Lymphatic And Immune SystemPresentation Transcript
Antigen Antibody Phagocytosis By Tricia Mitchell
An antigen originally defined as any molecule that binds specifically to an antibody, the term now also refers to any molecule or molecular fragment that can be bound by a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and presented to a T-cell receptor. "Self" antigens are usually tolerated by the immune system; whereas "Non-self" antigens are identified as intruders and attacked by the immune system
Immunogen is a specific type of antigen. An immunogen is defined as a substance that is able to provoke an adaptive immune response if injected on its own. Said another way, an immunogen is able to induce an immune response, while an antigen is able to combine with the products of an immune response once they are made. The overlapping concepts of immunogenicity and antigenicity are thereby subtly different.
Exogenous antigens are antigens that have entered the body from the outside, for example by inhalation, intergestion, or injection. The immune system's response to exogenous antigens is often subclinical. By endocytosis or phagocytosis, exogenous antigens are taken into the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and processed into fragments. APCs then present the fragments to T helper cells (CD4) by the use of classII histocompatibility molecules on their surface. Some T cells are specific for the peptide:MHC complex. They become activated and start to secrete cytokines. Cytokines are substances that can activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), antibody-secreting B cells, macrophages, and other particles.
Some antigens start out as exogenous antigens, and later become endogenous (for example, intracellular viruses). Intracellular antigens can be released back into circulation upon the destruction of the infected cell, and become exogenous antigens once again.
Endogenous antigens are antigens that have been generated within previously normal cells as a result of normal cell metabolism, or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with MHC class I molecules. If activated cytotoxic CD8 T cells recognize them, the T cells begin to secrete various toxins that cause the lysis or apoptosis of the infected cell. In order to keep the cytotoxic tolerence (also known as negative selection). Endogenous antigens include xenogenic (heterologous), autologous and idiotypic or allogenic (homologous) antigens.
The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system. Production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.
Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen binding sites, to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a different target, known as anantigen. This infection, binding to a part of a pathogen that it needs to cause an infection.
Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins , abbreviated Ig ) a globulin protiens that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by theimmune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. They are typically made of basic light chains—to form, for example, monomers with one unit, dimers with two units orpentamers with five units. Antibodies are produced by a kind ofwhite blood cells called a plasma cell. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. [
Phagocytosis [from Greek , phago- "eating", -cyte "vessel", -osis a process] is thecelluar process ofphagoctes andprotist of engulfing solid particlesendocytosis involving the vesicular internalization of solid particles, such asbacteria, and is therefore distinct from other forms of endocytosis such as the vesicular internalization of various liquids. Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells, and in the immune system it is a major mechanism used to removepathogen and cell debris. Bacteria, dead tissue cells, and small mineral particles are all examples of objects that may be phagocytosed.
The process is only homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the trichoplax.
ContentsPhagocytosis [from Greek , phago- "eating", -cyte "vessel", -osis a process] is the cellular process of phagocytes and prtist of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome. Phagocytosis is a specific form of endocytosis involving the vesicular internalization of solid particles, such as bacteria, and is therefore distinct from other forms of endocytosis such as the vesicular internalization of various liquids. Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells, and in the immune system it is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris. Bacteria, dead tissue cells, and small mineral particles are all examples of objects that may be phagocytosed.
The process is onlyhomologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of theTrichoplax.