Role of micro credit in poverty alleviation
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Executive Summary ...
The study tries to look at the impact of micro credit on the lives of the poor people. There are different views on micro credit as a powerful development tool regarding its success in developing the lives of the poor and some times these views are contradictory. However poverty is a global issue; it is a problem that even the wealthiest nation is facing. In this scenario country like Pakistan is facing a great challenge to alleviate or reduce poverty because poverty is becoming cause of many problems like suicides, illiteracy, unemployment, diseases like depression, stress etc. In order to control these diseases first we have to control poverty. At government level and also at international level many strategies are made every day to control poverty. But now Dr. Younis gave a formula of micro credit that successfully worked in Bangladesh and is now replicated all over the world and also in Pakistan so; the purpose of the study was to observe that what role micro credit plays in Pakistan in poverty alleviation.
The study was conducted in four urban slum areas of Rawal pindi and Islamabad that are Muslim Colony, Dhok Kala Khan, Tehmaspabad and Shakrial. Those people are targeted who have taken micro credit so that the comparison of living standard before and after use of micro credit can be made and hence it can be seen that, if there is any improvement in their living standard after using micro credit or not. The study was based on questionnaires which were distributed after translating it into Urdu so that respondents can easily understand it and fill it accordingly. Sample for this survey was 200 with 50 respondents per area. The dependent variable taken in this study is poverty reduction where as independent variable is micro credit and moderating variable is political environment.
Some of the factors that show poverty reduction are Training and education, clean water and hygienic environment, nutrition and adequate food, accommodation, income and savings.
Overall we can say that training and education, clean water and hygienic environment, nutrition and adequate food, accommodation, income and savings are important factors of poverty reduction. Because when a person has training and education he can improve his living standard, if a person has clean drinking water and adequate food he will be healthy and can earn in a better way for his family, if his accommodation is better and enough for family members and strong enough for natural disasters he can live in a better way. And obviously if his earning is good and enough for family he can also provide recreational activities to his children and can also afford uncertain expenses such as sudden guest etc and can also do savings for future, then all these things points towards a good life, a life with a good living standard and a life above poverty line. So; all above mentioned factors plays an important role in poverty reduction.
From data analysis it is concluded that the micro credit program is effective in giving un employed people employment such as taxi driver, shop keeper etc and to meet short term needs such as return debt taken from some one else, paying fee, operation, treatment of disease etc. Mostly borrowers of Muslim colony, Dhok Kala Khan, Shakrial and Tehmaspabad have used micro credit to purchase taxi, sewing machine and opening small shop and improving accommodation.
But micro credit system is not the perfect one; it is not a replacement for jobs that are not there and skills that do not exist. Important thing is to make them financially stable, to bring them out of the poverty line and to make them able to sustain their position and improve living condition instead of returning back to the poverty line. It can be done in this way that micro credit institutions can make contract with driving centers that can giving training to those people who don’t know driving on half rate, contracts with boutiques can be made, contracts wit
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