Overstrand To Cley
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Overstrand To Cley

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Overstrand To Cley Overstrand To Cley Presentation Transcript

    • Coastal Processes
    • Management Strategies
    • Sustainability Issues
    Coastal Study
  • The North Norfolk Coast
  • Study Sites Sheringham West Runton Cley-next-the-Sea Overstrand Cromer
  • Factors Affecting Erosion
    • Geology
    • Sub-aerial Processes.
    • Human Influence
    • The Sea
  • Distance over which waves have to build up NE 600km Denmark N 4100km Arctic Fetch
  • Cross-section of a typical cliff in North Norfolk Glacial Till 250 - 450 Ka West Runton Freshwater Peat Bed 650 Ka Chalk 60 - 70 Ma Weybourne Crag 1 - 2 Ma Geology
  • Sub-aerial Processes S aturation U ndercutting S lumping T ransportation S.U.S.T.
  • Erosion Consequences Loss of 1 metre of cliff annually
    • Not Uniform
    • Coastal Variations
    Effects
    • Destruction of Property
    • Loss of Livelihood
    • Habitat Loss
    Overstrand Hotel
  • Coastal Defences Angled Sea Wall Groynes Flat Sea Wall Rock Armour Groynes Rip-Rap
  • Beach Nourishment Revetments Bore Pipes Gabions Shingle Ridge Coastal Defences
  • Sustainability
    • Bruntland (1987)
      • “ meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”
      • Example :
      • Groynes are made of wood from rainforests.
      • Therefore we chop down forests to make groynes.
      • Eventually this deforestation leads to global warming and higher sea levels.
      • Consequently there is an increased need for groynes.
  • Costs and Payments
    • Norfolk coastline is 74km long (Hunstanton to Lowestoft)
    • 34km of it is being protected by sea defences
    • If all defences were taken out and re-built today cost would be £70m
    • Annual maintenance budget of £280,000
    • Sheringham spent £5.25m on defences between 1995 and 2000
  • So Who Pays?
    • DEFRA ( Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)
    • Can pay up to 75% of cost for sea defences
    • Only contribute 55% in North Norfolk
    • Local District Councils
    • Pay the rest, but can get a ‘supplementary credit agreement’ loan
    • As they pay the majority, DEFRA decide where the defenses will go
  • DEFRA Criteria For Funding Urgency Is the cliff likely to fail again in the next 5 years Economics Cost benefit analysis Priority Is the area urban or rural in location?
  • Shoreline Management Plans
    • “ Management of one area of coast may have an adverse impact on other areas”
    • The UK coastline is divided into management cells and sub-cells corresponding to changes in longshore drift
    • Norfolk is divided into sub-cells 3a and 3b, with the division roughly at Sheringham
  • Advance The Line Managed Retreat Do Nothing Hold The Line S.M.Ps. Four Strategies
    • Tomorrow
    • Meeting time . . .
    • Structure of the day
    • Weather
    • What you need to bring . . .
    • 1. Weather dependent: waterproofs, warm clothing, extra drink, sun cream
    • 2. Essentials: work stuff, comfortable shoes
    • Citizenship –
    • “ take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints”
  • Cley-next-the-Sea
    • Population 600
    • Fishing industry
    • Freshwater marsh (SSSI), owned by NWT, prone to flooding
    • Starting point of shingle spit
  • Sheringham
    • Population: 7,500
    • 2nd biggest tourist resort in North Norfolk after Cromer
    • Steam railway is a major attraction (125,000 per year)
    • Heavy sea defences
  • West Runton
    • Population: 800
    • Built up around fishing industry
    • Fantastic geology (SSSI)
    • Locally important as a Rocky Shore
  • Cromer
    • Population: 8,000
    • “ Gem of the North Norfolk coast”
    • Many sea defences because of weak geology
    • Cliff-top settlement
  • Overstrand
    • Population: 1,100
    • Highly exclusive tourist resort
    • Site of Clifton Way project - experimental sea defences
  • Flat Sea Wall
    • Reinforced concrete
    • Maximum life span 100 years
    • £3,000 per linear metre
  • Angled Sea Wall
    • Reinforced concrete
    • Maximum life span 100 years
    • £5,000 per linear metre
    • Granite from Norway
    • £1-3,000 per boulder (depending on size)
    • 100 + years life span
    Rip-Rap
    • Tropical Greenhart wood
    • 30-40yr life span
    • £1,000 per linear metre
    Groynes
  • Rock Armour Groynes
    • Made from Rip-Rap
    • More effective at stopping longshore drift than wooden groynes
    • £1,250 per linear metre
    • Were made from iron, now flexible plastic
    • £ 120 per metre
    Bore Pipes
  • Beach Nourishment
    • Movement of beach material from one beach to another
    • Longshore Drift transports it along shore
    • Replenished each year
    • £10 per m 3
  • Shingle Ridge
    • Beach material bulldozed into a barrier
    • 6 Month lifespan
    • £40,000 maintenance each year
    • Tropical Greenhart wood
    • 30-40yr life span
    • £1,500 per linear metre
    Revetment
    • Cages filled with beach material
    • 5-10 year life span
    • £50 per cage
    Gabions