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Geo-Reference presentation SJSU Libr210-11


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A PowerPoint for Libr210-11 (Summer session) for Professor Tash

A PowerPoint for Libr210-11 (Summer session) for Professor Tash

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  • Ask class why we use geographical sources before giving the answers.Current events – world’s crises and disastersRecreational – travelBusiness – domestic and international meetings/conferencesHistorical geography – changes of geography and political mapping
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    • 1. Geographical Resources
      LIBR 210 -- Tash
      San Jose State University
      Josh Tiffany
      Quang Thong
    • 2. Why use geographical sources?
      Current events
      Historical geography
      Assist in locating places
      Inform something about the location
      Show how to get to destination
      Geographical Resources
    • 3. Types
      Gazetteers and Dictionaries
      Maps and Mapping
      Travel guides
      World Factbook
      Geographical Resources
    • 4. Judging a geography reference guide
      Scale and projection
      Color and symbols
      Publisher / authority
      Indexing / place names
      3 Types of Projections
      Geographical Resources
    • 5. Judging map resources
      The ratio of distance on the map to the actual distance on the face of the Earth.
      Generally represented by a fraction (1:1,000,000)
      When a spherical globe is projected on a flat plane, distortions occur
      Geographical Resources
    • 6. Judging map resources
      Color and symbols
      Geographical Resources
    • 7. Judging map resources
      Publisher / authority
      Use map from reputable sources
      U.S. Geological Survey
      Ordnance Survey (Great Britain)
      Natural Resources Canada
      Rand McNally
      C.S. Hammond
      National Geographic Society
      Geographical Resources
    • 8. Judging map resources
      Indexing / place names
      Geographical Resources
    • 9. Judging map resources
      Geographical Resources
    • 10. Representations:
      Physical world gives the physical features of the world such as mountains and bodies of water.
      Political world illustrates the boundaries of the countries and territories.
      Satellite world are images taken from outer space.
      Geographical Resources
    • 11. Gazetteers & Dictionaries
      Gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory
      Provides reference about place and place names
      Typically contains information on:
      Geographical makeup
      Social statistics
      Physical features
      Geographical Resources
    • 12. Columbia Gazetteer of north America
      • 50,000 entries on places in North America
      • 13. Derivative of Columbia Gazetteer of the World
      • 14. Last published in 2000
      Geographical Resources
    • 15. Columbia Gazetteer of north America
      • descriptions of physical geography • political boundaries• historical, political, cultural, and economic descriptions • natural, agricultural, and other resources • principal trade, business, and industrial activities• highways, railroads, canals, and pipelines• points of interest • population from the most recent national censuses • latitude, longitude, and elevation • official place-names • changed or variant names and spellings • pronunciations
      Geographical Resources
    • 16. Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary
      • 48,000 alphabetically arranged entries
      Geographical Resources
    • 17. Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary
      Maps of areas
      Geographical Resources
    • 18. Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary
      Entries contain
      Highest Point
      Chief products
      Chief cities
      Political divisions
      Brief history
      Geographical Resources
    • 19. Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary
      also Irak or Arab. ʿIrāq i-ˈräk, -ˈrak
      Republic, SW Asia, bounded on N by Turkey, on E by Iran, on SE by Kuwait and Persian Gulf, on S by Saudi Arabia, and on W by Jordan and Syria; 168,927 sq. mi. (437,521 sq. km.); pop. (1992e) 18,838,000; ✽ Baghdad.
      Physical features:Comprises for most part level country drained by Euphrates and Tigris rivers which unite ab. 120 mi. (193 km.) from Persian Gulf NNW of Basra to form the Shatt al Arab, and by tributaries of the Tigris from the E; includes most of Mesopotamia (q.v.); river region fertile with many lakes; wide desert region in W (part of Syrian Desert) and SW; mountainous in Kurdistan region of NE.
      Chief products:Wheat, barley, rice, dates, cotton; sheep, cattle; oil, natural gas; manufacturing: textiles, construction materials.
      Chief cities:Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Arbīl.
