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Hy Sec1 Ch7ppt 29 Jun09
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Hy Sec1 Ch7ppt 29 Jun09


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  • 1. Chapter 7 Scientific and Artistic Achievements!!
  • 2. At the End of the Chapter you will be able to:
    • 1. Define “Golden Age”
    • 2. Identify conditions that led to the ‘Golden Age’
    • 3. Give examples of scientific achievements of the people of Ancient India, China and Southeast Asia.
  • 3. Do you know who invented the Compass??
  • 4. It was the Chinese!! A Compass from the Han Dynasty
  • 5. Think!!
    • What do YOU think a ‘Golden Age’ is??
  • 6. Introduction
    • The people of India, China and Southeast Asia developed great cities from simple villages
    • They made numerous advances in many areas
    • E.g. Complex drainage system by Indus people more than 4000 years ago
  • 7. The Golden Age
    • Achievements in arts and science were made throughout the history of ancient India, China and S.E.A
    • BUT certain times in history there were A LOT more achievements in these areas!
    • Such times are known as the Golden age
  • 8. Golden Age
    • A period where there is a flourishing of achievements in the Arts and Sciences
  • 9. Golden Age
    • India- Gupta dynasty (c.320-550 CE)
    • China- Han dynasty (202 BCE- 220 CE)
    • Tang dynasty (618- 907 CE)
    • Song dynasty (960- 1279 CE)
    • Southeast Asia- Khmer dynasty
    • (800-1432 CE)
  • 10. What are the factors that led to all the Achievements??? Put on Your thinking cap: As a student, what c onditions help you study better or allow you to concentrate??
  • 11. What are the Conditions that led to the Golden Age?
    • Economy was thriving and prosperous and so there was little poverty or starvation
    • People satisfied with their government or rulers
    • No worries about basic things (safety, food, shelter, etc)
  • 12.
    • 4. Their government also gave money to encourage them to be creative and innovative
    • Thus, people could think of ways to improve their lives
  • 13. We will look at the scientific and artistic achievements in:
    • India
    • China
    • Southeast Asia
  • 14. INDIA
  • 15.
    • Advances in Science
    • Mathematics and Astronomy
    • Metallurgy
    • Medicine
    • 2. Richness of the Arts
    • (a)Painting, sculpture and architecture
    • (b) Literature
    • (c) Textiles
  • 16. 1. Advances in Science
    • Mathematics and Astronomy
    • Concept of pi ( π ) and decimal system developed during the Gupta period by Indian mathematicians such as Aryabhata
    • These mathematical inventions led to discoveries in astronomy (scientific studies of the stars and planets)
  • 17.
    • Indian astronomers from the Gupta period were the first to discover that:
    • - the earth is round
    • - the earth revolves around the sun
    • - a year has 365 ¼ days
    • They also calculated the diameter of the earth and the moon
  • 18. (B) Metallurgy Metallurgy= Study of Metals
    • Began as early as the Indus Civilization
    • Indus people discovered how to mix copper and tin to make bronze
    • By 5 th Century CE they had learnt how to shape iron by pouring melted iron into a mould
  • 19.
    • Europeans only became familiar with this skill in the 14 th Century CE.
    • During the Gupta period, metallurgy in India reached very high standards
    • Magnificent metal structure known as the ‘Iron Pillar of Delhi’ was built
  • 20. Iron Pillar of Delhi
    • 7 meters tall
    • Cast from a single piece of solid iron
    • Has not rusted at all even though it has been exposed to the sun and rain for 1,500 years
    • No one can understand how such high quality iron could have been cast
  • 21. (C) Medicine
    • Ancient Indians knew about plastic surgery
    • Plastic surgery was popular as cutting off of noses and ears was a common punishment for serious crimes
    • Techniques used remained a
    • secret till the 18 th Century CE.
  • 22.
    • It was revealed to the west by an English surgeon working in India
    • Modern plastic surgery developed from this
  • 23. 2. Richness of the Arts India
  • 24. 2. Richness of the Arts
    • Painting, Sculpture and Architecture
    • Many show the life of the Buddha or feature Hindu gods
    • One impressive example is the Ajanta Caves (built in c.200 BCE-600 CE) in central India
  • 25. Ajanta caves
    • Was built to be a Hindu temple but became a Buddhist retreat during the Gupta dynasty
    • Paintings and sculptures in Ajanta caves show:
    • - The life of the Buddha
    • - Events from other periods in ancient Indian history
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28. Paintings and Sculptures in the Ajanta Caves
  • 29. Think: What are your thoughts and feelings when you looked at the Ajanta caves and at the paintings and the sculptures in the caves? What comments can you make about the artistic talents of ancient Indians?
