Unit 3 Lecture: Quality of Life and the Environment

2,604 views
2,418 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,604
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
126
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Unit 3 Lecture: Quality of Life and the Environment

  1. 1. Quality of Life & the Environment NSTP-CWTS 2 Unit 3 January 2008
  2. 2. Topic Outline <ul><li>Quality of Life Model </li></ul><ul><li>Links Between Environment & Health </li></ul><ul><li>Current State of the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant Legislation </li></ul>
  3. 3. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT HEALTH COMMUNITY ECONOMY
  4. 4. DISEASES RELATED TO POLLUTION <ul><li>Health burden of diseases attributable to environmental pollution : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 to 42% of all causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to 47 to 294 million days of healthy life lost (DHLL) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: PEHAS (WB-UP-DOH 1990) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Quality of Life & the Environment <ul><li>The model is multidimensional and assumes that quality of life is holistic in nature </li></ul><ul><li>The model emphasizes individuals' physical, psychological, and spiritual functioning; their connections with their environments; and opportunities for maintaining and enhancing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life is the degree to which a person enjoys the important possibilities of his or her life </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities result from the opportunities and limitations each person has in his/her life and reflect the interaction of personal and environmental factors </li></ul>
  6. 7. Quality of Life & the Environment <ul><li>Importance and enjoyment determine the extent of a person's Quality of Life in the different life domains (i.e. Being, Belonging , and Becoming ) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life needs to take into consideration the quality of the environment in which the person lives </li></ul><ul><li>A quality environment according to the QOL Model is one that provides for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>basic needs to be met (food, shelter, safety, social contact) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a range of opportunities within the individual's potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control and choice within that environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Health is just one of the sub-domains under the life domains and sub-domains in the model (e.g. physical being, psychological being, spiritual being, etc.). </li></ul>
  7. 8. Quality of Life Model <ul><li>adequate income </li></ul><ul><li>health and social services </li></ul><ul><li>employment </li></ul><ul><li>educational programs </li></ul><ul><li>recreational programs </li></ul><ul><li>community events and activities </li></ul><ul><li>intimate others </li></ul><ul><li>family </li></ul><ul><li>friends </li></ul><ul><li>co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>neighborhood and community </li></ul><ul><li>home </li></ul><ul><li>workplace/school </li></ul><ul><li>neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>community </li></ul>belonging (Connections with one’s environments) <ul><li>personal values </li></ul><ul><li>personal standards of conduct </li></ul><ul><li>spiritual beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>psychological health and adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>cognitions </li></ul><ul><li>feelings </li></ul><ul><li>self-esteem, self-concept and self-control </li></ul><ul><li>physical health </li></ul><ul><li>personal hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>exercise </li></ul><ul><li>grooming and clothing </li></ul><ul><li>general physical appearance </li></ul>being (who one is) Spiritual Being Psychological Being Physical Being
  8. 9. Quality of Life Model (Cont.) <ul><li>activities that promote the maintenance or improvement of knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>adapting to change </li></ul>Growth Becoming <ul><li>activities that promote relaxation and stress reduction </li></ul>Leisure Becoming <ul><li>domestic activities </li></ul><ul><li>paid work </li></ul><ul><li>school or volunteer activities </li></ul><ul><li>seeing to health or social needs </li></ul>Practical Becoming achieving personal goals, hopes, and aspirations becoming
  9. 10. Links Between Environment & Health Sources: Environmental Health Service DOH, UP College of Public Health, International Development Research Centre-Canada. (2001). Health and environment: the vital link. Philippines: DOH. Various Environmental Pollutants and their Impacts on Health Restrictions on vehicles and industrial activity during critical periods; effect of acid rain on forests and water bodies Many acute and chronic health impacts; excessive urban particulate matter levels are responsible for 300,000-700,000 premature deaths annually and for half of childhood chronic coughing; 400-700M people, mainly women and children in poor rural areas, affected by smoky indoor air Air pollution Declining fisheries, rural household time and municipal costs of providing safe water, aquifer depletion leading to irreversible compaction, constraint on economic activity because of water shortages More than 2 M deaths and billions of illnesses a year attributed to pollution and poor household hygiene and added health risks by water scarcity Water pollution and water scarcity Effect on Productivity (worldwide) Effect on Health (worldwide) Environmental Problem
  10. 11. Links Between Environment & Health (Cont.) Various Environmental Pollutants and their Impacts on Health Sources: Environmental Health Service DOH, UP College of Public Health, International Development Research Centre-Canada. (2001). Health and environment: the vital link. Philippines: DOH. <ul><li>As many as 80% of all disease in the world are associated with unsafe water or poor environmental hygiene (Hurskainen in Lankinen, 1994) </li></ul>Pollution of groundwater resources Diseases spread by rotting garbage and blocked drains. Risks from hazardous wastes typically local but often acute Solid and hazardous waste Loss of sustainable logging potential and of erosion prevention, watershed stability, and carbon sequestration provided by forests Localized flooding leading to death and disease Deforestation Field productivity losses in range of 0.5-1.5 % of GNP common on tropical soils; offsite siltation of reservoirs, river transport channels, and other hydrologic investments Reduced nutrition for poor farmers on depleted soils; greater susceptibility to droughts Soil degradation Effect on Productivity (worldwide) Effect on Health (worldwide) Environmental Problem
  11. 12. Links Between Environment & Health (Cont.) Various Environmental Pollutants and their Impacts on Health Sources: Environmental Health Service DOH, UP College of Public Health, International Development Research Centre-Canada. (2001). Health and environment: the vital link. Philippines: DOH. Sea-rise damage to coastal investments, regional changes in agricultural productivity, disruption of marine food chain Possible shifts in vector-borne diseases, risks from climactic natural disasters, diseases attributable to ozone depletion (perhaps 300-700 additional cases of skin CA every year worldwide, and 7M cases of cataracts) Atmospheric changes Reduction of ecosystem adaptability and loss of genetic sources Potential loss of new drugs Loss of biodiversity Effect on Productivity (worldwide) Effect on Health (worldwide) Environmental Problem
