Introduction to OSHA OSHA
What is OSHA? <ul><li>O ccupational </li></ul><ul><li>S afety and  </li></ul><ul><li>H ealth  </li></ul><ul><li>A dministr...
Why was OSHA created? <ul><li>14,000 employees died annually from job-related injuries and illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Nea...
The OSHA Act of 1970 <ul><li>The purpose of the OSH Act is to </li></ul><ul><li> “assure so far as possible every working,...
Who is covered – Federal OSHA? <ul><li>Private employers with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one or more employees </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>State and local government employees </li></ul><ul><li>Private employers not on federal property </li></ul><ul><ul...
How do they operate ? <ul><li>Regional and area offices </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Inspections </li></u...
<ul><li>Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employ...
<ul><li>Advisory Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) <...
OSHA  Standards Development <ul><li>Standards adoption process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...
<ul><li>Emergency Temporary Standards* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>workers in grave danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proposed p...
<ul><li>Consensus Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>industry-wide stands-development organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pr...
<ul><li>Horizontal vs. Vertical  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>horizontal  (general) applies to any employer in any industry </li>...
OSHA Standards <ul><li>29 CFR 1910 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 29”   Labor </li></ul></ul>“ CFR”   Code of  Federal Regulation...
Inspection Priorities <ul><li>Imminent Danger </li></ul><ul><li>Fatalities and Catastrophes </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Com...
<ul><li>Imminent Danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reasonable certainty that danger exists  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may not ...
<ul><li>Fatalities and Catastrophes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hospitalization of 3 or more employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Employee Complaints and Referrals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inspected </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Programmed Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>site-specific targeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national emphasis ...
<ul><li>Follow-up Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines whether previously sited violations have been corrected </l...
OSHA  Inspection Process <ul><li>Opening Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection Tour (walkaround) </li></ul><ul><li>Closi...
HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OPENING CONFERENCE <ul><li>Compliance Safety & Health Officer (CSHO): </li></ul><ul><li>Presents credenti...
HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OPENING CONFERENCE <ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews OSHA Logs </li></ul><ul><li>Verifies hazard co...
HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OSHA WALKAROUND INSPECTION <ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies potential safety and health hazards...
HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OSHA CLOSING CONFERENCE <ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Gives  Employer Rights & Responsibilities Followi...
<ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Employee’s representative may be present </li></ul><ul><li>Employer may produce records to...
<ul><li>Serious </li></ul><ul><li>There is a substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result, and...
<ul><li>Willful </li></ul><ul><li>Employer committed an intentional and knowing violation or showed plain indifference to ...
<ul><li>Repeat  </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of the same or similar standard within 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Employers wi...
<ul><li>Repeat  </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of the same or similar standard within 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Employers wi...
<ul><li>Other-Than-Serious </li></ul><ul><li>Not serious, but impacts the safety and health of employees. </li></ul>CITATI...
<ul><li>Failure to Abate </li></ul><ul><li>Max </li></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation Citation
<ul><li>De Minimus </li></ul><ul><li>Violation which has no direct or immediate relationship to employee safety and health...
REGULATORY VIOLATIONS <ul><li>No OSHA Poster    $1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>No OSHA 200 Log   $1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Failur...
Penalty Adjustment Factors <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Good Faith Effort   25% </li></ul><ul><li>History (Last 3 Years)...
CITATION APPEALS <ul><li>Citations received </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Contest Citation(s) </...
Multi-employer Worksites <ul><li>Citations issued to  exposing   employer . </li></ul><ul><li>Citations can also be issued...
What Resources Are Available? <ul><li>Consultation program </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA web page : http://www.osha.gov/ </li></u...
OSHA  Consultation Program <ul><li>No cost, confidential assistance </li></ul><ul><li>On-site assistance with safety, heal...
<ul><li>Targeted injuries and illnesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silicosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lead poisoning </li></u...
<ul><li>Targeted industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shipyards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Decrease fatalities in construction by  15 % by focusing on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>falls (33%) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Change workplace culture to increase employer and employee awareness of and commitment to, and involvement in safe...
