisco Bay Region' Geological Survey and the owner's consultants, (Brabb, 1979). Additional detailed studies on seismic Earth Science Associates and Richard Jahns, and zonation of the Bay Region were described by Borch- hearings over a 5-year period, the US Nuclear erdt (1975), wherein he outlines an excellent set of Regulatory Commission ruled in 1982 the zone was guidelines for similar surveys. As recognized earlier, not a hazard to operation of the commercial reactor the seismic zonation based on the 1906 earthquake and accepted the arguments for landslide features. events were closely correlated with the areal distribu- However, the 5-year shutdown over geological issues tion of the principal geologic materials (Fig. 3A and destroyed a pro®table business which could not be B). The Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989 revived by General Electric and the unit was afforded further opportunities to demonstrate the abandoned. impact/in¯uence of geologic materials on the ampli- ®cation of ground motion throughout the Bay area 4.7. Urban land-use risks, San Francisco Bay area (Plafker and Galloway, 1989). A regional geologic investigation to initially evaluate the natural hazards and potential risks 5. Geologic processes, constraints, and resources throughout the San Francisco Bay region was initiated by the US Geological Survey in 1947. The ®rst Another urban project to evaluate the `risk' potential mapping projects were organized under Clifford of geological phenomena/processes active in the San Kaye and consisted of the San Francisco North Francisco Bay Region (SFBRS) was a cooperative
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 37 Fig. 20. Fault traces in the San Francisco Bay region that may undergo recurring movement and cause damaging earthquakes with surface displacements. Most of the faults are members of the San Andreas fault system (modi®ed from Borcherdt, 1975, in Kiersch, 1991, p. 372).
    • 38 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 effort by the US Geological Survey and the US of residences or similar structures should be aware of Department of Housing and Urban Development the potential for being held responsible later for (HUD. The SFBRS study utilized USGS expertise in controversial damages, regardless of how thorough geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, and the geologic work. To avoid such litigation, all cartography and HUD expertise in planning. The ®nd- geological reports and opinions on residential ings were focused toward planners and decision construction should be properly quali®ed relative to makers with an expectation of increasing the use of the potential for and nature of possible foundation geology for resolving urban and regional development dif®culties or slope failures. problems in environmentally sensitive areas. The database assembled provided guidance and practical 5.1.1. Landslide insurance Ð Pfeiffer case techniques to the scienti®c, engineering, and planning The Pfeiffer precedent-setting litigation illustrates professions who advise on urban developments how geologic facts, events, and terminology can be (Brown and Kockelman, 1983). For instance, because central to a settlement between the insured and major faults of the San Francisco Bay region are the insurer. Gravity sliding damaged the dwelling of active and may experience recurring movement and the insured. Geological investigations ascertained the thus earthquake damage, a classi®cation of their causes, possibility of recurrence, and the inherent risk potential for surface displacement (Fig. 20) can be of rebuilding on the site. Geological and engineering correlated with areas in the region likely to experience testimony was judicious as to whether there was negli- such common occurrences as seismically induced gence on the part of the builder or the insurance shaking, ¯ooding, liquefaction, and landsliding. company; neither realized the geologic setting was a The aim of the HUD study was to demonstrate the `risk'. Geologic facts con®rmed that the causes were occurrence of these geologic processes and their visible. Gravity sliding was foreseeable; and the manner of constraint relative to urban and regional extensive damage to Pfeiffer property could not be planning (Little, 1975), and thereby improve on the passed over by the insurance company as `an act of safety of urban planning techniques in a real-life God' (Kiersch, 1969). situation (Laird et al., 1979). An overview of this The main issue of Pfeiffer case concerned `whether bench-mark project reminds decision-makers of the an insurance policy that insures a dwelling against the intimate relation between the natural on-going perils of a landslide includes restoration of the sub- processes and land use with widespread impact from surface foundation beneath the home, as well as the the estuaries and bay-water terrain to the coastal bluffs surface building (house structure) itself'. This crucial (Brown and Kockelman, 1983). point had not been clari®ed by a court decision prior to the Pfeiffer litigation in 1960. Customarily 5.1. Residential dwellings Ð insurance insurance companies declared no responsibility for the subsurface foundation of the dwelling, and Frequently the most common and costly area of award damages for repair of the surface building only. alleged liability for applied geologists and geotechnical The Pfeiffer dwelling is situated on the slope of a engineers are related to residential construction. Tens northwest-trending ridge of the Berkeley Hills at of millions of dollars in damages are alleged each year Orinda, California (Fig. 21). The area is underlain by home and building owners who contend their by rocks of the Orinda Formation, mainly alternating structures were damaged by swelling or subsiding beds of siltstone, soft, ®ne-grained sandstone and foundations, slope failures, wet basements, or fault conglomerate, clay shale, and clays. The rocks dip movements. Such cases are generally quite similar; as much as 458 at the site and generally parallel to damages to residences occur years after the structures the natural slopes of 20±408. The soft, fractured, and are built. Frequently the question of who is truly saturated Orinda beds are overlain by as much as 10 ft responsible is circumvented; a ®nancial settlement is of colluvium. Details of the gravity sliding movement, based on who has the most effective lawyer or the as determined by surface and subsurface investiga- deepest pocket. Consequently applied geologists tions and borings, are described elsewhere by Kiersch who accept work involving the siting and construction (1969).
