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Brain-Computer Interfaces

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Aim of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to provide a communication channel for paralyzed patients to interact with the outer world. I will start with the motivation behind brain-computer interfaces …

Aim of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to provide a communication channel for paralyzed patients to interact with the outer world. I will start with the motivation behind brain-computer interfaces followed by description of a general BCI. I will then describe various kinds of BCI experiments and methods.

From the Un-Distinguished Lecture Series (http://ws.cs.ubc.ca/~udls/). The talk was given Jun. 8, 2007.

Published in: Business, Health & Medicine
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Transcript

  • 1. An overview of Brain-Computer Interface Emtiyaz
  • 2. Brain Computer Interface http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIG47YgndP8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCSSBEXBCbY
  • 3. ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG) • Hans Berger (1929) – It is out of the question that the α-w and β-w of my EEG exert any effect at a distance; they can not be transmitted through space. Upon the advice of experienced electrophysicists, I refrained from any attempt to observe possible distant effects. δ (0.1 to 3 Hz) θ (4-8 Hz) α (8-12 Hz) β(above 12 Hz) Photographs http://www.crossroadsinstitute.org/eeg.html and http://www.cs.colostate.edu/eeg/index.html
  • 4. Why BCI? • Patients with neuromuscular disorders – ALS, multiple sclerosis • Solutions – Use the capabilities of remaining pathways – Detour around the points of damage – Provide the brain with new channels for communication control Photographs Bayliss’ thesis 2000 and Pfurtscheller et.al.2002
  • 5. A general Brain-Computer Interface Invasive/ Non-invasive Design of Experiments Different Features Photographs from McFarland et.al. 2002 Not reading thoughts, rather enforce subjects to certain mental states which can be recognized by the machine
  • 6. P300 BCI Video : Spelling devices with P300 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlUPFpZswJk Photographs from http://www.gtec.at/products/g.BCIsys/bci.htm Bayliss’s thesis 2000
  • 7. ERD and ERS Event Related Desynchronization /Synchronization is an amplitude attenuation/ enhancement in the specific frequency bands associated with an event. Frequency dependent Left right difference Photographs from Pfurscheller 2002
  • 8. Why Movements related imaginations? Photographs from Kendel 1991
  • 9. ERD/ERS BCI Experiments Training sessions Testing sessions Photographs from Pfurtscheller 1999
  • 10. Inter-trial Variance (IV) Method Photographs from Pfurtscheller 1998
  • 11. RLS Approach observation noise Adaptive Autoregressive (AAR) Model Solved with Recursive least square (RLS) algorithms and features classified with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) Photographs from Pfurtscheller 2000
  • 12. Direct Brain Interface Head of Florian D. Photographs from http://www.gtec.at/products/g.BCIsys/bci.htm

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