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this is assignment related to renewable energy resources covering energy its forms and all other criteria

this is assignment related to renewable energy resources covering energy its forms and all other criteria

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  • Nice presentation. Very simple but clear on the explanation on how we can fully use those renewable resources in generating our own source of electricity which is beneficial to many. With the high demand on energy consumption, having your own energy resources can save you enough money in other worthwhile finances.
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renewable energy resources renewable energy resources Document Transcript

  • ENERGY SOURCES Energy:- Energy is a scalar physical quantity that describes the amount of work that can be performed by a force, an attribute of objects and systems that is subject to a conservation law Different forms of energy include kinetic, potential, thermal, gravitational, sound, light, elastic, and electromagnetic energy. The forms of energy are often named after a related force. Any form of energy can be transformed into another form, but the total energy always remains the same. This principle, the conservation of energy, was first postulated in the early 19th century, and applies to any isolated system. Types of Energy There are two types of energy  Primary energy  Secondary energy Primary Energy Primary energy is energy found in nature that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process. Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. The concept is used especially in energy statistics in the course of compilation of energy balances. Primary energy includes non-renewable energy and renewable energy. Secondary Energy Primary energies are transformed in energy conversion processes to more convenient forms of energy, such as electrical energy, refined fuels, or synthetic fuels such as hydrogen fuel. In energy statistics these forms are called energy. Secondary energy is an energy form which has been transformed from another one. Electricity is the most common example, being transformed from such primary sources as coal, oil, natural gas, and wind.
  • Energy Sources The following are some of the energy sources  Solar Energy  Wind Energy  Water Energy  Tidal Energy  Wave Energy  Solid Biomass  Bio Gas  Geothermal Energy Solar Energy Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the Sun that has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation along with secondary solar resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass account for most of the available renewable energy on Earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used. Solar power provides electrical generation by means of heat engines or photovoltaics. Once converted, its uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, daylighting, hot water, thermal energy for cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors (with electrical or mechanical equipment) to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Types of Solar System There are two types of solar system  Active Solar System  Passive Solar System
  • Active Solar System An active solar system is a system that uses a mechanical device, such as pumps or fans run by electricity in addition to solar energy, to transport air or water between a solar collector and the interior of a building for heating or cooling. Passive Solar System A passive solar system is a system that distributes collected heat via direct transfer from a thermal mass rather than mechanical power. Passive systems rely on building design and materials to collect and store heat and to create natural ventilation for cooling. Application of Solar Energy  Solar lighting  Water heating  Heating, cooling and ventilation  Electrical generation Solar Lighting In the 20th century artificial lighting became the main source of interior illumination but daylighting techniques and hybrid solar lighting solutions are ways to reduce energy consumption. Daylighting systems collect and distribute sunlight to provide interior illumination. This passive technology directly offsets energy use by replacing artificial lighting, and indirectly offsets non-solar energy use by reducing the need for air-conditioning. Although difficult to quantify, the use of natural lighting also offers physiological and psychological benefits compared to artificial lighting. Daylighting design implies careful selection of window types, sizes and orientation; exterior shading devices may be considered as well. Individual features include sawtooth roofs, clerestory windows, light shelves, skylights and light tubes. They may be incorporated into existing structures, but are most effective when integrated into a solar design package that accounts for factors such as glare, heat flux and time-of-use. When daylighting features are properly implemented they can reduce lighting-related energy requirements by 25%. Hybrid solar lighting is an active solar method of providing interior illumination. HSL systems collect sunlight using focusing mirrors that track the Sun and use