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 39 Fig. 21. Geologic map of landslide and associated features, Pfeiffer property and vicinity, Orinda, California. Dwelling displaced and damaged; foundation sheared, distorted, and subsurface moved (sources: Kiersch 1969, 1991, p. 569).
    • 40 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Sliding began soon after Robert J. Pfeiffer authority of precedent for an insurance company to purchased the newly constructed home in December cancel a policy. Nevertheless the Pfeiffer ruling estab- 1957. An insurance policy written by the General lished that henceforth an insurance company can not Insurance Corporation insured the dwelling against cancel a policy when sliding and/or land movement is hazards of ®re, and an attached endorsement provided ongoing. The Pfeiffer property was stablized, house protection against natural events such as landslides. repaired and dwelling safely re-occupied ever since. Major gravity sliding began in the soil and bedrock upslope from the dwelling on 3 April 1958; the 5.2. Other sources Ð western projects building was partially distorted and twisted, and the There are a number of recent publications that subsurface foundation sheared/moved. Within two concentrate on the selective GeoScience principles, days the house was unsafe for occupancy, and the phenomena, innovative techniques, and claryifying family moved out. Sliding continued intermittently case histories of western projects that are basic to for several months and damage to the dwelling the application of GeoScience theory and practice of increased until the garage section was demolished; Environmental/Engineering Geology, Hydrogeology, the house structure was further damaged, and the Geological and Geotechnical Engineering, and related foundation additionally weakened and unstable disciplines. These special volumes are on: State of because of being fractured, deformed, and displaced Washington (Galster, 1989); Southern California by the sliding. (Pipkin and Proctor, 1992); State of Oregon (Burns, The multiple landslides shown in Fig. 21 were caused 1997); Landslides (Turner and Schuster, 1996) and by a series of events, both ancient and recent, that Land subsidence (Borchers, 1998). combined to induce sliding in April 1958. The natural and man-induced factors responsible included the slide- prone characteristics of the weathered Orinda rocks, the 6. Future Ð practice occurrence of an old, active landslide within the 1958 slide mass, the heavy in¯ow of surface runoff and a high The most suitable geologic practitioners for ground-water level, the construction activities on Hall guidance or counsel on geoscience for engineered Drive and near the Pfeiffer dwelling affected the toe of works are those who have a broad training in natural slope, and surface water in®ltrated the hillside geoscience and supporting subjects, a background of slope from a broken water main on Hall Drive, owing to diverse ®eld experience, and a practical bent. Such earlier sliding (Fig. 21). geoscientists are likely to have an in-depth knowledge The General Insurance Corporation refused to of the physical and chemical processes, which invari- accept responsibility for the total damage to the dwell- ably have a critical long-term impact on the regional ing. Rather, they only agreed to repair the house struc- climate, tectonics, historical events, and rock materi- ture, at a cost up to $8000, and adamantly refused to als. Competent applied geoscientists will be needed accept responsibility for repair of the damaged for a multitude of challenges to advance both ®eld and subsurface foundation area, a part of the active land- computational skills concurrently with developing slide mass. Moreover, after repairing the housing public policies. structure, the insurer would likely cancel the Our increasing population requires the settlement of insurance policy, an action and attitude contrary to more and more hostile arguments regarding what is the Pfeiffer's interpretation of the all-physical-loss- de®nition of a geo-risk (hazard) or an untenable coverage that included landslides. environment? What constitutes a terrain with acceptable The Pfeiffer litigation recovered the maximum geo-risks, manageable geologic constraints or active amount set forth in the policy for landslide damage processes, yet when compared to other destructive to their dwelling. They were awarded $31,000 in a geologic processes can be documented as acceptable- court judgment of August 1960 for repair of their safe. dwelling, and return to the `as-built' conditions of Moreover, future practitioners must be practical house and foundation prior to the landslide damage. and objective in analyzing the potential risk of such Other cases that preceded the Pfeiffer opinion had lent destructive natural processes and events as
