Academics With Intermixing Affective Education: Quality Programming Indicators Course: SPED 578; Educational Interventions Professor Ann Goldade, Summer 2009 .ppt created by Mary-Ann Rolf
Resources Long, N.J., Morse, W.C., Frank, A.F., & Newman, R.G. (2007). Conflict in the classroom: Positive staff support for troubled students (6th ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Mendler, A.N. (2000). Motivating students who don’t care: Successful techniques for educators. Bloomington: IN: Solution Tree Singham, M. (2005). Moving away from the authoritarian classroom. Change, 50-57. Wagner, T. (2008) Rigor redefined. Educational Leadership, 20-24. http://www.schoolchange.org/articles/rigor_redefined.html
Quality ProgrammingSurvival Skills-Wagner Our rationale as teachers is that we need to ask, “What skills will students need to build successful careers and to be good citizens?” I have chosen the following strategies to benefit the student I am mentoring. Research from surveys done with education and business leaders indicate students (including Brandon!) need to be taught the following seven survival skills:
7 Survival Skills Students Need, cont. -Wagner Critical thinking and problem skills to compete in the new global economy Collaboration and leadership skills to work effectively with teams Agility and adaptability skills in order to think, be flexible, change, and use a variety of tools to solve new problems Initiative and entrepreneurialism to try to reach stretch goals
7 Survival Skills Students Need, cont. 5. Effective oral and written communication skills in order to be clear and concise 6. Accessing and analyzing large amounts of information effectively on a daily basis 7. Curiosity and imagination in order to ask great questions to solve the biggest problems in ways that have the most impact on innovation These can be taught to children early on!
How Can We Teach These Skills Effectively? (cont.)-Wagner Students need to explain their proofs using effective communication skills Teachers use questions to push students’ thinking and build their tolerance for ambiguity Each student in every group is help accountable. Success requires teamwork!
How Can We Teach These Skills Effectively? -Wagner Example for Math:
Students are given a complex, multi-step problem different from any they’ve seen
To solve it, students need to apply critical-thinking & problem-solving skills and call on previously acquired knowledge
Students in groups need to find two ways to solve the problem, which requires initiative and imagination
Goals: Teaching & Testing Skills that Matter Most -Wagner
Work to ensure that all students master the skills they need to succeed as lifelong learners, workers, and citizens
Stress the importance of critical thinking, communication skills, and collaboration
Assessments should measure students’ analytic reasoning, critical-thinking, problem-solving, and writing skills (ex. College and Work Readiness Assessment www.cae.org)
Motivating Students Who Don’t Care Rationale: “Wise educators need to understand and use social dynamics to create, inspire, and cultivate motivation within their students” -Allen N. Mendler
What Educators Can DoI agree with these wholeheartedly! Teacher behavior is motivated by basic beliefs: All students are capable of learning when they have academic & personal tools Students are inherently motivated to learn but learn to be unmotivated when they fail Learning requires risk taking, so classrooms need to be safe places All students have basic needs to belong, be competent, and to influence what happens to them -Mendler
What Educators Can Do, cont. 5. High self-esteem should not be a goal, but rather a result that comes with the mastery of challenging tasks 6. High motivation for learning in school most often occurs when adults treat students with respect and dignity -Mendler
Five Key Processes That Educators Can Use for Guidance -Mendler
Emphasizing EffortRemedial Strategies -Mendler Build on mistakes or partially correct answers, e.g., reading class teacher response: “Susan, you did a great job on three of your answers. They show that you understand the first part of the story. Look over my suggestions on the next two; and see how that can make your essay even stronger.” Allow the 3 Rs-Redo, Retake, and Revise, for both math and reading to teach students that improvement is a sure sign of effort.
Creating Hope -Mendlerhelping students believe they can master the curriculum Show students how achievements benefits their lives - give relevancy to assignments, e.g., solving a math equation may relate to sports, buying a car or a house. Ensure adequacy of basic skills with students, even if it means dignified confrontation Create challenges that can be mastered Help students develop attainable goals Help students get and stay organized (materials, daily assignment book, supplies)
Respecting Power -Mendlerhelp students make better choices Challenge student refusals respectfully Involve students in developing procedures, rules and consequences Get students involved in teaching a lesson Correct a student with privacy, eye contact, and proximity (helps students save face) Offer real choices (e.g. ask students to “Answer three of these six questions” on assignments or tests).
Building Relationships-Mendler (e.g., mentoring a student) Emphasize & affirm the student Be open to student feedback Send notes to students, e.g., “Jordan, I am really pleased that you did your math assignment today.” Offer genuine compliments, “I like it when…” Invest 2 min. per day to build relationships Host a 5-minute focus group by meeting with student to find out what is or is not working for them, and look for ideas on how to improve.
Expressing Enthusiasm“our expectations of success for others often influence the degree to which they actually achieve” -Mendler Let your students know that you love being their teacher Share your love of the subject Be a lifelong learner, e.g. teach an aspect of a concept differently, such as math ratios. Be lighthearted – use riddles, jokes, humor Encourage drama, e.g., a story can be a skit Use music, e.g. background music during a group project, possibly from a period of history that relates to a book or historical event.
Moving Away from the Authoritarian Classroom-Singham When students come to class, discuss serious topics in a relaxed way Allow students to write papers on topics of their choice and interest Give students confidence that teachers will make fair judgments about their performance Assessments should be meaningful measures of important learning Encourage continuing conversation among interested people
The Therapeutic Classroomstructural elements of an effective, comprehensive classroom for students with emotional-behavioral disorders 1. Program Foundation & Philosophy - statement of mission, purpose, values and benefits 2. Structure - balanced behavior management 3. Climate-Group Process - rules, rituals, management 4. Individual Programming - builds academic and social competence
Creating Cohesive Groups -Long Name the group Refer to the group by name Generate group traditions Develop group rules and values Set group goals Establish group norms Promote teamwork Engage members in various group activities Use group contingencies Make group meetings part of the daily schedule Model to facilitate cohesive interaction & participation Reinforce cohesive behavior
Promoting Positive Student Behavior Essential Concepts and Skills for Effective Classroom Discipline -Long Classroom discipline:
Begins with the teacher and not the students (self-awareness & student relationships)
Is not a bag of tricks or gimmicks a teacher uses during a crisis (vs. thoughtful & purposeful way of interacting with students on a daily basis)
8 Teacher Skills for Reducing Undesirable Behavior -Long The skill of: Planned ignoring of negative behavior Stating expectations of behavior Signaling (nonverbal, e.g., facial expression) Restructuring the situation (e.g. seating change) Conferencing (private conference with problem student) Warning (make consequences clear to students) Enforcement of consequences (follow-through) Life space crisis intervention (rapid intervention to protect student and the group & prevent escalation)
Strategies for Increasing Desirable Behavior -Long Develop the skills of: Stating positive expectations Modeling desired behavior Structuring the situation (seating, grouping, teacher assistance, physical movement, extent of decision making) Positive reinforcement (activities, privileges, materials, food, parent recognition, leadership, awards, verbal and nonverbal approval) Regulated permission (flatten clay, punch boxing bag) Contracting (establish a written or verbal agreement with one or more students in which the teacher agrees to provide a particular service, reward, or outcome in return for a particular behavior or performance)
Conclusion As we look at academics as part of a quality program, we need to maintain convictionthat this part is ESSENTIAL in preparing our children and teenagers for a successful adult life, and diligently implement these strategies