1.Destruction of natural resources life and property
Disaster Management Risk Management Crisis management Preparedness Prevention Mitigation Disaster Relief And response Recovery Reconstruction An rehabilitation Development
Components of disaster management (Components strategies aimed at initiative) Preparedness Relief And Response Recovery And Rehabilitation Prevention And Mitigation Community Initiative
HAZARD- occurrence of an earthquake of sufficient Magnitude (hence: Intensity at the epicenter) capable of causing damage to the man-made structures. Seismic Risk = f ( Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, Location ). EXPOSURE - Objects and structures built by man which are exposed to the effects of the ` hazard ‘: buildings, bridges, dams, power plant, life-line structure, etc. VULNERABILITY - Damageability of the ` exposure ' under the action of the hazard; weaker ones being more vulnerable and `risky' than the stronger ones. LOCATION - (i) How far the `exposure' is situated from the Hazard location the nearer ones being in greater danger than those far away, and (ii) Local site conditions which can modify the hazard and/or affect the stability of the exposure, such as topography, soil deposit, water table, etc.
Mechanism of Changing Climatic Pattern Leading to Disaster
It is believed that the additional warming will change the distribution of heat and thus the flow of energy through the climate system. This will, in turn, alter the circulation patterns of the atmosphere and the oceans, and it will also modify the hydrological cycle by which water is circulated between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. As a result,the position of many of the world’s major storm tracks could shift significantly. Secondly, it is expected that a warmer climate would affect the physical processes that generate different types of extreme weather events. A virtually certain outcome of a rise in global temperature is a widespread increase in the amount of water that is moved through the hydrological cycle. Consequently, more moisture will be available in the atmosphere to fall as rain or snow. General circulation models indicate that a warmer
atmosphere will increase the amount of moisture transported into the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere . These models also suggest that the additional precipitation will likely occur in heavier falls rather than in more snow or rain The main concerns about increased flooding result from the fact that a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture, and precipitation is expected to increase as a result. As well, the precipitation is expected to become more intense over smaller areas , which suggests greater flooding problems especially in smaller catchment areas. Conversely, regarding droughts, the concern is that with an increase in heavier rainfall events, the number of dry days between events may increase and drought will become more severe.
Fig 1:Storms per winter Fig 2:Indicator of ENSO intensity (El Nino Southern Oscillation )
Pre Disaster Preventive Measures Long-term measures • Re-framing buildings' codes, guidelines, manuals and byelaws and their strict implementation. Tougher legislation for highly seismic areas. • Incorporating earthquake resistant features in all buildings at high-risk areas. • Making all public utilities like water supply systems, communication networks , electricity lines etc. earthquake-proof. Creating alternative arrangements to reduce damages to infrastructure facilities. • Constructing earthquake-resistant community buildings and buildings (used to gather large groups during or after an earthquake) like schools, dharamshalas , hospitals, prayer halls, etc., especially in seismic zones of moderate to higher intensities. . • Evolving educational curricula in architecture and engineering institutions and technical training in polytechnics and schools to include disaster related topics. Medium term measures • Retrofitting of weak structures in highly seismic zones. • Preparation of disaster related literature in local languages with dos and don'ts for construction. • Getting communities involved in the process of disaster mitigation through education and awareness. • Networking of local NGOs working in the area of disaster management .