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 41 earthquakes, widespread ¯oods, areal subsidence, knows no political boundaries. A single aquifer mass wasting/slope failure, volcanic activity, and system can underlie several political entities; the ¯uvial or coastal erosion. The current belief among recharge area in one jurisdiction and the discharge/ Federal, State, and most County agencies is that many pumping area in another (e.g. US±Mexico; Libya± natural geologic processes and their expected impact are Egypt; Colorado±Nebraska). Transboundary ground- invariably a risk or dangerous to the safety, health, and water resources have and will continue to generate well-being of mankind. This standard-practice evalua- acrimony between nations, states, and Indian reserva- tion has been discussed by Shlemon (1999) and all to tions (Navajo±Hopi). often raises a warning that is out-of-proportion and Water is power and as practiced today in Middle unrealistic to the inherent/danger levels of a `geo-risk'. East can be a tool of foreign policy. Turkey has an Most natural geologic processes and many man- abundance of water harnessed by dams on the Upper induced events that affect the near-surface are not Euphrates River of eastern Turkey. Some of this water `life-threatening'. Dangers, yes, but they constitute is distributed by controlled ¯ow to both Syria and Iraq reasonable and acceptable-levels of risk, particularly downstream and in future probably to Jordan, Israel, when compared with major natural events such as: and Cyprus. Many experts believe this regional distri- hurricanes, tornadoes, drought cycles, volcanic bution demonstrates why the twenty-®rst century will eruptions or tsunamis (Fig. 10). The mature, ®eld- be the century of water (Kinzer, 1999). GeoScience experienced geologist is usually a realist and not a insight can be bene®cial in advocating and promoting social extremist. Consequently, the frequent map a sharing of a common groundwater resource between and descriptive classi®cation of many geologic political jurisdictions. processes and features as `hazardous' is a disservice Groundwater laws have been modi®ed in selected to `experienced geologic judgment'. Many of today's regions (intermontane basins) due to advances in major engineered works occupy sites in areas affected geoscience knowledge (Mann, 1969). A recent by one or more on-going geologic processes (`risks' to decision will lead to changes in the groundwater the inexperienced). Typically, during the planning- laws in California, such as Acton vs Blundell (Grover construction phases troublesome or potentially risky and Mann, 1991. The improved factual geologic geologic conditions are mitigated by modi®cations circumstances, along with the economic and social to the engineering design that upgrades the natural conditions can undergo a change, as can the inherent site to a suitable geologic setting. Nevertheless, physical properties with time when impacted by there are some geographic areas with a particularly engineered works. high-level of risk that will require attention by future Recent studies con®rmed the transmissivity-rate of practitioners. groundwater movement in a faulted/fractured aquifer Today, engineering geology is an interdisciplinary may be controlled by the inherent stress ®eld of rock ®eld of practice that is primarily concerned with the mass (Ferril et al., 1999). Thus, contamination of a physical processes, phenomenology, and principles of site in stressed environs may accelerate instead of the geosciences as they pertain to engineered works, inhibit the ¯uid ¯ow. applied sciences, and the needs of mankind. The prac- titioners are mainly associated with the construction 6.1.2. Bay±delta system efforts of engineers, scientists, and technical- The CALFED, Bay±Delta System is a proposed specialists; together they comprise a complex and inter- solution to the water management and environmental dependent assemblage of sub®elds that support the problems of the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento Ð profession's generalists. Brief comments on several San Joaquin Delta region of channels and tributaries sub®elds of practice in the twenty-®rst century follows. (CALFED, 1999). This complex, ecologically sensitive maze of waterways and islands is a major contributor to 6.1. Water resources the water supply of the region and southern California; it provides two-thirds of in-state drinking water and 6.1.1. Geopolitical irrigates farmlands that produce one-half of the nation's Common to many natural resources, groundwater fruits and vegetables.
