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In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment
 

In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment

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CHI2008 presentation: In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment

CHI2008 presentation: In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment

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  • Hello everyone, and welcome to this talk

In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment Presentation Transcript

  • In-Car GPS Navigation: Engagement with and Disengagement from the Environment Gilly Leshed 1 , Theresa Velden 1 , Oya Rieger 2 , Blazej Kot 1 , Phoebe Sengers 1 1 Information Science, 2 Communication Cornell University
  • December 26, 2007 Garmin GPS -- one of the top-selling holiday items in 2007 at Amazon.com Driving and navigating with in-car GPS change engagement with the environment
  • Outline
    • Theoretical framework
      • Losses vs. opportunities
      • Space and place
    • Field study
      • Navigation
      • Orientation
      • The experience of driving
    • Implications and Conclusions
      • The broader context
      • Design implications
  • Outline
    • Theoretical framework
      • Losses vs. opportunities
      • Space and place
    • Field study
      • Navigation
      • Orientation
      • The experience of driving
    • Implications and Conclusions
      • The broader context
      • Design implications
    • GPS relieves the need to observe the environment while driving and navigating (Aporta & Higgs, 2005)  Loss of engagement
    • GPS provides new forms of interacting with the environment (Dourish, 2006)  Opportunity for engagement
    Losses vs. opportunities photo: www.alaska-in-pictures.com
  • Space and Place
    • Space – abstract, open, allows movement
    • Place – concrete, stable, represents pause, has value
    • (Tuan, 1977; Harrison & Dourish, 1996)
    • Participating in the environment creates a sense of place in a blurred space
    • Interacting with technological spaces and places in GPS affects interaction with physical spaces and places
  • Space and Place
    • Space – abstract, open, allows movement
    • Place – concrete, stable, represents pause, has value
    • (Tuan, 1977; Harrison & Dourish, 1996)
    • Participating in the environment creates a sense of place in a blurred space
    • Interacting with technological spaces and places in GPS affects interaction with physical spaces and places
  • Outline
    • Theoretical framework
      • Losses vs. opportunities
      • Space and place
    • Field study
      • Navigation
      • Orientation
      • The experience of driving
    • Implications and Conclusions
      • The broader context
      • Design implications
  • Field study of in-car GPS users
    • Participants
    • 10 users of in-car GPS systems
    • Method
    • Used own devices or friends’/family’s
    • 5 pre-planned rides 5 artificial trips
    • 1-3 hours observation & interview
    • Data
    • Field notes
    • Audio-recordings
  • Results: 1. Navigation
    • Pre-navigation/route choice
    • Key in destination, no need to know where it is
    • GPS calculates route based on settings – not necessarily matching driving experiences
    “ it gave us some bizarre routes to get back to Ithaca… turns out that the toll road setting was on [laughs]. I ignored it… and we figured it out later.”
    • Route following
    • No need to attend to objects along the way: blindly following vocal directions
    • GPS automatically calculates new route when instructions not followed
    • But – Glance at the GPS map or bring other navigation aids
    Results: 1. Navigation “ The only thing you have to do with the nav system is you have to learn what a quarter of a mile feels like, you know, otherwise it says a quarter of a mile and you think ‘Oh, I need to turn!’ and you turn too soon.”
    • Getting lost and feeling lost
    • Free to explore
    Results: 2. Orientation “ it makes me much more confident to know that if I get lost I can find my way home again. I don’t have to stress about getting lost anymore.”
    • Social interactions around the GPS
    • GPS designed for driver-unit interaction But many drive with others in the car
    • Driver/navigator roles
    • But passenger can interact with GPS unit
    Results: 3. The experience of driving “ it used to be that whoever wasn’t driving was the navigator... And so if there was a mistake made, the navigator would say ‘Turn! Turn!’ and it would be drama. But now, if you miss a turn… it’s just automatic.”
    • Treating the GPS unit as a social agent
    • Naming the GPS unit: “Heather”, “Mrs. Prius”
    • Talking to unit in a social way
    Results: 3. The experience of driving Go home! Oh, I thought you were talking to me
    • Interactions with the external environment
    • Interaction with virtual world drives interaction with physical world (e.g. POI, road curvature on map)
    • Physical space remains indistinct – places are in GPS
    • Vs. Enriched interactions with physical spaces and places
    Results: 3. The experience of driving “ Remember when we all went white water rafting? We were in this really strange town and the GPS found us a place to eat.”
  • Discussion
    • Loss of environmental engagement
    • But also new opportunities for engagement
    • Blurred boundaries between physical and virtual worlds
  • Outline
    • Theoretical framework
      • Losses vs. opportunities
      • Space and place
    • Field study
      • Navigation
      • Orientation
      • The experience of driving
    • Implications and Conclusions
      • The broader context
      • Design implications
  • The Broader Context (1)
    • Commodification and de-skilling
    • (Borgmann, 1984)
    • Navigation and orientation as commodity – no skilled interaction with environment is necessary
    • Satisfaction from practicing skill replaced by comfort of effortless consumption
  • The Broader Context (2)
    • Automobilization
    • (Urry, 2004; Thrift, 2004)
    • The role of the car in detaching its passengers from their surroundings
  • Design implications for environment awareness and interaction
    • Navigate by landmarks
    • Support the car as a social place
    • Highlight ambiguity of GPS data
    • Extend context-aware capabilities
  • Design implications for environment awareness and interaction
    • Navigate by landmarks
    • Support the car as a social place
    • Highlight ambiguity of GPS data
    • Extend context-aware capabilities
  • Design implications for environment awareness and interaction
    • (1) Navigate by landmarks
  • Design implications for environment awareness and interaction
    • (2) Support the car as a social place
  • Conclusions
    • In-car GPS navigation alters how people interpret, navigate through, experience, and interact with spaces and places
      • Immersion in technological environment and disengagement from physical environment
      • New tools and information resources enrich travel experiences
    • Design implications for engaged environmental interactions
      • In light of larger socio-technical context of GPS as a paradigm for technological devices and the automobile age
  • Thank you [email_address] [email_address] field research Hrönn Brynjarsdóttir Ellie Buckley Lucian Leahu Heather Marciniec Meena Natarajan Claudia Pederson Sadat Shami Howyee Au Yong advice Jeremy Birnholtz Barry Brown Kirsten Boehner Paul Dourish $$$ NSF IIS-0238132 NSF IIS-0534445