      History:For history prior to 1921, see mesopotamiababyloniaassyria. Kingdom estab. 1921 after WWI out of former Turkish territory; under British mandate 1920 until Oct. 1932 when it became independent under King Faisal I; semi-independent state in alliance with Great Britain 1922; a limited monarchy according to organic law 1924; awarded Mosul (q.v.) by League of Nations 1925; independence and sovereignty recognized in treaties with Great Britain 1927 and 1930, the full result of which was admission to League 1932; in treaty with Saudi Arabia (q.v.) 1936; occupied by British 1941 to prevent Nazi control; joined UN 1945; republic estab. following army coup July 1958 during which King Faisal II and Crown Prince ʿAbd al-Ilāh were assassinated; advanced claims to Kuwait (rejected by Great Britain) 1961; participated in Arab-Israeli War 1967; coup 1968 brought revolutionary Ba'th party to power; announced termination of (sporadic) hostilities bet. central government and autonomy-seeking Kurds 1970, but fighting resumed 1974; Ba'thist Saddam Hussein became president 1979; invaded Iran Sept. 1980, provoking eight-year Iran–Iraq war; occupied and forcibly annexed Kuwait Aug. 1990; its subsequent failure to withdraw before UN deadline of Jan. 15, 1991 precipitated six-week offensive to liberate Kuwait, launched by alliance of international forces; after suffering heavy losses, accepted UN cease-fire terms Feb. 28, 1991; the U.S with the support of the U.K. launched an invasion against Iraq March 2003 to depose the repressive regime of Saddam Hussein which was suspected of possessing weapons of mass destruction and harboring international terrorists.
      Geographical Resources
    • 20. Gazetteers & Dictionaries
      “to provide the reader with the most detailed and comprehensive descriptions available for the physical geography of countries.”
      Geographical Resources
    • 21. Gazetteers & Dictionaries
      Geo-Data gives information on:
      Raw data (area, location, coordinates, population etc.)
      Topography (mountains, hills, plateaus, inland and coastal waters)
      Climate and vegetation
      Human population
      Natural Resources
      Geographical Resources
    • 22. Gazetteers
      Columbia Gazetteer of North America
      Columbia Gazetteer of North America
      Overview of Global geographical names
      Good resource for country-to-country
      Last updated 2004
      Comprehensive resources for North America
      Last updated 2000
      Overview of Global geographical names
      Last updated 2007
      Geographical Resources
    • 23. U.S. Board on Geographic names
      United States Board on Geographic Names
      Geographical Resources
    • 24. U.S. Board on Geographic names
      Created in 1890 and established in present form in 1947
      Sought to bring standardization to the names of the expanding territories after the Civil War
      It is “the central authority to which name problems, name inquiries, name changes, and new name proposals can be directed”
      Geographical Resources
    • 25. Geonames
      General search will provide
      Name and unverified variant names
      Feature type
      Geographical Resources
    • 26. USGS Database
      Allows searching for feature name, state, county, type, and elevation
      Geographical Resources
    • 27. USGS Database
      Returns results for feature name, feature id, class, county, latitude, longitude, state, map, elevation, and entry day
      Geographical Resources
    • 28. Additional gazetteers
      National Geospatial – Intelligence Agency (
      The database is the official repository of foreign place-name decisions.
      Geographical Resources
    • 29. Additional gazetteers
      Geographical Resources
    • 30. Atlases
      Up-to-date information on geographical and political changes in the world
      Study of changes in boundary, military campaigns, and early exploration
      Relates to a specific subject or region
      Geographical Resources
    • 31. Current Atlases
      User Guide
      Political World
      Physical World
      Satellite World
      Universe/Solar Systems
      World Statistics
      World Geography
      Geographical Glossary
      Geographical Resources
    • 32. Best sources of Current Atlases
      World Beyond
      World Maps
      Maps are arrange by continents.
      Physical, flags, and facts
      Geographic Comparisons
      Temperature and Rainfall
      World Cities, Foreign Terms
      • First published in 1963 – present by the National Geographic Society
      • 33. Latest, 8th Edition released in 2005, includes GPS images
      • 34. More than 400 pages of full-color maps and charts
      • 35. 60 up-to-date political maps, 17 new thematic maps, and 10 new panoramic satellite views of the world and every continent
      Geographical Resources
    • 36. Best Sources of Current Atlases (Cont.)
      User Guide
      World Statistics
      Images of Earth
      Gazetteer of Nations, A-Z
      World Geography
      World Cities
      World Maps
      Geographical Glossary
      Index to World Maps
      Current 15th Edition is priced at $80 USD, published 2008
      Publisher: Oxford University Press in 1992 - present.
      Maps of 69 cities and nearly 100 different regions.
      Inclusion of new information such as Warming Island, discovered after the Greenland ice sheet.
      Geographical Resources
    • 37. Comparison of Latest Editions:
      Mini Gazetteer
      Updated census information
      Maps of 69 cities and nearly 100 different regions
      Latest geographic information
      48-page introduction to World Geography
      Refreshed satellite image section
      Price: $80.00
      60 up-to-date political maps
      17 new thematic maps
      10 new panoramic satellite views of the world and every continent
      A comprehensive, cross-referenced index of 140,000 place names
      Unique Ehlermann binding
      Price: $165 (Non-member); $150 (Member)
      Oxford Atlas of the World
      National Geographic Atlas of the World
      Geographical Resources
    • 38. Historical Atlases
      Types of Historical Atlases:
      Complete – early civilizations to present day
      Specialized – relating to a particular subject
      Ex. Civil War newspaper maps : a historical atlasby David Bosse, 1993.