  • 30. (b) Literature
    • Literature flourished during the Gupta period
  • 31. Literature
    • Vedas:
    • 4 collections of poems sung in praise of Aryan gods
    • Earliest examples of ancient Indian poetry
  • 32.
    • Mahabharata & Ramayana
    • Sanskrit poems
    • Composed about 3000 years ago
    • Recited during certain Hindu festivals
    • Retold in films and television shows
  • 33. Mahabharata
  • 34.  
  • 35.
    • Kalidasa (c.380- 450 CE) lived during the Gupta period
    • Known as ‘Shakespeare of Ancient India’
    • Wrote Shakuntala , the story of king falling in love with a beautiful forest maiden
    • Today, his works are still being studied and appreciated
  • 36. Pictures of ‘Shakuntala’
  • 37. Pictures of ‘Shakuntala’
  • 38. (C) Textiles
    • Ancient Indians seem to have been the first to have grown cotton plants to make cloth
    • Discovered how to fix wash-proof colors in cotton
  • 39.
    • Developed way of decorating dyed cotton with embroidery
    • Indian cotton was exported to other countries during most of the ancient period
  • 40. QUIZ!!
  • 41. Test Yourself: TRUE OR FALSE?
    • Paintings, sculpture and Architecture in Ancient India show the life of the Buddha or feature Hindu Gods
    • The Ajanta caves was built to be a Hindu temple but later became a Buddhist retreat
    • Vedas are a collection of poems sung in praise of Aryan Kings
    • Kalidasa wrote the Ramayana
    • Indians were the first to make cotton plants to make cloth
  • 42. CHINA Advances in Science
  • 43. (A)Medicine
    • Taoism heavily influenced the treatment methods of the ancient Chinese
    • They believed that illness resulted when the yin and yang in the body were unbalanced
    • Balance can be restored by eating the correct food or herbs
  • 44.  
  • 45.
    • Acupuncture
    • Developed in c.800 BCE
    • Unique feature of Chinese medicine
    • Tip of needles will be inserted into specific parts of the body
    • Done to relieve pain and help healing
    • Still very popular today
  • 46. (B)Metallurgy
    • Chinese too mastered metallurgy like the Indians
    • Made vessels with very fine designs
    • Made tools and weapons from bronze
    • Best examples of bronze works are from the Shang and Han dynasties
  • 47.  
  • 48. Test Yourself:
    • What heavily influenced Chinese medicine?
    • Under Taoist beliefs, how can balance be restored when a person is ill?
    • What did the Chinese make from bronze?
  • 49. (C) Astronomy
    • Ancient Chinese were expert astronomers
    • Famous Chinese astronomer: Zhang Heng (Han dynasty)
    • Mapped movements of the sun, moon and planets
    • Wrote about the equator and the poles of the earth
  • 50.
    • Zhang Heng and astronomers who came after him kept:
    • careful records of astronomical events like eclipses, and sightings of comets
    • These records have helped modern astronomers to track paths of comets over the centuries
  • 51.  
  • 52. (D)Seismograph
    • Zhang Heng invented a devise for detecting earthquakes (132 CE)
    • It was able to indicate when an earthquake had occurred and from which direction
    • Modern electronic seismograph developed from this original idea
  • 53.
    • A special vase that had several sculpted dragons mounted all around the sides of the vase.
    • Each dragon held in its mouth a metal ball.
    • When the ground shook, some of the balls would fall from the mouths of the dragons into the waiting mouths of the sculpted frogs to show how the ground had moved.
  • 54. Test Yourself!
    • Who was the famous Chinese Astronomer?
    • What is a Seismograph?
  • 55. (E) Compass
    • First appeared during the Han dynasty
    • Both Indians and Chinese were using it at the same time.
