Report Writing by Prof.Pravin Mulay


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Report Writing by Prof.Pravin Mulay

  1. 1. <ul><li>METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>Prof: Pravin Mulay </li></ul><ul><li>Department of English </li></ul><ul><li>BYK College of Commerce - Nashik </li></ul>REPORT WRITING
  3. 3. <ul><li>WHAT IS A REPORT ? </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of a situation or results from data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>precise, concise and succinct (to the point) </li></ul><ul><li>tightly focused </li></ul>REPORT WRITING - MEANING
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. PREPARATION </li></ul><ul><li>Background reading </li></ul><ul><li>Clear statement of aims and hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing appropriate methodology </li></ul>REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES
  5. 5. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>2. PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of data </li></ul><ul><li>what kind of data ? </li></ul><ul><li>where from ? </li></ul><ul><li>how much ? </li></ul><ul><li>how will it be analyzed ? </li></ul><ul><li>how will it be presented ? </li></ul>
  6. 6. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>WRITING </li></ul><ul><li>A. Set the structure </li></ul><ul><li>B. Set an order for writing </li></ul><ul><li>C. How to write an executive summary </li></ul><ul><li>D. Make reading the report a </li></ul><ul><li>pleasant task </li></ul>
  7. 7. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>A . Set the structure which deals with deals with material logically e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>This should include a title which indicates the central theme of the report. </li></ul>
  8. 8. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>All sections of report listed in sequence with page references </li></ul><ul><li>Executive summary </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of an executive summary is to provide the </li></ul><ul><li>briefest possible statement of the subject matter of a longer </li></ul><ul><li>document. It must cover all the essential points. It must be </li></ul><ul><li>fully comprehensive when read independently of the full </li></ul><ul><li>document. It is NOT a list of extracts, highlights or notes on </li></ul><ul><li>the original </li></ul>
  9. 9. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>The executive summary must : </li></ul><ul><li>introduce the subject of the full report, its objectives, methods, findings, and/or recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>help the reader to determine whether the report is of any interest </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction : </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction is where the reader is acquainted with the </li></ul><ul><li>purpose of the report and guided through the structure of the </li></ul><ul><li>report. This may therefore include the statement of aims and </li></ul><ul><li>objectives unless these are dealt with in a separate section. </li></ul>
  10. 10. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Aims and objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>Clear statement of what the report is trying to achieve. This may involve a statement of the research question, issue, hypothesis, or problem being investigated. Note, it is something artificial to pose an hypothesis in human geography. Care should be taken to express the research aims in the most appropriate form. </li></ul>
  11. 11. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Background to study : </li></ul><ul><li>Background to the location of the study area and to the issue/problem. This could also include reference to the theoretical context of the study. </li></ul>
  12. 12. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Methodology: </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of evidence used. </li></ul><ul><li>Description of how evidence was collected and analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of the limitations of the sources and methods of collection and analysis. </li></ul>
  13. 13. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Presentation of results : </li></ul><ul><li>A complete description of the results presented in the form of words, tables, diagrams, graphs and maps. </li></ul>
  14. 14. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Analysis and discussion of results : </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis of the results allows patterns or relationships to be identified. It may involve basic statistical description. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be followed by an interpretation and explanation of the results. This is often the most difficult part to write as it requires creative thought and an ability to relate the results to general theory. </li></ul>
  15. 15. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Evaluation and conclusion : </li></ul><ul><li>This section is a summary of all the major findings made at stages throughout the report. No new evidence should appear here. The conclusion considers the evidence presented in the main body, draws out the implications and brings it to one overall conclusion or an ordered series of final conclusions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Bibliography : </li></ul><ul><li>All books and other sources used in the research should be listed giving details of author, date of publication, title of document and publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>The list should be arranged in alphabetical order of authors. </li></ul>
  17. 17. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>Appendices : </li></ul><ul><li>This section is set aside for supplementary evidence not essential to the main findings, but which provides useful back-up support for the main arguments. </li></ul>
  18. 18. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>B. Set an order for writing : </li></ul><ul><li>The main body of the report should be tackled first. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction, appendices, contents page, title page and bibliography should be written when this has been completed. </li></ul><ul><li>The executive summary should be written at the end. </li></ul>
  19. 19. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>C. How to write an executive summary : </li></ul><ul><li>i) read the whole document </li></ul><ul><li>ii) isolate and summarize its </li></ul><ul><li>central theme. </li></ul><ul><li>iii) read each section to identify </li></ul><ul><li>summarize the main findings or points </li></ul><ul><li>iv) combine (ii) & (iii) into a set of major points because your aim is to convey the overall impression of the full document in as brief and as clear a way as possible </li></ul>
  20. 20. REPORT WRITING – KEY STAGES <ul><li>D. Make the reading of the report an easy and pleasant task for the examiner : </li></ul><ul><li>correct use of grammar, punctuation, spelling and vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>not using jargon, slang or colloquialisms </li></ul><ul><li>writing in the third person and/or passive tense rather than using “I”, “We”, “You”, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>writing clearly and coherently to communicate, not to perplex or impress e.g. by keeping sentences short and simple </li></ul><ul><li>writing precisely and avoiding ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>[These are best achieved by a thorough understanding of the material to be conveyed.] </li></ul>
  21. 21. PROOF READING/EDITING <ul><li>1. Initial reading </li></ul><ul><li>Reading the report critically from start to finish will give a feel of the overall structure and impact of the document. It is best not to stop to make corrections but to note pages that need attention and return to them later. </li></ul>
  22. 22. PROOF READING/EDITING <ul><li>2. Subsequent readings : </li></ul><ul><li>The report should be checked in detail for : </li></ul><ul><li>grammar and spelling errors </li></ul><ul><li>whether the expression is appropriate and whether improvements could be made. </li></ul><ul><li>whether the structure of the report is the most suitable for the material, ideas and arguments being presented. </li></ul><ul><li>sentence and paragraph structure [alignment] </li></ul><ul><li>integration of maps and diagrams into text </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>fulfill the stated aims and assessment objectives </li></ul><ul><li>following the argument easily </li></ul><ul><li>make the argument more convincing </li></ul><ul><li>convey the key points of the report </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  23. 23. PROOF READING/EDITING <ul><li>3. Layout and general appearance : </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate headings, sub-headings and paragraph numbering make it easier to comprehend the report. </li></ul><ul><li>Over-ambitious or complicated numbering systems should be avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many sub-headings will fragment the text and reduce the fluency of the argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Layout is important i.e. the relationship between the print (whether typed or hand written) and space looks unattractive. </li></ul>
  24. 24. PROOF READING/EDITING <ul><li>Adequate margins </li></ul><ul><li>Double or 1.5 spaced lines </li></ul><ul><li>Headings that stand out clearly from the page </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency with the use of : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>upper case letters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) b) c) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>underlining </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Check page numbering </li></ul>
  25. 25. Let’s have a break