  • optical fibers to transmit it inside the building to supplement conventional lighting. In single-story applications these systems are able to transmit 50% of the direct sunlight received. Solar lights that charge during the day and light up at dusk are a common sight along walkways. Although daylight saving time is promoted as a way to use sunlight to save energy, recent research has been limited and reports contradictory results: several studies report savings, but just as many suggest no effect or even a net loss, particularly when gasoline consumption is taken into account. Electricity use is greatly affected by geography, climate and economics, making it hard to generalize from single studies. Water Heating Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C can be provided by solar heating systems. The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools. As of 2007, the total installed capacity of solar hot water systems is approximately 154 GW. China is the world leader in their deployment with 70 GW installed as of 2006 and a long term goal of 210 GW by 2020. Israel and Cyprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar hot water systems with over 90% of homes using them. In the United States, Canada and Australia heating swimming pools is the dominant application of solar hot water with an installed capacity of 18 GW as of 2005. Heating Cooling and Ventilation In the United States, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 30% (4.65 EJ) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50% (10.1 EJ) of the energy used in residential buildings. Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy. Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy. Common thermal mass materials include stone, cement and water. Historically they have been used in arid climates or warm temperate regions to keep buildings cool by absorbing solar energy during the day and radiating stored heat to the cooler atmosphere at night. However they can be used in cold temperate areas to maintain warmth as well. The size and placement of thermal mass depend on several factors such as climate,
  • daylighting and shading conditions. When properly incorporated, thermal mass maintains space temperatures in a comfortable range and reduces the need for auxiliary heating and cooling equipment. A solar chimney (or thermal chimney, in this context) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a vertical shaft connecting the interior and exterior of a building. As the chimney warms, the air inside is heated causing an updraft that pulls air through the building. Performance can be improved by using glazing and thermal mass materials in a way that mimics greenhouses. Deciduous trees and plants have been promoted as a means of controlling solar heating and cooling. When planted on the southern side of a building, their leaves provide shade during the summer, while the bare limbs allow light to pass during the winter. Since bare, leafless trees shade 1/3 to 1/2 of incident solar radiation, there is a balance between the benefits of summer shading and the corresponding loss of winter heating. In climates with significant heating loads, deciduous trees should not be planted on the southern side of a building because they will interfere with winter solar availability. They can, however, be used on the east and west sides to provide a degree of summer shading without appreciably affecting winter solar gain. Electrical Generation Sunlight can be converted into electricity using photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), and various experimental technologies. PV has mainly been used to power small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array. For large-scale generation, CSP plants like SEGS have been the norm but recently multi-megawatt PV plants are becoming common. Completed in 2007, the 14 MW power station in Clark County, Nevada and the 20 MW site in Beneixama, Spain are characteristic of the trend toward larger photovoltaic power stations in the US and Europe. As an intermittent power source, solar power requires a backup supply, which can partially be complemented with wind power. Local backup usually is done with batteries, while utilities normally use pumped-hydro storage. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the University of Kassel pilot-tested a combined power plant linking solar, wind, biogas and hydrostorage to provide load-following power around the clock, entirely from renewable sources.
  • Wind Energy Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines. At the end of 2008, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 121.2 gigawatts (GW). Wind power produces about 1.5% of worldwide electricity use, and is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 19% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 11% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. As of May 2009, eighty countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. Large-scale wind farms are typically connected to the local electric power transmission network; smaller turbines are used to provide electricity to isolated locations. Utility companies increasingly buy back surplus electricity produced by small domestic turbines. Wind energy as a power source is attractive as an alternative to fossil fuels, because it is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions; however, the construction of wind farms (as with other forms of power generation) is not universally welcomed due to their visual impact and other effects on the environment. Wind power is non-dispatchable, meaning that for economic operation all of the available output must be taken when it is available, and other resources, such as hydropower, and standard load management techniques must be used to match supply with demand. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply a low proportion of total demand. Where wind is to be used for a moderate fraction of demand, additional costs for compensation of intermittency are considered to be modest. Wind Turbines A wind energy conversion device that produces electricity is known as wind turbine. There are mainly two types of wind turbine  Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine  Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine A wind turbine in which the axis of the rotor's rotation is parallel to the wind stream and the ground. All grid-connected commercial wind turbines today are built with a propeller-type rotor on a horizontal axis (i.e. a horizontal main shaft).
  • Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two- or three-bladed, although some have fewer or more blades. The purpose of the rotor is to convert the linear motion of the wind into rotational energy that can be used to drive a generator. The same basic principle is used in a modern water turbine, where the flow of water is parallel to the rotational axis of the turbine blades. The wind passes over both surfaces of the airfoil shaped blade but passes more rapidly over the longer (upper) side of the airfoil, thus creating a lower-pressure area above the airfoil. The pressure differential between top and bottom surfaces results in aerodynamic lift. In an aircraft wing, this force causes the airfoil to rise, lifting the aircraft off the ground. Since the blades of a wind turbine are constrained to move in a plane with the hub as its center, the lift force causes rotation about the hub. In addition to the lift force, a drag force perpendicular to the lift force impedes rotor rotation. A prime objective in wind turbine design is for the blade to have a relatively high lift-to-drag ratio. This ratio can be varied along the length of the blade to optimize the turbine’s energy output at various wind speeds. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine A type of wind turbine in which the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the wind stream and the ground. VAWTs work somewhat like a classical water wheel in which water arrives at a right angle (perpendicular) to the rotational axis (shaft) of the water wheel. Vertical-axis wind turbines fall into two major categories: Darrieus turbines and Savonius turbines. Neither type is in wide use today. The basic theoretical advantages of a vertical axis machine are:  The generator, gearbox etc. may be placed on the ground, and a tower is not essential for the machine  A yaw mechanism isn't needed to turn the rotor against the wind. The basic disadvantages are:  Wind speeds are very low close to ground level, so although a tower isn't essential, the wind speeds will be very low on the lower part of the rotor  The overall efficiency of the vertical axis machines is not impressive  The machine is not self-starting, i.e. a Darrieus machine needs a "push" before it will start. This is only a minor inconvenience for a grid-connected turbine, however, since the generator may be used as a motor drawing current from the grid to start the machine  Replacing the main bearing for the rotor necessitates removing the rotor on both a horizontal and a vertical axis machine. In the case of the latter, it means tearing the whole machine down
  • Water Energy Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, i.e., the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. Worldwide, hydroelectricity supplied an estimated 816 GWe in 2005. This was approximately 20% of the world's electricity, and accounted for about 88% of electricity from renewable sources. Electricity generation Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. In this case the energy extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. To obtain very high head, water for a hydraulic turbine may be run through a large pipe called a penstock. Pumped storage hydroelectricity produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped storage schemes currently provide the only commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily load factor of the generation system. Hydroelectric plants with no reservoir capacity are called run-of-the-river plants, since it is not then possible to store water. A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. A simple formula for approximating electric power production at a hydroelectric plant is: P = hrgk, where P is Power in kilowatts, h is height in meters, r is flow rate in cubic meters per second, g is acceleration due to gravity of 9.8 m/s2, and k is a coefficient of efficiency ranging from 0 to 1. Efficiency is often higher with larger and more modern turbines. Annual electric energy production depends on the available water supply. In some installations the water flow rate can vary by a factor of 10:1 over the course of a year.
  • Advantages Economics The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and no imports are needed. Hydroelectric plants also tend to have longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service which were built 50 to 100 years ago. Operating labor cost is also usually low, as plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation. Where a dam serves multiple purposes, a hydroelectric plant may be added with relatively low construction cost, providing a useful revenue stream to offset the costs of dam operation. It has been calculated that the sale of electricity from the Three Gorges Dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 8 years of full generation. Greenhouse gas emissions Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels, they do not directly produce carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project, this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossil-fuel electricity generation. Related activities Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves. In some countries, aquaculture in reservoirs is common. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply. Large hydro dams can control floods, which would otherwise affect people living downstream of the project. Geo Thermal Geothermal power (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat) is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. This geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. It has been used for space heating and bathing since ancient roman times, but is now better known for generating electricity. About 10 GW of geothermal electric capacity is installed