  12. 13. Links Between Environment & Health (Cont.) Epidemiologic triangle Disease results when a harmful agent comes into contact with a susceptible host in the proper environment (Cassens, 1987). host agent environment
  13. 14. Links Between Environment & Health (Cont.) <ul><li>Types of Agents : </li></ul><ul><li>biological (e.g. microorganisms) </li></ul><ul><li>chemical (e.g. drugs, toxins, poisons, greenhouse gases) </li></ul><ul><li>nutritional (e.g. excess/lack of food, vitamin deficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>cultural (e.g. alcohol, smoking) </li></ul><ul><li>occupational (e.g. pneumoconiosis) </li></ul><ul><li>physical forces (e.g. automobiles) </li></ul><ul><li>energy (e.g. ionizing radiation) </li></ul><ul><li>Host factors : </li></ul><ul><li>biological traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ethnic origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>social traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>marital status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>residence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>travel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors : </li></ul><ul><li>physical factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>climate (e.g. temperature and moisture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>setting (e.g. urban vs. rural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pollution (e.g. water, land, and air) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>biological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>causative biologic agent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>social factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Links Between Environment & Health (Cont.) “ Environment plays an important role in the development of man’s way of life… man undergoes biological and cultural changes as a response to the changing environment in order to survive and reproduce.” - University of the Philippines Systemwide Committee, n.d.
  15. 16. The State of Environmental Health in the Philippines <ul><li>Changes in the environment brought about by industrialization and rapid urbanization are threatening the health of Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>There are notable improvements in health and economic measures in the past decades, but the unintentional impacts of environmental changes pose major challenges to health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Filipino Life Expectancy from 59 (1960’s) to 68.9 years (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filipino Male/Females born in 2000 are expected to live for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female ~ 71.58 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male ~ 66.33 years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. The State of Environmental Health in the Philippines (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) declined from 105 per 1000 live births in 1953 to 17 per 1000 live births in 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life expectancy and IMR are higher than Indonesia, but still lower than Malaysia, Singapore, and Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social, Economic, and Demographic Factors Influencing our Environmental Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 2025, the population is expected to hit ~113.5 M if the growth rate remains constant at 2.02% starting from 1995 baseline data of 76.5 M; at present we are approximately ~86M </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The State of Environmental Health in the Philippines (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid population growth  increased human activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conversion of agricultural land to residential and commercial areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over extraction of natural resources for commerce and energy production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase in construction of development projects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased migration to urban areas  pressure on resources on these areas (i.e. natural resources, jobs)  POVERTY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1995, more than half (54.2%) or ~37.1 M Filipinos in urban areas; estimated increase to 74.3% in 2025 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid urban population growth  major threat to city’s environment and health situation (i.e. provision and access to health care services) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid urban migration: high demand for resources and jobs, but with low supply of resources and jobs  unemployment  POVERTY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1997, almost 1/3 (32.1%) or 4.5 M families live in poverty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty incidence is higher in rural areas (44%) than in urban areas (18.5%) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. The State of Environmental Health in the Philippines (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased maternal education on health  decrease in child mortality by up to 15% (WRI, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase mothers’ knowledge on environmental health threats  increase readiness to respond to consequences and effects of health threats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy lifestyle is almost virtually impossible for the poor (i.e. predisposed to reside in areas with greater environmental health hazards) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health risks are higher among those who reside in overcrowded areas with poor garbage collection & drainage systems, and who lack access to safe water supply & sanitation facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 9 million (13.2%) have no access to safe water supply & about 19M (26.3%) lack access to sanitation facilities (DOH,1999). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Relevant Legislations Treaty is designed to limit global greenhouse gas emissions Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (1992, 1997, 2001, 2005) Will formulate the rules and regulations that will govern the global rise and spread of tobacco and tobacco products in the 21 st century Tobacco Framework Convention (1999) Addresses the problems and challenges posed by toxic and hazardous wastes through waste minimization, proper disposal, and reduction of movement across boundaries Basel Convention (1997) Sets strategies and targets for the eventual elimination of ozone-depleting substances Montreal Protocol (1987) Underscores respect for the interests of all and the protection of the integrity of the global environment and developmental systems Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992) Aim International Agreement
  20. 21. Relevant Legislations (Local) <ul><li>RA 6969: Toxic Substances, Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>RA 7586: National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) of 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>RA 7942: The Philippine Mining Act of 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>RA 8749: Clean Air Act of 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>RA 9003: Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>RA 9211: Tobacco Regulation Act </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>

×