    • 42 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 22. Roosevelt Dam on the Salt River, Arizona was the ®rst major irrigation project in western United States and has been operating since 1911. Beginning in 1988 the dam underwent rehabilitation and the capacity of reservoir was increased 20% by raising height of dam 77 ft. This required removing the highway from crest of dam and erecting suspension bridge upstream across an arm of reservoir completed in 1990 (photo courtesy of Department of Transportation, State of Arizona/Walter Gray, 1988). Over the years competing and diversi®ed interests reservoirs ¯ushed to increase storage and hydro- have fought for a share of the limited natural generating capacity, consistent with environmental resources; this action reduced the water quality, guidelines (Jansen, 1988; Collier et al., 1996; deteriorated the levee system, and threatened the World Press, 1997; USCOLD, 1999). For example, infrastructure of private property and water quality, the Roosevelt Dam, Arizona, completed in 1911 while the island lands experienced subsidence underwent modernization in 1988 with the dam (Deverel et al., 1998). height being raised, and highway shifted from the The CALFED program began in 1995 and the crest dam to a suspension bridge built upstream planners expect to restore the regional ecosystem (Fig. 22). over a 10-year period. Technical experts, state and ² Seismic risk design upgraded to meet seismic federal of®cials, and stakeholders have worked `threat' previously unknown, e.g. Folsom project under CALFED to establish a long term solution to Ð Morman Island earth®ll dam (Kiersch and the problems, of which many are GeoScience- Treasher, 1955; Allen, in press). oriented (CALFED, 1999; Madigan, 1999). The decline in building dams and related water- 6.1.3. DamsÐreservoirs supply projects has been offset in parts of western The construction of dam projects in western states states by increasing the purchase of water from underwent a major shift in policy by Federal and State the storage basins beneath former ranches and agencies by 1990s. Today the major concerns involve state or federal lands (e.g. San Diego municipali- the upgrading of existing dam structures. ties import water from storage basins of El Centro region California). ² Some long-standing structures are being breached in anticipation the ®sh-run will return. 6.1.4. Nuclear power plants ² Dams are being rehabilitated and modernized; An increase in the global warming effects have been
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 43 attributed to the buildup of greenhouse emissions in the 6.1.6. Military atmosphere. The causes, according to the environmental Specialized weapons and launching platforms of community, is the release of excessive carbon dioxide the future will embrace new GeoScience challenges. emissions by fossil-fuel burning power generation For example, the multidisciplinary Global Informa- plants. Such plants are known to account for one-third tion System (GIS) technology will be adapted for of the greenhouse emissions reportedly linked to global many worldwide industrial, civil and public-interest warming. projects, as well as vital national security issues. The well-publicized nuclear plant mishaps at Three Emerging public interest projects are frequently Mile Island, in Russia and Japan contributed to the dependent on GeoScience guidance and counsel cessation of new plants by 1980s in USA. However, (Neal, 1997; Kiersch, 1998). the rebirth of nuclear power plants has been advocated by prominent environmentalists (John Holden, 6.1.7. Hindsight Harvard; Mary L. Walker, former US Department of Many critical geologic lessons must be learned Energy of®cial and others); they believe there is no more than once and by ®rst-hand experience only. alternative. Advocates for future nuclear plants The importance of geological counsel and guidance propose mid-sized, standard design reactors in for engineered works is relearned whenever an unan- 600 MW range with a passive safety system; ticipated geo-related condition is encountered. construction would be assured with removal of federal However, when geologic monitoring is on-going, it obstacles. This alternative to burning natural gas to is likely that an unexpected problem may be realized generate electricity in the twenty-®rst century would before costly delays or litigation has incurred. A more meet the increasing demands for power while complete understanding of geologic processes and a reducing air pollution and greenhouse emissions. `deterministic' approach to the natural systems will GeoScience input and counsel has been a critical allow the geoscientist to communicate more explicity part of the licensing through construction phases of with the client, members of the technical team, and nuclear power plants with similar input for nuclear with the public-at-large. waste repositories (e.g. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the Department of Energy's operating site in New Mexico). 