      Map of the Mediterranean from the Ottoman "World Atlas"Title: Map of the MediterraneanDate: 1803-4, ÜsküdarAuthor: Translation of William Faden's (1750-1836) "General Atlas" published in London in 1797
      Geographical Resources
    • 39. Historical Atlases:
      Hammond Historical World Atlas
      Revised in 2000, currently 5th Ed.
      Publisher: Hammond World Atlas Corporation
      most significant periods and major events in civilization's history
      118 full-color maps (arranged chronologically)
      8-page time chart with a graphic history of mankind
      16 additional pages with an emphasis on Asian and African history
      Priced at $59.95
      Geographical Resources
    • 40. Historical Atlases (Cont.)
      The Times Atlas of World History
      First published in 1978 in London
      4th Edition published in 1993 by Hammond World Atlas Corporation
      Reviewed by a team of leading historians
      600 maps and 300,000 words of text
      128 double-page spreads on major themes in world history
      Recent historiography and archaeology
      Updated chronology
      120 color illustrations
      Geographical Resources
    • 41. Which is better?
      Revised in 2000, current 5th Ed.
      118 full-color maps (arranged chronologically)
      8-page time chart with a graphic history of mankind
      Priced at $59.95
      First published in 1978 in London
      4th Edition published in 1993
      Reviewed by a team of leading historians
      128 double-page spreads on major themes in world history
      Priced at $125
      Hammond Historical World Atlas
      Times Atlas of World History
      Geographical Resources
    • 42. Historical Specialized Atlas
      Publisher: Routledge, released in 2003
      Over 311 color maps and illustrations
      Colonial uprisings to September 11, 2001 attacks
      Two special map sections:
      Presidential elections
      Territorial growth of United States
      Geographical Resources
    • 43. Historical Specialized Atlas (Cont.)
      Atlas of United States History
      Revised edition, published by Hammond World Atlas Corporation in 2007
      Covers earliest inhabitants to more recent presidential elections
      Latest information on:
      Growth of the U.S. economy
      The United Nations
      U.S., and World Alliances
      Foreign trade
      Population characteristics
      Acid rain and toxic waste
      Foreign aid
      Flags of American history, along with flags of U.S. states, territories, and possessions
      A two-page U.S. political map
      Historical maps of Alaska and Hawaii.
      "After 100 years, Hammond has got it down," writes the Philadelphia Inquirer.
      Geographical Resources
    • 44. Comparison of Historical Atlas on the United States
      Published in 2003 by Routledge
      • Coverage from colonial uprisings to September 11, 2001 attacks
      Two special map sections:
      Presidential elections
      Territorial growth of United States
      • Priced at $185
      Revised in 2007 by Hammond World Atlas Corporation
      Covers earliest inhabitants to more recent presidential elections
      Priced at $150
      Historical Atlas of the United States
      Atlas of the United States History
      Geographical Resources
    • 45. Best Source of Thematic Atlas
      Rand McNally Road Atlas
      Coverage: United States, Canada, and Mexico
      Map Legend
      Maps A-Z
      Miles and Minutes
      Annually published
      Geographical Resources
    • 46. Thematic Atlases (Cont.)
      Published in 2004, Adventure Edition
      Detailed maps of all 50 states, Canada, and Mexico
      Scenic routes, historic sites, recreation information, and points of interest
      America's top 100 adventure destinations
      24 profiles of the most popular national parks
      Priced: $19.95
      Geographical Resources
    • 47. Comparison of Thematic Atlases
      Detailed inset maps of over 350 cities and 20 U.S. National Parks
      GPS and online travel companion
      2010 Best of the Road Trips
      Road construction projects and updates
      US atlas contains mileage chart
      Priced at $13.95
      Detailed maps of all 50 states, Canada, and Mexico and 24 U.S. National Parks
      America's top 100 adventure destinations
      US atlas contains mileage chart
      Priced at $19.95
      Rand McNally Road Atlas
      National Geographic Road Atlas
      Geographical Resources
    • 48. Atlases Vs. Maps
      Present storage problems
      Larger scale
      Clearer presentation
      • Atlases
      • 49. Compact
      • 50. Easier storage and use
      • 51. Smaller scale
      • 52. Lack of detail for certain regions
      Geographical Resources
    • 53. MAPS
      Geographical Resources
    • 54. Maps libraries should have
      Maps showing coverage of local area
      Various scales
      Vary amount of detail
      Maps covering cities or towns in the following scales
      1:250,000 (one sheet)
      1:100,000 (one to two sheets)
      1:24,000 (one to six sheets)
      Nautical charts for coastal cities or near the Great Lakes
      Geographical Resources
    • 55. Popular electronic maps ( A ) ( B ) ( C )
      Satellite imaging
      Currency as an issue
      Questionable directions
      Geographical Resources
    • 56. Electronic Maps
      Scalable maps
      Geographical Resources
    • 57. Electronic Maps
      Satellite Images
      (Outdated source)
      Geographical Resources
    • 58. Electronic Maps
      Geographical Resources
    • 59. Electronic Maps
      Traffic updates
      Geographical Resources
    • 60. Electronic Maps
      Geographical Resources
    • 61. Electronic maps
      Geographical Resources
    • 62. Electronic maps
      Geographical Resources
    • 63. Enviro-maps
      An electronic, searchable map of EPA covered sites
      User can search by
      EPA-Regulated Facilities
      Environmental Justice Geographic Assessment Information
      Brownfields Grant Types and Properties
      Superfund National Priorities List Sites
      Toxics Release Inventory
      Waste Management Facility Siting Tool
      Pesticide Use Limitations
      Cleanups in the community
      Geographical Resources
    • 64. Enviro-maps
      What’s buried in your back yard?
