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Chemical Bonding
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Chemical Bonding


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  • 1. Chemical Bonding
    By: Sabah Banoo
  • 2. Hemoglobin is a protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and also returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs as well.
  • 3. Blood doping, is the act of boosting the number of red blood cells in circulation in order to enhance the amount of oxygen that is carried into your muscles from your lungs
    Blood Doping
  • 4. They were developed for use in emergencies , for example when there is no time for determining a patients blood-type for transfusion, when there is a high risk of infection, or simply when no blood is available, blood doping comes into play
    Medical Uses Involving Blood Doping
  • 5. Erythropoietin, a hormone produced by both the kidney and liver, increases the rate of red blood cells.
    It prevents anemia (low blood count) by helping you make red blood cells
    Erythropoietin (EPO)
  • 6. Increased blood viscosity (thickness)
    Heart attack
    Pulmonary embolism (a blockage, which can be fat, air or a blood clot, of the pulmonary artery)
    Cerebral embolism (a blockage, formed elsewhere in the body, which becomes lodged in an artery within or leading to the brain)
    Infections and stroke
    Side Effects of Blood Doping
  • 7. Hemoglobin is a good transporter of oxygen because it consists of iron. Oxygen molecules bind to the iron portion of the hemoglobin molecules, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissue. When oxygen bind occur, hemoglobin changes slightly, enhancing its ability to carry more oxygen. Bind to oxygen in the lungs, then release that oxygen in the tissues then bind to carbon dioxide in the tissue and release oxygen to the lungs
    Hemoglobin's Importance in the Transport of Oxygen in Our Bodies
  • 8. Transport of oxygen by hemoglobin a real-life example of chemical bonding?
    Transport of oxygen by hemoglobin is a real life example of chemical bonding, because it is transported by two elements iron and oxygen. Iron is a positively charge atom and oxygen is a negatively charge atom, so they bond together and form chemical bond.
  • 9. Blood doping is carried out in the belief that it increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the circulatory system and thereby improves endurance. The blood may be obtained from the same individual (auto transfusion) or from another individual.
    Blood Doping Used in Sports
  • 10. pH && transport of oxygen by hemoglobin?
    Hemoglobin releases oxygen by H+ ions from the cells, the difference in pH(7.44) of blood is enough to release oxygen from the hemoglobin from the tissue.
  • 11. Autologous-from the same organism.
    Homologous-of the same chemical type, but differing by a fixed increment of an atom or a constant group of atoms.
    What is the Difference Between Autologous and Homologous Blood Doping
  • 12. How is Hemoglobin related to a successful climb to the top of mt.everest?
    Hemoglobin is related to the successful climb to the top of mt.everest, because hemoglobin consists of Oxegon throughout the body so it helps make a successful climb to the top. It increases the oxygen, carrying the capacity of the circulatory system, in order to improve endurance.