Write / Type 5 or 6 brief description about the style.
ROLES OF THE PUPILS
2 nd pupil
Discuss with the 1 st pupil and determine the style your group has chosen.
Think of an interesting style.
Write 5 or 6 brief sentences about the style
3 rd pupil
After you have selected the style, think about the well known characteristics in that style
Write 5 or 6 brief description about the characteristics.
Calligraphy means: The art of fine handwriting; Works in fine handwriting considered as a group.
The original term is from Greek kalligraphiā, means beautiful writing (kalli/ kallos - beautiful and graphiā, -graphy, writing)
Calligraphy is an art of beautiful, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering with pen or brush and ink. It involves the correct formation of characters, the ordering of the various parts, and the harmony of proportions. In the Islamic and Chinese cultures, calligraphy is as highly revered as painting.
In Europe in the 14th – 16th century, two scripts developed that influenced all subsequent handwriting and printing: the roman and italic styles. With the invention of modern printing (1450), calligraphy became increasingly bold and ornamental. Among other calligraphies are the
East Asian calligraphy
EXAMPLES OF CALLIGRAPHY IN DIFFERENT CULTURES
CALLIGRAPHY IN DIFFERENT CULTURES
East Asian calligraphy
East Asian calligraphy
For centuries, the Chinese literati were expected to master the art of calligraphy.
Main article: East Asian calligraphy
Asian calligraphy typically uses ink brushes to write Chinese characters (called Hanzi in Chinese , Hanja in Korean , Kanji in Japanese , and Hán Tự in Vietnamese ). Calligraphy (in Chinese, Shufa 書法 , in Korean , Seoye 書藝 , in Japanese Shodō 書道 , all meaning "the way of writing") is considered an important art in East Asia and the most refined form of East Asian painting .
Calligraphy has also influenced ink and wash painting , which is accomplished using similar tools and techniques. Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia , including sumi-e , a style of Chinese , Korean , and Japanese painting based entirely on calligraphy.
The main categories of Chinese-character calligraphy names:
Early Calligraphy in India is found in old Sanskrit works, usually scriptures and epics of religious significance.
Monastic Buddhist communities had members trained in calligraphy having shared responsibility for duplicating sacred scriptures (Renard 1999: 23-4).
Jaina traders incorporated illustrated manuscripts celebrating Jaina saints. These manuscripts were produced using inexpensive material with fine calligraphy (Mitter 2001: 100).
Ashoka the great was the Mauryan emperor who had the edicts of Ashoka incised on rocks and pillars situated in important centers of his empire. He was a patron of calligraphy and painting.
Indian Calligraphy is write using the sanscrit alphabet, and special pens.
Kalakacharya and the Saka King (Kalakacharya Katha -Manuscript), Prince of Wales Museum , Mumbai . HOME
Islamic calligraphy ( calligraphy in Arabic is Khatt ul-Yad خط اليد ) is an aspect of Islamic art that has evolved alongside the religion of Islam and the Arabic language .
Arabic/Persian calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art ( arabesque ) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.
Instead of recalling something related to the reality of the spoken word, calligraphy for Muslims is a visible expression of the highest art of all, the art of the spiritual world. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam, al- Qur'an , has played an important role in the development and evolution of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an are still active sources for Islamic calligraphy.
Double Page from a Manuscript of the Qur'an, 14th century Egypt or Syria Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper Matted: 22 1/4 x 28 in. (56.5 x 71.1 cm) Los Angeles County Museum of Art,
Historical evolution :
Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Roman alphabet . The alphabet came from the Phoenician , Greek , and Etruscan alphabets . The first Roman alphabet appeared about 600 BC , in Rome . About the first century we can see Roman square capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, and Roman cursive for daily use. This trend continued into the second and third centuries using the Uncial , however writing withdrew to monasteries and was preserved there during the fourth and fifth centuries, when the Roman Empire finally fell and Europe entered the Dark Ages.
At the height of the Roman Empire its power reached as far as Great Britain, when the empire fell, its literary influence remained. The Semi-uncial generated the Irish Semi-uncial, the small Anglo-Saxon. In fact, each region seemed to have develop its own standards following the main monastery of the region (i.e. Merovingian script , Laon script, Luxeuil script , Visigothic script , Beneventan script ) which are mostly cursive and hardly readable.
The raising of the Carolingian Empire encouraged to set a new standardized script, developed by several famous monasteries ( Corbie Abbey , Beauvais ,...) around the eighth century, it's finally the script from Saint Martin de Tours which is set as the new Imperial standard, named the Carolingian script (or "the Caroline"). From the Carolingian powerful Empire, this standard also conquered neighbouring kingdoms.
About the seventh century, the Caroline evolved into the Gothic script , more cursive and for daily use. After the invention of Gutenberg ( 1455 ), the Gutenberg script spread across Europe.
In the sixteenth century, the rediscovery of old Carolingian texts encouraged the creation of the Antiqua script (about 1470). The seventeenth century saw the Batarde script from France, and the eighteenth century saw the English script spread across Europe and world by their books.
From this, hand written Latin calligraphy hasn't really changed. But we can notice that this evolution was accelerated by the printing press (Times New Roman) in the nineteenth century and by computer fonts in the late twentieth century.
Nowadays, computers allow an unskilled user to easily output dozens of scripts, but the result hasn't the same spontaneity that handwritten calligraphy has.
Features of Western Calligraphy and modern Western Calligraphy
Western calligraphy has some special features, such the illumination of the first letter of each page in medieval times, either by making it bigger, colored, and/or more complex.
As Chinese or Arabian calligraphies, western calligraphic script had strict rules and shapes. The quality of a text was according to the regularity of the letters, and the "geometrical" good order of the lines on the pages. Each character had, and still has, a precise stroke order .
Current Modern Western calligraphy have evolved into an art where creativity is paramount, allowing use of highly colored and/or cursive characters, while the sentences are commonly curves or crossing each other to add odd visual effects.
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