  • around the world as of 2007, generating 0.3% of global electricity demand. An additional 28 GW of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly, but has previously been geographically limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for direct applications such as home heating. Geothermal wells tend to release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower than those of conventional fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed instead of fossil fuels. Geothermal electricity plants Geothermal electric plants have until recently been built exclusively on the edges of tectonic plates where high temperature geothermal resources are available near the surface. The development of binary cycle power plants and improvements in drilling and extraction technology has opened the hope that enhanced geothermal systems might be viable over a much greater geographical range. A demonstration project has recently been completed in Landau-Pfalz, Germany, and others are under construction in Soultz-sous-Forêts, France and Cooper Basin, Australia. Non-electricity generation application Approximately seventy countries made direct use of a total of 270 PJ of geothermal heating in 2004. More than half of this energy was used for space heating, and a third was used for heated pools. The remainder was used for industrial and agricultural applications. The global installed capacity was 28 GW, but capacity factors tend to be low (around 20%) since the heat is mostly needed in the winter. The above figures include 88 PJ of space heating extracted by an estimated million geothermal heat pumps with a total capacity of 15 GW. Global geothermal heat pump capacity is growing by 10% annually. Direct application of geothermal heat for space heating is far more efficient than electricity generation and has less demanding temperature requirements. It may come from waste heat supplied by co-generation from a geothermal electrical plant or from smaller wells or heat exchangers buried in the shallow ground. As a result it is viable over a much greater geographical range than electricity generation. Where natural hot springs are available, the water may be piped directly into radiators. If the shallow ground is hot but dry, earth tubes or downhole heat exchangers may be used without a heat pump. But even in areas where the shallow ground is too cold to provide comfort directly, it is still warmer
  • than the winter air. Seasonal variations in ground temperature diminish and disappear completely below 10m of depth. That heat can be extracted with a geothermal heat pump more efficiently than it can be generated by conventional furnaces. Geothermal heat pumps can be used essentially anywhere. Environmental impacts Geothermal fluids drawn from the deep earth may carry a mixture of gases with them, notably carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. When released to the environment, these pollutants contribute to global warming, acid rain, and noxious smells in the vicinity of the plant. Existing geothermal electric plants emit an average of 122 kg of CO2 per MWh of electricity, a small fraction of the emission intensity of conventional fossil fuel plants. Some are equipped with emissions-controlling systems that reduces the exhaust of acids and volatiles. In addition to dissolved gases, hot water from geothermal sources may contain trace amounts of dangerous elements such as mercury, arsenic, and antimony which, if disposed of into rivers, can render their water unsafe to drink. Geothermal plants can theoretically inject these substances, along with the gases, back into the earth, in a form of carbon capture and storage. Construction of the power plants can adversely affect land stability in the surrounding region. Subsidence has occurred in the Wairakei field in New Zealand and in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany. Enhanced geothermal systems can trigger earthquakes as part of the hydraulic fracturing process. The project in Basel, Switzerland was suspended because more than 10,000 seismic event measuring up to 3.4 on the Richter Scale occurred over the first 6 days of water injection. Geothermal has minimal requirements for land use and freshwater. Existing geothermal plants use 1-8 acres per megawatt (MW) versus 5-10 acres per MW for nuclear operations and 19 acres per MW for coal power plants. They use 20 liters of freshwater per MWh versus over 1000 litres per MWh for nuclear, coal, or oil. Biogas Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. One type of biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure or sewage, municipal waste, green waste and energy crops. This type of biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. The other principal type of biogas is wood gas which is
  • created by gasification of wood or other biomass. This type of biogas is comprised primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, with trace amounts of methane. Biogas plant Biogas is practically produced as landfill gas (LFG) or digester gas.A biogas plant is the name often given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops. Biogas can be produced utilizing anaerobic digesters. These plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste. Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a landfill. The waste is covered and compressed mechanically and by the weight of the material that is deposited from above. This material prevents oxygen from accessing the waste and anaerobic microbes thrive. This gas builds up and is slowly released into the atmosphere if the landfill site has not been engineered to capture the gas. Landfill gas is hazardous for three key reasons. Landfill gas becomes explosive when it escapes from the landfill and mixes with oxygen. The lower explosive limit is 5% methane and the upper explosive limit is 15% methane. The methane contained within biogas is 20 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Therefore uncontained landfill gas which escapes into the atmosphere may significantly contribute to the effects of global warming. In addition to this volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained within landfill gas contribute to the formation of photochemical smog. Applications Biogas can be utilized for electricity production on sewage works , in a CHP gas engine, where the waste heat from the engine is conveniently used to heat the digester; cooking, space heating, water heating and process heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles, where it can fuel an internal combustion engine or fuel cells and is a much more effective displacer of carbon dioxide than the normal use in on-site CHP plants. Methane within biogas can be concentrated via a biogas upgrader to the same standards as fossil natural gas, and becomes biomethane. If the local gas network allows for this, the producer of the biogas may utilize the local gas distribution networks. Gas must be very clean to reach pipeline quality, and must be of the correct composition for the local distribution network to accept. Carbon dioxide, Water, hydrogen sulfide and particulates must be removed if present. If concentrated and compressed it can also be used in vehicle transportation.
