Clouds
    Presented by Sancho McCann




                 
QuickTime and a
             decompressor
    are needed to see this picture.




                      
Home of the Gods
               • Mount Olympus
               • Protected by a great 
                 gate of clouds



...
Powers of clouds


               • Herakles lifted by a 
                 cloud
               • Nephele, a Nypmh 
      ...
Christian Writings
                • The Transfiguration 
                  of Jesus




             
     
Why?




      
           Photo by http://www.flickr.com/people/mutephotoblog/
Aristotle
• Meteorologica c. 
  350 B.C.




                       
                             Photo by Eric Gaba
Meteorology (Aristotle)




                
Meteorology since Aristotle

                                                Pascal finds 
                            Tor...
Meteorology since Aristotle
Fahrenheit 
establishes a 
measurement         Celsius 
                                      ...
Meteorology since Aristotle
                                 First proposed link    von Neumann 
                         ...
Clouds Today
• 3 Ingredients
• Some Types
• Effects on our future




                      
Ingredients
                                                          Condensation Nuclei




                   Moisture
...
Cooling: Orographic lifting




                  
                         Photo by http://www.flickr.com/people/serac/
Cooling: Convective lifting



                QuickTime and a
                  decompressor
         are needed to see t...
Cooling: Advection cooling



                QuickTime and a
                  decompressor
         are needed to see th...
Two Categories of Clouds

                   • Cumulus
                     – Vertical build­up




                   • S...
Types of Clouds
               • Cirrus
                 –   Highest clouds
                 –   Wispy
                 – ...
Types of Clouds


               • Mid­level clouds
                 – Motion apparent
                 – More substantial...
Types of Clouds


                  •     Cumulonimbus
                         – Extreme 
                           vert...
Effect on the Future




• How will cloud cover be affected by global 
  warming?
• How will global warming affect cloud c...
Effect of Clouds




            
Effect of Clouds




• Contrails alone might account for half a 
  degree increase in temperature since 1975
             ...
Effect of Global Warming




• Effect of global warming on cloud coverage is 
  unknown
• Difficulty in modeling such smal...
Computers and Clouds




                  QuickTime and a
            YUV420 codec decompressor
           are needed to ...
Computers and Clouds



              QuickTime and a
        YUV420 codec decompressor
       are needed to see this pict...
Additional Resources
•   Aristotle. Meteorology. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/meteorology.html

•   NASA. The Importa...
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Clouds

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Vehicles of the Gods or the result of the coalescence of billions of water droplets? Of course today we know the answer. This presentation will will explore what we used to believe, how we came to know what we know now, and what current theory predicts about the future.

From the Un-Distinguished Lecture Series (http://ws.cs.ubc.ca/~udls/). The talk was given May 25, 2007.

Published in: Technology, Education
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Clouds

  1. 1. Clouds Presented by Sancho McCann    
  2. 2. QuickTime and a  decompressor are needed to see this picture.    
  3. 3. Home of the Gods • Mount Olympus • Protected by a great  gate of clouds    
  4. 4. Powers of clouds • Herakles lifted by a  cloud • Nephele, a Nypmh  was formed from a  cloud    
  5. 5. Christian Writings • The Transfiguration  of Jesus    
  6. 6.    
  7. 7. Why?     Photo by http://www.flickr.com/people/mutephotoblog/
  8. 8. Aristotle • Meteorologica c.  350 B.C.     Photo by Eric Gaba
  9. 9. Meteorology (Aristotle)    
  10. 10. Meteorology since Aristotle Pascal finds  Torilcelli invents  pressure  decreases with  Halley  barometer characterizes  height this decrease Gelileo invents  thermometer Meteorology 1648 350 B.C. 1606 1643 1686    
  11. 11. Meteorology since Aristotle Fahrenheit  establishes a  measurement  Celsius  Synoptic  scale based on a  proposed the  weather  mercury  Centigrade  forecasting thermometer scale 1742 1860 1714    
  12. 12. Meteorology since Aristotle First proposed link  von Neumann  between CO2 and  assembled a team to  First attempt at  global warming apply the  numerical  computation of the  weather  First  ENIAC to weather  prediction radiosonde forecasting 1930 1922 1950 1938    
  13. 13. Clouds Today • 3 Ingredients • Some Types • Effects on our future    
  14. 14. Ingredients Condensation Nuclei Moisture Cooling Photos by http://www.flickr.com/people/cobalt/  http://www.flickr.com/people/aricee/   http://www.flickr.com/people/560506/
  15. 15. Cooling: Orographic lifting     Photo by http://www.flickr.com/people/serac/
  16. 16. Cooling: Convective lifting QuickTime and a  decompressor are needed to see this picture.    
  17. 17. Cooling: Advection cooling QuickTime and a  decompressor are needed to see this picture.    
  18. 18. Two Categories of Clouds • Cumulus – Vertical build­up • Stratus – Horizontal layers     Photos by http://www.flickr.com/people/teo/ and http://www.flickr.com/people/b16/
  19. 19. Types of Clouds • Cirrus – Highest clouds – Wispy – Thin sheets – Made of ice crystals – Cirrostratus – Cirrocumulus     Photo by http://www.flickr.com/people/teodegas/
  20. 20. Types of Clouds • Mid­level clouds – Motion apparent – More substantial  than cirrus – Altostratus – Altocumulus     Photo by http://www.flickr.com/people/nicholas_t/
  21. 21. Types of Clouds • Cumulonimbus – Extreme  vertical  development – Thunderstorms – Hail     Photo by http://www.flickr.com/people/pulpolux/
  22. 22. Effect on the Future • How will cloud cover be affected by global  warming? • How will global warming affect cloud cover?    
  23. 23. Effect of Clouds    
  24. 24. Effect of Clouds • Contrails alone might account for half a  degree increase in temperature since 1975     Photo by http://www.flickr.com/photos/good_day/
  25. 25. Effect of Global Warming • Effect of global warming on cloud coverage is  unknown • Difficulty in modeling such small scale events  like cloud formation     Photo by http://www.flickr.com/photos/quiero­un­pantano/
  26. 26. Computers and Clouds QuickTime and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture.     From the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center
  27. 27. Computers and Clouds QuickTime and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture.     SIGGRAPH 2005
  28. 28. Additional Resources • Aristotle. Meteorology. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/meteorology.html • NASA. The Importance of Understanding Clouds. 2005.  http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/ftp_docs/NASA­Facts­UnderstandingClouds.pdf • Steve Graham, Claire Parkinson, and Mous Chahine. Weather Forecasting Through the  Ages. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/WxForecasting/printall.php • MIT OpenCourseWare: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences.  http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Earth­­Atmospheric­­and­Planetary­Sciences/index.htm • Richard Hamblyn. The Invention of Clouds: How an Amateur Meteorologist Forged the  Language of the Skies. 2001.    
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