The OSHA Web Site <ul><li>www.osha.gov </li></ul>SAFETY & HEALTH
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Introduction To Osha

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Introduction To Osha

  1. 1. Introduction to OSHA OSHA
  2. 2. What is OSHA? <ul><li>O ccupational </li></ul><ul><li>S afety and </li></ul><ul><li>H ealth </li></ul><ul><li>A dministration </li></ul>O S H A
  3. 3. Why was OSHA created? <ul><li>14,000 employees died annually from job-related injuries and illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 2.5 million employees were disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Ten times as many person-days were lost due to job-related disabilities than from strikes </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 new cases of occupational disease </li></ul>
  4. 4. The OSHA Act of 1970 <ul><li>The purpose of the OSH Act is to </li></ul><ul><li> “assure so far as possible every working, </li></ul><ul><li> man and woman in the nation safe and </li></ul><ul><li> healthful working conditions and to </li></ul><ul><li> preserve our human resources.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who is covered – Federal OSHA? <ul><li>Private employers with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one or more employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business effecting commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal government employees </li></ul><ul><li>Not covered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-employed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working conditions regulated by other federal agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>farms employing only family members </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>State and local government employees </li></ul><ul><li>Private employers not on federal property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>federal parks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>military bases </li></ul></ul>Who is covered – State OSHA?
  7. 7. How do they operate ? <ul><li>Regional and area offices </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Citations and Penalties </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.” </li></ul></ul>General Duty Clause
  9. 9. <ul><li>Advisory Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIOSH Recommendations </li></ul>OSHA Standards Development
  10. 10. OSHA Standards Development <ul><li>Standards adoption process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking * </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice of Proposed Rulemaking * </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Standard * </li></ul></ul>* Published in the Federal Register
  11. 11. <ul><li>Emergency Temporary Standards* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>workers in grave danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proposed permanent standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final ruling within 6 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appealing a Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Variances </li></ul><ul><li>Public Petitions </li></ul>OSHA Standards Development * Published in the Federal Register
  12. 12. <ul><li>Consensus Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>industry-wide stands-development organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proprietary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prepared by professional experts </li></ul></ul>OSHA Standards
  13. 13. <ul><li>Horizontal vs. Vertical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>horizontal (general) applies to any employer in any industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vertical applies to a particular industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance vs. Specification </li></ul><ul><li>CPL/STD Documents </li></ul>OSHA Standards
  14. 14. OSHA Standards <ul><li>29 CFR 1910 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 29” Labor </li></ul></ul>“ CFR” Code of Federal Regulations “ 1910” General Industry Standard
  15. 15. Inspection Priorities <ul><li>Imminent Danger </li></ul><ul><li>Fatalities and Catastrophes </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Complaints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in-formal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referrals </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed </li></ul><ul><li>Follow Up (especially willful & repeat) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Imminent Danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reasonable certainty that danger exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may not be eliminated via normal enforcement procedures prior to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>serious physical harm </li></ul></ul></ul>Inspection Priorities <ul><ul><li>1 st PRIORITY </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Fatalities and Catastrophes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hospitalization of 3 or more employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>report to OSHA by employer within 8 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CALL 1 (800) 321 OSHA after hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>29 CFR 1904.8 </li></ul></ul></ul>Inspection Priorities <ul><ul><li>2 nd PRIORITY </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Employee Complaints and Referrals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inspected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>95% within 5 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in-formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone/fax response from OSHA within 1 day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 days for employer to respond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serious referrals </li></ul></ul>Inspection Priorities <ul><ul><li>3 rd PRIORITY </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Programmed Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>site-specific targeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national emphasis programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>local emphasis programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction scheduler </li></ul></ul>Inspection Priorities <ul><ul><li>4 th PRIORITY </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Follow-up Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines whether previously sited violations have been corrected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potential notice of failure-to-abate (FTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>additional daily penalties </li></ul></ul></ul>Inspection Priorities <ul><ul><li>5 th PRIORITY </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. OSHA Inspection Process <ul><li>Opening Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection Tour (walkaround) </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Conference </li></ul>
  22. 22. HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OPENING CONFERENCE <ul><li>Compliance Safety & Health Officer (CSHO): </li></ul><ul><li>Presents credentials </li></ul><ul><li>Explains purpose of inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Requests employee participation </li></ul><ul><li>Outlines scope of the inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Determines employers on site </li></ul><ul><li>Union/non-union </li></ul><ul><li>(continued) </li></ul>