    • Compass used for town planning and sea voyages
  • 56. (F) Mechanical Clock
    • First mechanical clock built during the Song period
    • Built by Su Song (a government official)
    • Nine meters high
    • Driven by falling water
    • 8 years to complete building
    • Ran for 34 years until it was destroyed by invaders
  • 57. (G)Gunpowder
    • Created by Chinese scientist during Tang dynasty
    • At first used only for fireworks
    • During the Song period, arrows were dipped in gun powder and used with crossbow during war
    • Gunpowder made fire and noise which frightened the enemies’ horses
  • 58. Test Yourself!
    • How high was the mechanical clock?
    • What happened to it in the end?
    • What was gunpowder first used for in Ancient China?
  • 59. (H) Paper
    • During Han dynasty, the Chinese learnt to make paper from mashed-up wood like bamboo
    • Paper was thick and spongy and was used to wrap things
    • Later the Chinese made paper thinner, longer lasting and cheaper
    • It was used to make books, banners and lanterns
  • 60. (I) Printing
    • During the Tang dynasty, the Chinese invented block printing
    • Characters are carved in a block of wood
    • Ink is spread over the block
    • Lay a sheet of paper over the block to print the page
    What is block printing?
  • 61. Diamond Sutra
    • Sacred Buddhist scroll dated 868 CE
    • Oldest known printed text in the world
    • Made using block printing
  • 62. Bi Sheng
    • Invented a faster method of printing
    • He invented movable type
    • Chinese characters or ‘type’ could be temporarily fixed onto a metal frame
    • Allowed large quantities of books to be printed much faster than block printing
    • Movable type was adopted in Europe 4 centuries later
  • 63. Test Yourself!
    • What did the Chinese first use to make paper?
    • What method of printing was invented during the Tang dynasty?
    • What is the oldest printed text in the world?
    • What did Bi Sheng invent?
  • 64. CHINA Richness of the Arts
  • 65.  
  • 66. (A) Pottery and Porcelain
    • The word ‘china’ also refers to pottery, plates and dishes
    • People in Ancient China produced very high quality pottery and porcelain
    • Technique of making porcelain probably invented during the Tang dynasty
  • 67. (A) Pottery and Porcelain
    • Porcelain is pottery made from fine white clay and fired at very high temperatures
    • During Song dynasty, there was very high demand for porcelain in China and overseas
  • 68. (A) Pottery and Porcelain
    • Thus, workshops with huge kilns had to be built
    • Kilns are ovens for firing the clay
    • Today, pottery and porcelain are still greatly valued for their beauty
  • 69. A KILN
  • 70. (B) Literature
    • Chinese history was written down for the first time during the Han dynasty
    • It was written by a court official named Sima Qian
    • He was the official historian of the court
    • He traced Chinese history from the mythical Xia emperors to the reign of Han Wudi (157-87 CE)
  • 71. The Shiji (Historical Records)
    • Written by Sima Qian
    • Contains copies of important documents
    • Describes emperors and famous people
  • 72. The Shiji (Historical Records)
    • Shiji is one of the first history books in the world!
    • Well written and a great work of Chinese literature
  • 73. Poetry in Ancient China
    • Greatly appreciated
    • Two most beautiful Chinese poems are said to be from the Tang period
    • Li Bai & Du Fu are both from Tang period
    • Their works are still highly regarded today
  • 74.  
  • 75. (C) Painting in Ancient China
    • Reached a very high standard during the Tang dynasty
    • This continued into the Song dynasty
    • Artists specialized in painting mountains, trees and rivers
    • These paintings influenced by Taoism and Confucianism
  • 76. (C) Painting in Ancient China
    • Taoism emphasizes the importance of the natural world
    • Thus, most landscape paintings were of nature instead of human beings
  • 77. Silk Worms
  • 78. Silk worm cocoons
  • 79. (D) Textiles: Silk
    • C.2600 BCE Chinese found out that fibers of silk moth cocoons could be woven into silk
    • Silk was highly valued within China and outside of China
    • Silk was a major item of trade
    • Was even collected as a form of government tax
  • 80. (D) Textiles: Silk
    • Chinese government kept the method of making silk a secret
    • However, eventually the secret was smuggled into India and Japan
  • 81. (E) Sculpture
    • Chinese were skilled in making fine sculptures from bronze, clay and stone
    • Historians know this from the sculptures taken out from tombs of nobles and emperors
  • 82. Tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang
    • Discovered in 20 th Century CE
    • 7,500 life sized warriors , horsemen and chariots were found!
    • They were made from baked clay
    • Each was different from the other!
  • 83.  
  • 84.