6. Political factors - political will, ideology of parties, type of governance
7. Historical factors
Women’s Empowerment Framework This framework was developed by Sara Hlupekile, a gender expert from Lusaka, Zambia. Aims of the framework To achieve women’s empowerment by enabling women to achieve equal control over the factors of production and participate equally in the development process. Features Longwe argues that poverty arises not from lack of productivity but from oppression and exploitation. She conceptualises five progressive levels of equality. The levels of equality are:
Pertains to an understanding of the difference between sex roles and gender roles and the belief that gender relations and the gender division of labour should be fair and agreeable to both sides, and not based on the domination of one over the other Conscientisation Pertains to women’s equal participation in the decision-making process, policy-making, planning and administration. In development projects, it includes involvement in needs assessment, project design, implementation and evaluation. Participation Using the participation of women in the decision-making process to achieve balance of control between men and women over the factors of production, without one in a position of dominance. Control
Pertains to level of material welfare of women, relative to men, with respect to food supply, income and medical care, without reference to whether women are themselves the active creators and producers of their material needs Welfare Pertains to women’s access to factors of production¾ land, labour, credit, training, marketing facilities, and all publicly available services and benefits¾ on an equal basis with men. Equality of access is obtained by securing equality of opportunity through legal reform to remove discriminatory provisions. Access
The women’s empowerment framework identifies three levels of recognition of women’s issues in project design: where project objectives are positively concerned with women’s issues and with improving the position of women relative to men Positive level where the project objectives recognise women’s issues but concern remains neutral or conservative, merely ensuring that women are not left worse off than before Neutral level where project objectives are silent about women’s issues. Experience suggests that women are likely to be left worse off by such a project Negative level
The framework can be used to produce profiles as below: Welfare Access Conscientisation Participation Control Positive Neutral Negative Levels of Recognition Levels of Equality
Social Relations Framework
The social relations framework originated by Naila Kabeer at the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex, UK.
Aims of the framework
To analyse existing gender inequalities in the distribution of resources, responsibilities, and power
To analyse relationships between people, their relationship to resources and activities, and how they are reworked through institutions
To emphasise human well-being as the final goal of development
The framework is human well-being, which consists of survival, security and autonomy. Production is seen as oriented not just to the market, but also to human well-being,.
Poverty is seen to arise out of unequal social relations , which result in unequal distribution of resources, claims and responsibilities.
Gender relations are one such type of social relations. Social relations are not fixed or immutable. They can and do change.
The poor, especially poor women, are often excluded from access and ownership of resources, and depend upon relationships of patronage or dependency for resources..
Institutions ensure the production, reinforcement and reproduction of social relations, and, thereby, social difference and inequality
Gender analysis therefore entails looking at how institutions create and reproduce inequalities. There are four key institutional sites: the state, the market, the community and family/kinship.
household, extended families, lineage groupings Family/kinship village tribunals, voluntary associations, informal networks, patron-client relationships, NGOs Community firms, financial corporations, farming enterprises, multinationals Market legal, military, administrative organisations State Organisational/structural form Institutional location
Five dimensions of institutional social relationships are especially relevant for gender analysis:
Rules , or how things get done; do they enable or constrain? Rules may be written or unwritten, formal or informal
Activities , or who does what, who gets what, and who can claim what. Activities may be productive, regulative, or distributive
Resources , or what is used and what is produced, including human (labour, education), material (food, assets, capital), or intangible resources (goodwill, information, networks)
People , or who is in, who is out and who does what. Institutions are selective in the way they include or exclude people, assign them resources and responsibilities, and position them in the hierarchy
Power , or who decides, and whose interests are served.
Naila Kabeer classifies development policies as follows:
do not distinguish between men and women
incorporate existing biases
tend to exclude women
recognize differences among men and women’s needs and priorities
Finally, the social relations framework analyses immediate , underlying and structural causes of specific gender issues and their effects, as shown in the table below: Immediate causes at level of household community market state The Core Problem Immediate effects Intermediate effects Long-term effects Analysis of causes and effects
Structural causes at level of household community market state Intermediate causes at level of household community market state
Uses of the framework
Can be used from project to policy level planning, even on an international basis
Strengths of the framework
Sees poverty as not just material deprivation but also social marginalisation.
Conceptualises gender as central to development thinking, not an add-on.
Links micro to macro factors.
Highlights interactions between various forms of inequality: gender, class, race.
Centres analysis around institutions; highlights the political aspects of institutions
Dynamic; tries to uncover processes of impoverishment and empowerment
Can be used for different levels of analysis
Since it examine all cross-cutting inequalities, gender can get subsumed under other analytical categories
Can appear complicated, detailed and demanding
Uses of the framework:
Best suited for project planning, rather than programme or policy planning
As a gender-neutral entry point when raising gender issues with constituents resistant to considering gender relations and power dynamics
For baseline data collection
In conjunction with Moser’s framework, to draw in the idea of strategic gender needs
CAPACITIES AND VULNERABILITIES ANALYSIS
Development is a process by which
vulnerabilities are reduced and capacities are increased.
Capacities - are the existing strength in
individuals and social group. They are
released to people’s material and physical
resources. Capacities determine people’s
abilities to cope with crisis and overcome from
Vulnerabilities - are the long term factors which weaken the people’s ability to cope with sudden emergencies.
Physical and material CAV- consists features of land, climate, environment where people live, their health, skills, housing technology, fuel, food supply their access to capital and other resources.
Social or Organizational CAV –
includes family, caste, class political and religious organization (these increases vulnerabilities)