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  • E = Estrogen/Estradiol DHT = dihydrotestosterone
  • Trick question – who has more estrogen in their brain, a male or a female?
  • So, we’ve got the same substances working in males – to produce different results!
  • The James-Lange Theory —The view that the physiological changes that occur in response to an event determine the experience of an emotion. Physiological changes (the expression of an emotion) occur before the emotional feeling (the experience of an emotion). We interpret physiological changes to determine how we feel, or how we experience an emotion. The different visceral and somatic responses allow us to experience different emotions.
  • The Cannon-Bard Theory —The view that an event activates the thalamus , which stimulates the cerebral cortex to produce the feeling component (the experience) of the emotion and, at the same time , the rest of the body to produce the expression of the emotion. The emotional expression and experience take place simultaneously by way of thalamic stimulation. Visceral changes, somatic changes, and the emotional experience occur at the same time.
  • Emotional expression and experience are mediated by a system of interconnected forebrain structures known as the Papez circuit (later called the limbic system by MacLean). Emotional expression occurs through the hypothalamus. The cingulate gyrus — the neural area responsible for emotional experience. Three separate circuits in the limbic system; include the amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, septum, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
  • Schachter’s Cognitive Model —The view that if unable to identify the cause of physiological arousal, a person will attribute it to environmental conditions. Because internal arousal may not actually be produced by a particular environment, but just experienced at that time in that particular setting, it is possible to misattribute arousal to the environment when, in reality, something else is responsible. A stimulus causes arousal, and our emotional feeling depends on how we label the stimulus.
  • Ask yourself – what is the significance of the donut???
  • This picture has nothing to do with anything…except maybe toxicity.
  • Seligman

Final+review+bb+spring+10 Final+review+bb+spring+10 Presentation Transcript

  • REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM B&B Spring 2010
  • Bonus Bonanza! What does it all mean?!
    • Lateral hypothalamus (LH) —A hypothalamic area once thought to control hunger and the initiation of eating.
      • Stimulate LH = Eat
      • Lesion LH = Skinny rat
    • Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) —A hypothalamic area once thought to control the inhibition of eating or satiety.
      • Stimulate VMH = Stop Eating
      • Lesion VMH = Fat rat
    Hypothalamus in Hunger and Satiety “Fat Rat, Skinny Rat”
  • Sexual Development: Syndromes
    • Klinefelter syndrome
      • A condition in which a person has an XXY genotype and is phenotypically male, but has small external genitals, sparse pubic and armpit hair, and a tendency to be infertile.
    • Turner syndrome
      • A condition in which a person is born with one X chromosome and no other sex chromosome. The female reproductive system develops only partially.
  • Genetic Sex & Fetal Sexual Differentiation:
    • The brain & body of mammals are initially organized according to a female characteristic plan.
    • Maleness emerges from two distinct influences of testosterone on body tissues.
    Panksepp, 1998 Neurobiology of Love & Lust VERY IMPORTANT Testosterone aromatase 5- α -reductase E  brain masculinization DHT  body masculinization
  • Influence of Estradiol
    • Estradiol —A form of estrogen; a hormone similar to testosterone, thought to be responsible for masculinization of the brain.
    • Estrogen —The female sex hormone.
    • Alpha-fetoprotein —A protein synthesized by the fetal liver and present in the bloodstream of both male and female fetuses that binds to and deactivates circulating estradiol.
      • Testosterone is not affected by alpha-fetoprotein and can enter the brain and masculinize it.
  • Oxytocin & Reproductive Activity
    • Oxytocin —A posterior pituitary hormone that plays a role in reproductive activities, such as sexual arousal, orgasm, nest building, suckling, and bonding with offspring.
    • Researchers speculate that oxytocin facilitates social attachment through its effect on the reward pathways.
  • Sexual Arousal Circuits
    • POA essential for male sexual competence
    • VMH influential in female sexual responsivity
    Panksepp, 1998 Neurobiology of Love & Lust
  • Stops FSH & starts LH LH causes the ruptured follicle to become the C.L. “ liquor folliculi” Progesterone inhibits LH release Growth of endometrium
  • Neurochemical Activation of Adult Sexuality: Male & Female Erotic Hormones in Action!!
    • The male brain has more AVP in the amygdala, septal area, and anterior hypothalamus. AVP helps invigorate persistent male-characteristic behaviors, both aggressive and sexual.
    • AVP is released from the pituitary into the circulation during the anticipatory phase of male sexual arousal that precedes ejaculation.
    • AVP is also increased in females after giving birth, and may pave the way for maternal aggression.
    Panksepp, 1998 Neurobiology of Love & Lust
  • Neurochemical Activation of Adult Sexuality: Male & Female Erotic Hormones in Action!!
    • The female brain contains more oxytocin neurons , and the genetic manufacture of oxytocin is under the control of the ovarian hormone estrogen.
    • Administration of oxytocin directly into the brain can increase both male and female sexuality, but in different ways (Males: promotes erectile capacity & is released into circulation at orgasm; comparable data in females).
    • Oxytocin release is a key candidate for promotion of orgasmic pleasure, and one of the mediators of behavioral inhibition in males following copulation.