  • Compressed biogas is becoming widely used in Sweden, Switzerland and Germany. A biogas-powered train has been in service in Sweden since 2005. Bates, an inventor, lived in Devon, UK, modified his car to run on biogas. A short documentary film called "Sweet as a Nut" in 1974, talks through the simple process and benefits of running a car on biogas, at which point he had run his car for 17 years on gas he had produced by processing pig manure. The conversion was simply made with an adapter attached to the combustion engine. Solid Biomass Solid biomass is most commonly used directly as a combustible fuel, producing 10-20 MJ/kg of heat. Biomass can also be used to feed bacteria, which can transform it in another form of energy such as hydrogen, using a process called Fermentative hydrogen production. Its forms and sources include wood fuel, the biogenic portion of municipal solid waste, or the unused portion of field crops. Field crops may or may not be grown intentionally as an energy crop, and the remaining plant byproduct used as a fuel. Most types of biomass contain energy. Even cow manure still contains two- thirds of the original energy consumed by the cow. Energy harvesting via a bioreactor is a cost-effective solution to the waste disposal issues faced by the dairy farmer, and can produce enough biogas to run a farm. With current technology, it is not ideally suited for use as a transportation fuel. Most transportation vehicles require power sources with high power density, such as that provided by internal combustion engines. These engines generally require clean burning fuels, which are generally in liquid form, and to a lesser extent, compressed gaseous phase. Liquids are more portable because they can have a high energy density, and they can be pumped, which makes handling easier. Non-transportation applications can usually tolerate the low power-density of external combustion engines, that can run directly on less-expensive solid biomass fuel, for combined heat and power. One type of biomass is wood, which has been used for millennia. Two billion people currently cook every day, and heat their homes in the winter by burning biomass, which is a major contributor to man-made climate change global warming. The black soot that is being carried from Asia to polar ice caps is causing them to melt faster in the summer. In the 19th century, wood-fired steam engines were common, contributing significantly to industrial revolution unhealthy air pollution. Coal is a form of biomass that has been compressed over millennia to produce a non-renewable, highly-polluting fossil fuel. Wood and its byproducts can now be converted through processes such as gasification into biofuels such as woodgas, biogas, methanol or ethanol fuel;
  • although further development may be required to make these methods affordable and practical. Sugar cane residue, wheat chaff, corn cobs and other plant matter can be, and are, burned quite successfully. The net carbon dioxide emissions that are added to the atmosphere by this process are only from the fossil fuel that was consumed to plant, fertilize, harvest and transport the biomass. Processes to harvest biomass from short-rotation trees like poplars and willows and perennial grasses such as switchgrass, phalaris, and miscanthus, require less frequent cultivation and less nitrogen than do typical annual crops. Pelletizing miscanthus and burning it to generate electricity is being studied and may be economically viable. Tidal Energy Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Categories of Tidal Power Tidal power can be classified into three main types:  Tidal stream systems make use of the kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines, in a similar way to windmills that use moving air. This method is gaining in popularity because of the lower cost and lower ecological impact compared to barrages.  Barrages make use of the potential energy in the difference in height (or head) between high and low tides. Barrages are essentially dams across the full width of a tidal estuary, and suffer from very high civil infrastructure costs, a worldwide shortage of viable sites, and environmental issues.  Tidal lagoons, are similar to barrages, but can be constructed as self contained structures, not fully across an estuary, and are claimed to incur much lower cost and impact overall. Furthermore they can be configured to generate continuously which is not the case with barrages. Modern advances in turbine technology may eventually see large amounts of power generated from the ocean, especially tidal currents using the tidal stream designs but also from the major thermal current systems such as the Gulf Stream, which is covered by the more general term marine current power. Tidal stream turbines may be arrayed in high-velocity areas where natural tidal current flows are concentrated such as the west and east coasts of Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, the Bosporus, and numerous sites in Southeast Asia and Australia.