  23. 23. HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OPENING CONFERENCE <ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews OSHA Logs </li></ul><ul><li>Verifies hazard communication program </li></ul><ul><li>Verifies safety and health program </li></ul><ul><li>May verify access to employee exposure and medical records (1910.1020) </li></ul><ul><li>Verifies OSHA poster </li></ul>
  24. 24. HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OSHA WALKAROUND INSPECTION <ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies potential safety and health hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines employee awareness & knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluates PPE selection, maintenance & use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documents apparent violations </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs or videotapes them </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument readings </li></ul><ul><li>Questions employees privately </li></ul>
  25. 25. HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OSHA CLOSING CONFERENCE <ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Gives Employer Rights & Responsibilities Following an OSHA Inspection . </li></ul><ul><li>Explains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employer’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contest procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>informal conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalties may be issued by Area Director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consultation services </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>CSHO: </li></ul><ul><li>Employee’s representative may be present </li></ul><ul><li>Employer may produce records to show compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Discusses apparent violations </li></ul><ul><li>Requests abatement of violations </li></ul>HIGHLIGHTS OF AN OSHA CLOSING CONFERENCE
  27. 27. <ul><li>Serious </li></ul><ul><li>There is a substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result, and the employer knew or should have known or the hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Penalty: $7,000. </li></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation
  28. 28. <ul><li>Willful </li></ul><ul><li>Employer committed an intentional and knowing violation or showed plain indifference to the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Penalty: $70,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Penalty: $25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>($5,000 for less than 50 employees) </li></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation
  29. 29. <ul><li>Repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of the same or similar standard within 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Employers with more than 250 employees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Repeat - Multiply penalty times 5. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Repeat - Multiply penalty times 10. </li></ul></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation
  30. 30. <ul><li>Repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of the same or similar standard within 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Employers with less than 250 employees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Repeat - Multiply penalty times 2. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Repeat - Multiply penalty times 5. </li></ul></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation
  31. 31. <ul><li>Other-Than-Serious </li></ul><ul><li>Not serious, but impacts the safety and health of employees. </li></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation Citation
  32. 32. <ul><li>Failure to Abate </li></ul><ul><li>Max </li></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation Citation
  33. 33. <ul><li>De Minimus </li></ul><ul><li>Violation which has no direct or immediate relationship to employee safety and health. </li></ul><ul><li>No Penalty. </li></ul>CITATION TYPES Citation
  34. 34. REGULATORY VIOLATIONS <ul><li>No OSHA Poster $1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>No OSHA 200 Log $1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to post citations $3,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to report within 8 </li></ul><ul><li>hours a fatality or accident </li></ul><ul><li>which hospitalizes 3 or more </li></ul><ul><li>employees $5,000 </li></ul>$$$
  35. 35. Penalty Adjustment Factors <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Good Faith Effort 25% </li></ul><ul><li>History (Last 3 Years) 10% </li></ul>None More than 250 20% 101 - 250 40% 26 - 100 60% 1 - 25 Reduction No. of Employees
  36. 36. CITATION APPEALS <ul><li>Citations received </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Contest Citation(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Law Judge </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA Review Commission </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Court of Appeals </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul>
  37. 37. Multi-employer Worksites <ul><li>Citations issued to exposing employer . </li></ul><ul><li>Citations can also be issued to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Employer who creates the hazard, </li></ul><ul><li>2. Employer responsible for overall site safety, and </li></ul><ul><li>3. Employer responsible for correcting the hazard. </li></ul>
  38. 38. What Resources Are Available? <ul><li>Consultation program </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA web page : http://www.osha.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA CD-ROM : 202-783-3238 </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA Training Institute & Ed Centers </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA hotline : 1-800-321-OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA area and regional offices </li></ul><ul><li>ASSE, AIHA, other trade groups </li></ul>
  39. 39. OSHA Consultation Program <ul><li>No cost, confidential assistance </li></ul><ul><li>On-site assistance with safety, health, ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>Serious hazard obligation! </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes there is a backlog </li></ul><ul><li>Focused compliance assistance or comprehensive assistance </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Targeted injuries and illnesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silicosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lead poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amputations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>15% reduction </li></ul>OSHA’s Strategic Plan
  41. 41. <ul><li>Targeted industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shipyards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nursing homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>logging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>15 % reductions </li></ul>OSHA’s Strategic Plan
  42. 42. <ul><li>Decrease fatalities in construction by 15 % by focusing on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>falls (33%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>struck by (22%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caught between (18%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electrical (17%) </li></ul></ul>OSHA’s Strategic Plan
  43. 43. <ul><li>Change workplace culture to increase employer and employee awareness of and commitment to, and involvement in safety and health </li></ul><ul><li>Secure public confidence in OSHA through customer service </li></ul>OSHA’s Strategic Plan
  44. 44. The OSHA Web Site <ul><li>www.osha.gov </li></ul>SAFETY & HEALTH
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