    Panksepp, 1998 Neurobiology of Love & Lust
  • Neurochemical Activation :
    • Plasma AVP is elevated during the arousal phase of masturbation but declines rapidly at orgasm.
    • Oxytocin remains low during preliminaries, but is released vigorously during orgasm and remains high for some time thereafter.
    Panksepp, 1998 Neurobiology of Love & Lust
  • Male Sexual Jealousy!!
    • Male “jealous” attachment to a female may be dependent on the fact that AVP was active in his brain during sexual activity.
    • In prairie voles, sexual activity can increase the likelihood that a male will attack potential interlopers.
    • However, if an AVP antagonist is placed into the brain just prior to sexual activity, they do not develop a jealous attitude.
    Panksepp, 1998 Neurobiology of Love & Lust
  • Pheromones & Reproductive Activity
    • Pheromone —A chemical released into the external environment for communication within a species; can be used to signal reproductive readiness.
    • Effects:
      • Lee-Boot effect —in the absence of a male, estrous cycles of female mice are repressed.
      • Whitten effect —exposure to a male mouse or his urine restores cycling in the female.
      • Bruce effect —the presence of a strange male or his urine terminates pregnancy in female mice.
  • Neural Influences in Males
    • Medial basal area —stimulation causes release of gonadotropic-releasing hormones that are transmitted to the anterior pituitary gland, where they trigger release of LH and FSH into the bloodstream.
    • LH affects the Leydig cells of the testes, stimulating synthesis and secretion of testosterone.
    • FSH is responsible for the production of sperm.
  • The Vomeronasal System
    • Normal animals have sexual behavior directed toward appropriate partners.
    • Bilateral damage to the temporal lobe (Kl üver-Bucy syndrome) leads to aberrant sexual behavior in male rhesus monkeys.
      • Monkeys exhibited increased sexual activity by themselves and toward each other.
    • Human males with temporal lobe damage also exhibit a strong sexual response toward inappropriate objects; there is a relationship between temporal lobe dysfunction and fetishism, transvestitism, and voyeurism.
    Neural Influences in Males: The Temporal Lobe
  • 5-Alpha-Reductase Deficiency
    • 5-alpha-reductase deficiency (5-ARD) —A condition in which testosterone is not converted to dihydrotestosterone in a genetic male because of a deficiency of 5-alpha-reductase type 2 enzyme.
      • The external genitals typically have a female appearance at birth.
      • May have surgery early and be raised as a female
      • If the testes descend at puberty, the voice will deepen and the penis enlarges. An individual may change gender roles at this time.
    • Adrenogenital syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia) —Condition resulting from excess androstenedione secretion by adrenal glands in genetically female human.
      • Produces masculinized genitals in women.
      • Money studied 30 young women with adrenogenital syndrome; found that 37% described themselves as bisexual or homosexual, 40% described themselves as heterosexual, the remainder would not discuss their sexual preference. (A German study did not find similar results.)
      • A study by Hines et. al. (2004) found that women with adrenogenital syndrome showed increased male-typical play as children; reduced heterosexual interests as adults.
        • Suggests that early fetal exposure to androstenedione in females may influence their sexual preference.
    Adrenogenital Syndrome
  • Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
    • Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) —A condition in which a defective androgen receptor protein prevents normal testosterone action.
      • Causes a genetic male to develop female external genitals or ambiguous genitals.
      • Effects include feminization of the external genitals at birth, abnormal development of the secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, and infertility.
      • Depending on the extent of the disorder, the individual may adopt the female role satisfactorily or if the condition is mild and the genitals appear more like males, they will generally be raised as males.
  • Chapter 12 The Biology of Emotion and Stress
  • Emotion & The Brain Early investigators believed that the prefrontal lobes functioned as the ‘keeper of the beast within’. -Finger, 1994, page 272
  • Theories of Emotion
    • James-Lange
    • Cannon-Bard
    • Papez-MacLean
    • Schacter-Singer
  • VERY IMPORTANT
  • VERY IMPORTANT
  • The Papez Circuit #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 VERY IMPORTANT
  • Schacter and Singer’s Study of Emotion pg. 359, Intro textbook
    • Participants who were exposed to the “angry” man interpreted their physical arousal as anger
    • Participants who were exposed to the “happy” man interpreted their physical arousal as happiness.
  • VERY IMPORTANT
  • VERY IMPORTANT Add – Premeditated vs. impulsive Aggression. Which one may be treated with anti-convulsant drugs like Phenytoin?
  • Irritable Aggression
    • Irritable aggression —An attack on almost anything without making attempts to escape.
      • Most prevalent, and most studied, form of human aggression.
      • Includes pain-elicited aggression —aggression triggered by a physically or psychologically painful injury.
      • In its mild form, irritable aggression may involve an overt display of annoyance. In extreme cases, it may involve destructive, uncontrollable rage.