      Geographical Resources
    • 65. Library of Congress Map Collection
      Geographical Resources
    • 66. Library of Congress Map Collection
      The Library of Congress’ mission is to “make resources available and useful to Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations”
      The goal of the Library’s National Digital Library Program is to “offer broad public access to a wide range of historical and cultural documents”
      Geographical Resources
    • 67. Library of Congress Map Collection
      Cities and Towns
      Conservation and Environment
      Discovery and Exploration
      Cultural Landscapes
      Military Battles & Campaigns
      Transportation and Communication
      Geographical Resources
    • 68. Library of Congress Map Collection
      Historic maps of town
      Geographical Resources
    • 69. Library of Congress Map Collection
      Geographical Resources
    • 70. Travel Guides
      Users: Domestic and international travelers
      Specific regions, countries, or cities
      Restaurants and hotels
      Car rentals
      Geographical Resources
    • 71. Fodor’s vs. Frommer’s
      Which travel guide books do you think is the most used and recommended?
      Geographical Resources
    • 72. First published guidebooks in 1936 - present.
      Annual updates, inclusion of users’ experiences and opinions
      Over 300 worldwide destinations.
      Itineraries; When to Go
      Foldout, full-color sheet maps
      Hong Kong, 21st Ed.
      Published on March 3, 2009 is priced at $19.95
      First publication in 1957 with $-a-Day Guides
      Savvy trip-planning and sightseeing advice
      Foldout, full-color sheet maps
      Suggested Itineraries
      Getting Around (Transportation)
      Hong Kong, 10th Ed.
      Published on February 24, 2009 is priced at $17.99
      Fodor’s Vs. Frommer’s
      Geographical Resources
    • 73. World Factbook
      Last updated June 8, 2009
      Comprehensive information for 266 world entities
      References taps
      Regional Maps
      Flags of the World
      Gallery of Covers
      Do You Know?
      RRS feed
      Geographical Resources
    • 74. Sample from World Fact
      Geographical Resources
    • 75. References
      Bopp, R. & Smith, L. (2001). Reference and Information Services: An introduction (3rd ed.). Englewood: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
      Cannes, M. (2003). Historical Atlas of the United States. New York: Routledge .
      Cohen, S. (2000). The Columbia Gazetteer of North America. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved July 3, 2009 from
      EnviroMapper StoreFront. Retrieved July 10, 2009 from
      Fodor’s. Retrieved on July 10, 2009 from
      Frommer’s. Retrieved on July 10, 2009 from
      Google Maps. Retrieved on June 20, 2009 from
      Hammond Atlas of United States History. (2007). Maplewood: Hammond World Atlas Corporation.
      Hammond Historical World Atlas (5th Ed.). (2000). Maplewood: Hammond World Atlas Corporation.
      McCoy, J. (ed). (2002). Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia. Gacl: Ohio. Retrieved June 30, 2009 from .
      Map Collections. Retrieved July 10, 2009 from
      Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. (2007). In Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from
      National Geographic. Retrieved July 11, 2009 from ttp://
      National Geographic Atlas of the World (8th Ed.). (2005.). Washington D. C.: National Geographic Society.
      National Geospatial – Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 11, 2009 from
      Oxford Atlas of the World (15th Ed.). (c2008). New York: Oxford University Press.
      Oxford University Press, USA. Retrieved July 11, 2009 from
      Rand McNally Road Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1926- . Annual.
      The Times Atlas of World History (4th Ed.). (c1993). London: Times Book Group Ltd.
      U.S. Board on Geographic Names. Retrieved July 11, 2009 from
      World Factbook. Retrieved July 14, 2009 from
      Geographical Resources