7. Conclusion Future practitioners will assess and mitigate yet 6.1.5. Flood levels unknown adverse geologic conditions and hostile The `probabilistic' methods of forecasting the environs associated with major infrastructure facil- anticipated runoff at 100±500 year maximum levels ities such as: dams and reservoirs, tunnels, aqueducts, of recurrence requires revision, as evident by the power stations, interstate highway systems, major recent experiences and impact of `El Nino' rainfall water transfer works, military protective-construction, (Kelley, 1989; Mount, 1995). A more realistic and National Geopolitical issues. Such capabilities approach to an improved forecast is recorded in the will require practitioners with a suitable background geologic history of past events, e.g. sedimentological in GeoScience and a practical bent. Their focus must and geomorphological evidence of extraordinary be unfeigned when analyzing the public's safety paleo-¯ood hydrology. Geologic evidence of former regarding such destructive natural processes and high runoff levels, as recorded in sediments and events as earthquakes, widespread ¯oods, areal features of a river valley or drainage, can supply the subsidence, mass wasting/slope failure, volcanic historic ¯ood-levels and events that are lacking activity, and ¯uvial or coastal erosion. The widely from the more recent stream gauging techniques held belief that many natural geologic processes (Baker, 1987, 1989). Today the US Bureau of and their expected impact are invariably a high- Reclamation and other Federal and State agencies level risk and dangerous to the safety, health, and focus on paleohydrology for assessment of `100- well-being of mankind is too often a trendy, year' ¯oods. layman's analysis unsupported by critical ®eld
    • 44 G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 Fig. 23. Golden Gate Bridge. Engineers and geologist inspect the conditions and quality of the serpentine foundation rock at bottom of the excavation for the south pier, 108 ft below the channel surface, circa 1934 (photo courtesy of Heinrich Ries Collection, Cornell University, in Kiersch, 1991, p. 148). data. Such a `standard-practice evaluation' frequently safe and suitable geologic setting. Nevertheless, there raises a warning (Shlemon, 1999) that is out-of- are some areas that particularly require attention by proportion and unrealistic to the actual levels of the future practitioners. `geo-risk' when analyzed. Engineering Geology practice today consists of: Most natural geologic processes and many man- any geoscience work relevant to the civil and mili- induced events that affect the near-surface are not tary engineering activities and National Security `life-threatening'; most often they constitute a Projects that impact the well-being of mankind; this reasonable and acceptable-level of risk, when includes any adverse effects on the environs by the compared with such major natural events as: design and operation of such engineered works. hurricanes, tornadoes, drought cycles, volcanic GeoScience denotes the interrelated disciplines of: eruptions or tsunamis (Fig. 10), which cannot be Geology, Seismology, Hydrology, Geophysics, and `harnessed' or mitigated by geo-engineering techni- Oceanography. Moreover, Engineering Geology is a ques or actions. specialization of professional practice that is predo- The mature, ®eld-experienced geologist is minately concerned with Physico-geology, or the usually a realist and not a social extremist. Conse- physical processes, features, ¯uids, and geologic quently, the frequent mapping and descriptive events past and present as they relate to civil, mining, classi®cation of most geologic processes and military, and environmental engineering practice features as `hazardous' is a disservice to `experi- (Fig. 23). enced geologic judgment'. Many of today's major engineered works are in areas affected by one or more geologic processes (`risks' to the layman). Acknowledgements Typically, during the planning-design-construction phases any troublesome geologic or potentially hazar- This broad summary paper has been improved and dous conditions are inherently mitigated by engineering strengthened by the editing and technical review of Roy design modi®cations that upgrade the natural site into a J. Shlemon, and the comments of Frank C. Kresse.
    • G.A. Kiersch / Engineering Geology 59 (2001) 1±49 45 Preparation of the text from many earlier reports and J.W. (Ed.). Proceedings of Dr. Joseph, F., Poland Symposium. sources has been accomplished and artfully assembled Association for Engineers and Geologists, Special Publication no. 8, Star Publishing Company, Belmont, CA (576pp.). by Jane L. Hoffmann of Roadrunner Press, Tucson, Brabb, E.E., 1979. Progress on seismic zonation in San Francisco Arizona. Bay region, US Geological Survey Circular 807 (91pp.). Brabb, E.E., Pampeyan, E.H., Bonilla, M.G., 1972. Landslide Additional References susceptibility in San Mateo County. US Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-360, scale. 1:62,500, Forbes, R.J., 1934. Notes on the History of Ancient Roads and their California, 1972. Construction. North-Holland, Amsterdam. Branner, J.C., 1898. Geology and its relation to topography. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 39, 53±95. References Brown, R.D., Kocklman, W.J., 1983. Geologic principles for prudent land use. A decisionmaker's guide for San Francisco Bay region, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 946, 97pp. Adams, F.D., 1938. The birth and development of the geological Bryan, K., 1929. Problems involved in the geologic examination of sciences: Baltimore, Maryland. Williams and Wilkins Col, dam sites. American Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Technical 506pp. Publications 215, class 1, Mining Geology, no. 26, pp. 10±18. AEC, 1971. Seismic and geologic siting criteria for nuclear plants, Bryan, K., 1939. Geology and the engineer. Harvard Alumni Washington, DC. Atomic Energy Commission (preliminary), Bulletin, 12 May, 3pp. 12pp. Burns, S. (Ed.), 1997. Environmental, groundwater, and engineer- AIME, 1929. Geology and engineering for dams and reservoirs. 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