  • Such flows occur almost anywhere where there are entrances to bays and rivers, or between land masses where water currents are concentrated. Tidal Stream Generators A relatively new technology, tidal stream generators draw energy from currents in much the same way as wind turbines. The higher density of water, 832 times the density of air, means that a single generator can provide significant power at low tidal flow velocities (compared with wind speed). Given that power varies with the density of medium and the cube of velocity, it is simple to see that water speeds of nearly one-tenth of the speed of wind provide the same power for the same size of turbine system. However this limits the application in practice to places where the tide moves at speeds of at least 2 knots (1m/s) even close to neap tides. Since tidal stream generators are an immature technology (no commercial scale production facilities are yet routinely supplying power), no standard technology has yet emerged as the clear winner, but a large variety of designs are being experimented with, some very close to large scale deployment. Several prototypes have shown promise with many companies making bold claims, some of which are yet to be independently verified, but they have not operated commercially for extended periods to establish performances and rates of return on investments. Energy calculations Various turbine designs have varying efficiencies and therefore varying power output. If the efficiency of the turbine "Cp" is known the equation below can be used to determine the power output. The energy available from these kinetic systems can be expressed as: • P = Cp x 0.5 x ρ x A x V³ where: Cp is the turbine coefficient of performance P = the power generated (in watts) ρ = the density of the water (seawater is 1025 kg/m³) A = the sweep area of the turbine (in m²) V³ = the velocity of the flow cubed (i.e. V x V x V) Relative to an open turbine in free stream, shrouded turbines are capable of as much as 3 to 4 times the power of the same rotor in open flow, depending on the
  • width of the shroud. However, to measure the efficiency, one must compare the benefits of a larger rotor with the benefits of the shroud. Wave Energy Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work — for example for electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). Wave power is a renewable energy source. Physical concepts Waves are generated by wind passing over the sea: as long as the waves propagate slower than the wind speed just above the waves, there is an energy transfer from the wind to the most energetic waves. Both air pressure differences between the upwind and the lee side of a wave crest, as well as friction on the water surface by the wind shear stress causes the growth of the waves. The wave height increases with increases in (see Ocean surface wave):  wind speed,  time duration of the wind blowing,  fetch — the distance of open water that the wind has blown over, and  water depth (in case of shallow water effects, for water depths less than half the wavelength). In general, large waves are more powerful. Specifically, wave power is determined by wave height, wave speed, wavelength, and water density. Wave size is determined by wind speed and fetch (the distance over which the wind excites the waves) and by the depth and topography of the seafloor (which can focus or disperse the energy of the waves). A given wind speed has a matching practical limit over which time or distance will not produce larger waves. This limit is called a "fully developed sea." Oscillatory motion is highest at the surface and diminishes exponentially with depth. However, for standing waves (clapotis) near a reflecting coast, wave energy is also present as pressure oscillations at great depth, producing microseisms. These pressure fluctuations at greater depth are too small to be interesting from the point of view of wave power. The waves propagate on the ocean surface, and the wave energy is also transported horizontally with the group velocity. The mean transport rate of the wave energy through a vertical plane of unit width, parallel to a wave crest, is called the wave energy flux (or wave power, which must not be confused with the actual power generated by a wave power device).
