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Guide to the

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  • 1. Guide to the Periodic Table By Gabriel Sauz
  • 2. P e r i o d i c T r e n d s Ionization Energy, Atomic Size, and Electron Affinity
  • 3. Electron Affinity
    • Is how much attraction there is between an atom and an electron.
    • atoms with negative charge of electron affinity have more attraction for electrons.
    • Positive charge of electron affinity have less attraction for electrons.
    • Electron affinity increases in negative for atoms further to the right on the periodic table.
    • Electron affinity is positive for noble gases.
    • Electron affinity increases as you go higher on the periodic table.
  • 4. Ionization Energy
    • Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom.
    • The higher energy an atom has the harder it is to remove an electron.
    • Ionization energy increases higher as you move further to the right on the periodic table, the noble gases have the highest ionization energy.
    • Ionization energy increases from the bottom to top on the periodic table.
  • 5. Atomic Radius
    • Half the distance between the nucleus.
    • The atomic radius of an atom is a covalently bonded compound.
    • Atomic radius increases from top to bottom and decreases from left to right
  • 6. Atomic Mass & Atomic Number
    • Atomic mass: the mass of an atom
    • To find out how many neutron are in an element you have to subtract the mass number with the atomic mass.
    • Atomic number: the number protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element.
  • 7. Transition metals
    • Transition metals are elements located between atomic numbers 21–29, 39–47, 57–79, and 89–107.these are the groups IB to VIIIB of the periodic table
    • They are malleable and ductile, conduct heat and electricity, and form positive ions.
    • Transition metals are more electronegative than the main group metals and are more likely to form covalent compounds.
    • Transition metals have valence electrons in more than one shell.
    • Less consistent.
  • 8. Groups and Periods
    • Groups: are columns that go from top to bottom on the periodic table.
    • Each columns has it own number of electrons in its valence shell.
    • Main Groups are not found in transition metals.
    • Periods: are rows that go from left to right on the periodic table.
    • All elements in the same period have the same numbers of atomic orbital's.
    • Each row has it own orbital's . Orbital's increase as you go down the rows the maximum amount of orbital's a period has is 7.
  • 9. Metals , Non Metals, and Semi- Metals
    • Metals: are the largest group of elements.
    • Characteristics: are solids, lustrous, malleable and ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
    • Non Metals: are the second largest group of elements.
    • Characteristics: are gas, liquid or solids. They are not lustrous, are not malleable or ductile and are poor conductors.
    • Semi metals: are also known as metalloids lie between metals and non metals. smallest group of elements. There are 7 elements that are metalloids.
    • Characteristics: have similar characteristics as metals and non metals. Some of them are semi conductors.
  • 10. Octet Rule and Ions
    • Octet rule: is the forming of ions by to stabilizing them. they tend to gain or lose electrons to fill their valence shell.
    • Ions are formed by the gaining or loosing of electrons. There are two types of ion cat ion and ion. An Ion is negative charged and Cat Ion is positive charged.
    • Characteristics: have 8 valence electrons. it goals is to get all 8 to be stable or have 0 to be neutral.
    • Group1: has one valance shell therefore thought the octet rule due to the remanding 8 is a cat ion.
    • Group 2: has two valence shell and is a cat ion.
    • Group 6: has six and need to more to be stable therefore is an ion
    • Group 7: has seven valance electron therefore is an anion.
  • 11. Explaining groups 1 , 2 , 7 ,& 8
    • Group 1: Category name is Alkali metals. Alkali metals form salt and other compounds. Alkali metals in group 1 are also less dense than the other metals and have ion with +1 charge making it positive. They are highly reactive and have the largest size of elements In the table.
    • Group 2: Category name is Alkaline Earth Metals. These are metals made of many compounds and have ions with a +2 charge have smaller atoms that alkali metals
    • Group 7: Category name is Halogens. these types of elements are found in bleach, disinfectants and salts. They form ions with negative charge -1 and are highly reactive.
    • Group 8: Category name is Noble Gases. these elements are not reactive and are used to make lasers and light signs. Have really low tendency to loose or gain electrons.
  • 12.  

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