  • Figure 12.10 Stimulation of the amygdala and irritable aggression Klein/Thorne: Biological Psychology © 2007 by Worth Publishers The Story of Julia…See page 433-434
  • STRESS
  • The effects of stress on _______ U A little bit for a little while is good… A whole lot for a long time is bad…
  • Biological Reactions to Stressors
    • General adaptation syndrome (GAS) —A pattern of physiological responses to a physiological or psychological stressor; all stressors produce this response.
    • The GAS has three stages:
      • Alarm stage
      • Resistance stage
      • Exhaustion stage
  • The Three Stages of the GAS VERY IMPORTANT
  • Stress and the Immune System
    • Immune system - the system of cells, organs, and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases, infections, and injuries.
      • Negatively affected by stress.
    • Psychoneuroimmunology - the study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thoughts, and behavior on the immune system.
  • Diseases of adaptation
    • Diseases of adaptation —An illness caused by the efforts of the body to cope with stressors. Stress reactions can both cause these illnesses and intensify their severity.
      • Examples include:
        • essential hypertension
        • gastric or peptic ulcers
        • colitis
  • Stress and Neuroplasticity
      • Chronic stress suppresses cellular proliferation and leads to a shortening and loss of dendrites in the hippocampus.
      • Chronic stress prevents the cellular changes that accompany learning and memory.
      • BUT, acute stress enhances the immune system and memory.
  • Coping With Stressors
    • Distress —Negative stress
    • Eustress —Positive stress with beneficial effects.
    • Different people respond differently to the same stressor. Some people have an intense alarm reaction to a stressor that causes only a low or moderate reaction in other people.
    • These responsivity differences influence disease development:
      • The more you respond physiologically to a stressor, the more likely you are to develop a stress-related illness.
  • What can upside-down farm animals teach us about coping?
  • Chapter 13 Language & Lateralization
    • Semantics —The linguistic analysis of the meaning of language.
      • A sentence contains a “doer” (the agent) and a someone or something that is “done-to” (the object).
      • THE PIZZA WAS TOO HOT TO CRY!
    The Meaning of Language
  • VERY IMPORTANT!!
  • Figure 13.15 A picture from the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination Klein/Thorne: Biological Psychology © 2007 by Worth Publishers VERY IMPORTANT
  • Communication Disorders: Nonfluent Aphasias
    • Nonfluent aphasia —Difficulty producing fluent, well-articulated, and self-initiated speech.
    • Three types:
      • Broca’s aphasia
      • Global aphasia
      • Transcortical motor aphasia
  • Figure 13.16 The handwriting of a person with Broca’s aphasia Klein/Thorne: Biological Psychology © 2007 by Worth Publishers Note poor handwriting and agrammatical construction! VERY IMPORTANT
  • Communication Disorders: Fluent Aphasias
    • Fluent aphasia —An inability to understand the language of others and the production of less meaningful speech than normal.
    • Three types:
      • Wernicke’s aphasia
      • Conduction aphasia
      • Anomic aphasia
      • Transcortical sensory aphasia
  • Figure 13.18 The handwriting of a person with Wernicke’s aphasia Klein/Thorne: Biological Psychology © 2007 by Worth Publishers Note the impaired meaning – “Chicken is the other out there.” VERY IMPORTANT
    • Auditory-verbal agnosia —An inability to identify spoken words, but not other auditory stimuli; also referred to as pure word deafness .
      • Does not affect reading comprehension
      • Caused by damage that severs the connections between the primary and secondary auditory cortices bilaterally.
    Other Communicative Disorders: Auditory-Verbal Agnosia
    • Visual-verbal agnosia — An inability to recognize printed words, but not spoken words.
      • Caused by damage that isolates the visual cortex from cortical language areas.
    Other Communicative Disorders: Visual-Verbal Agnosia
  • Chapter 14 The Biology of Learning & Memory
  •  
  • Learned Helplessness
    • Learned helplessness - the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.
  • VERY IMPORTANT
  • The Conditioning (Plasticity) of Neural Circuits
    • Thompson and associates
      • Studied conditioning of the nictitating membrane of the rabbit. WHAT IS THIS?
        • Nictitating membrane: A tough inner eyelid found in many mammals (but not humans), birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.
      • Used a corneal air puff (UCS) and tone (CS)
      • Cerebellar interpositus nucleus was found to be site of the conditioned response
  • Important Info…
    • Sea Slugs & Eric Kandel
      • Habituation: touch siphon with brush
      • Sensitization: shock tail
      • Long Term Potentiation
        • Glutamate NMDA receptors
        • Calcium
        • What is the relationship to the alcoholic blackout?
  • Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus
    • Three pathways involved in LTP
      • Perforant fiber pathway
      • Mossy fiber pathway
      • Schaffer collateral fiber pathway
  • The Role of the Mediodorsal Thalamus: Korsakoff’s Syndrome
    • Loss of declarative rather than procedural memory.
    • Patients are unaware that they don’t remember; make up stories ( confabulation) to fill in the gaps.
    • Patients with medial temporal lobe damage (H.M.) are aware of their memory loss.
    • Emotion is generally intact with medial temporal lobe damage but patients with mediodorsal thalamic damage tend to be emotionally flat and apathetic.
  • Have a Fabulous Summer!!!