  • Wave Power Formula In deep water, if the water depth is larger than half the wavelength, the wave energy flux is where • P the wave energy flux per unit wave crest length (kW/m); • Hm0 is the significant wave height (meter), as measured by wave buoys and predicted by wave forecast models. By definition, Hm0 is four times the standard deviation of the water surface elevation; • T is the wave period (second); • ρ is the mass density of the water (kg/m3), and • g is the acceleration by gravity (m/s2). The above formula states that wave power is proportional to the wave period and to the square of the wave height. When the significant wave height is given in meters, and the wave period in seconds, the result is the wave power in kilowatts (kW) per meter wavefront length. Example: Consider moderate ocean swells, in deep water, a few kilometers off a coastline, with a wave height of 3 meters and a wave period of 8 seconds. Using the formula to solve for power, we get Meaning there are 36 kilowatts of power potential per meter of coastline. In major storms, the largest waves offshore are about 15 meters high and have a period of about 15 seconds. According to the above formula, such waves carry about 1.7 MW/m of power across each meter of wavefront. An effective wave power device captures as much as possible of the wave energy flux. As a result the waves will be of lower height in the region behind the wave power device.
  • Wave Energy and Wave Energy Flux In a sea state, the average energy density per unit area of gravity waves on the water surface is proportional to the wave height squared, according to linear wave theory: where E is the mean wave energy density per unit horizontal area (J/m 2), the sum of kinetic and potential energy density per unit horizontal area. The potential energy density is equal to the kinetic energy,[4] both contributing half to the wave energy density E, as can be expected from the equipartition theorem. In ocean waves, surface tension effects are negligible for wavelengths above a few decimeters. As the waves propagate, their energy is transported. The energy transport velocity is the group velocity. As a result, the wave energy flux, through a vertical plane of unit width perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, is equal to: with cg the group velocity (m/s). Due to the dispersion relation for water waves under the action of gravity, the group velocity depends on the wavelength λ, or equivalently, on the wave period T. Further, the dispersion relation is a function of the water depth h. As a result, the group velocity behaves differently in the limits of deep and shallow water, and at intermediate depths Deep water corresponds with a water depth larger than half the wavelength, which is the common situation in the sea and ocean. In deep water, longer period waves propagate faster and transport their energy faster. The deep-water group velocity is half the phase velocity. In shallow water, for wavelengths larger than twenty times the water depth, as found quite often near the coast, the group velocity is equal to the phase velocity.
  • Energy planning software Following are some of the energy planning softwares  Leap  Enpep  Market power  System optimizer Leap LEAP: the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning system, is a Windows-based software system for energy and environmental policy analysis. It is widely used for integrated energy planning and climate change mitigation analysis and has been applied in hundreds of different organizations in over 140 countries. LEAP is developed and supported by the U.S. Center of the Stockholm Environment Institute, a non-profit research institute based at Tufts University in Somerville, Massachusetts. Most recently LEAP has been chosen by 85 countries as the main modeling tool for the climate change mitigation assessments that will be presented to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) LEAP is distributed at no charge to not-for-profit, academic and governmental organizations based in developing countries. Enpep Energy and Power Evaluation Program is distributed for use in over 70 countries. The model provides state-of-the-art capabilities for use in energy policy evaluation, energy pricing studies, assessing energy efficiency and renewable resource potential, assessing overall energy sector development strategies, and analyzing environmental burdens and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options. The European Union contracted an independent review of energy planning and analysis software utilized in Mediterranean countries, which recommended ENPEP as tool of choice for energy planning in the region. Market power Following are the key benefits of the market power  Perform Monte Carlo simulations around uncertain demand, generator availability, hydro conditions, fuel prices, and economic conditions
  •  Evaluate capacity mothballing, expansion, and retirement alternatives based on economic analysis  Utilize market-driven algorithms, adaptive market simulations, flexible data structure, and customized reports  Maximize profits by supporting market-based investment decisions  Evaluate deviations from economic equilibrium supply markets and their inputs System optimizer Following are the advantages of system optimizer  simultaneously consider of generation and transmission expansion alternatives  Develop long-term resource investment plans including type, size, location, and timing of capital projects over a 20-year horizon , Access significant production and costing detail in results  Include a complete range of technologies, including renewables, DSM, retirements, and transmission upgrades, today and in the future  Consider interactions with external markets and between internal regions