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This was the powerpoint we used for our final biofuels presentation!

This was the powerpoint we used for our final biofuels presentation!

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  • This is the title slide! Alright!
  • -Welcome visitors to KBS, explain what the ROKS program is -Undergraduates from MSU and other universities -We all take the same classes together, separate internships-Each ROKS year has a theme. Ours was “biofuels”-This presentation is the final project for our SOC class, and we’re super glad everyone could make it-Get a quick sampling of who’s attendingKBS Faculty?Community Board Members?Educators?
  • -Tonight, we don’t just want to talk in your ear. We have goals associated with this presentation-We also want to “reeducate” all of you. Chances are you’re either confused or misinformed about biofuels-Networking is a big goal. We’re counting on you to share what you learned here with others-Help us determine if we met our goals by filling out the surveys on the table. Our grades depend on it!
  • -This dry and wordy definition came from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. To put this in layman’s terms…-Biofuels come from the following sources
  • -Animals-Vegetables-But not Rocks(Layman enough for you?)
  • -Often when we hear the word “biofuels” we think of two words: corn and ethanol-Not that simple. Biofuels come from a multitude of sources, including but not limited to those listed here-Almost every living thing has a potential to be turned into biofuel-Not just ethanol either. Other liquid fuels include forms of diesel and butanol, as well as solid biomass pellets, and what we ironically call “synthetic natural gas”
  • -Here is a graph taken from the Energy Information Administration’s website-Out of the 7% of energy we get from renewable sources, about 50% comes from biofuel-More than hydroelectric, which is theoretically more developed and the usage more widespread
  • This slide asks a question!
  • -Most of our renewable sources of energy can only produce one type of energy: electricity-Using these sources for heat and transportation requires a major retooling of engines, furnaces, ect-Biofuels are the only renewable resource we have that has the same applications as fossil fuels-Switching to biofuels on the short term is far less labor and capital intensive
  • -Alright, we have every reason to switch over to biofuels, why hasn’t it happened?-Biofuels have become the ugly stepsister of alternative energies-Opinions on biofuels are just as varied as it’s sources and forms, scientists may support some forms and oppose others-While usage has increased, so has resistance from the media and public-Some of the issues will be addressed later, for now…
  • -Yet another title slide!-Say “I promise”
  • -It may surprise you, but we were running out of whales to power lamps in the 1850s-First forms of biofuels were Camphene, which was a mixture of alcohol, turpentine, and camphor oil. Cost 50 cents/gallon, compared to whale oil at 1.30 to 2.50/gallon.-In 1862, a “sin tax” on all forms of alcohol was put in place in an attempt to battle the growing debt from the civil war. Camphene wasn’t an intended target, but was effected all the same-Naturally, people found an alternative. Kerosene became the lamp oil of choice.
  • -Farmers and distillers united in 1906 to repeal the alcohol tax with the help of Theodore Roosevelt. This happened just a few years after he broke up Standard Oil-The first combustion engine was built to run on biofuel by Rudolf Diesel. The Model-T, built by Henry Ford Motor Company, could run on both gasoline and alcohol. Alcohol was then considered to be a “superior” fuel to gasoline by many in the industry-At the end of World War I, there was a huge surplus of crops like corn and cotton, which was hurting the rural economy. The Farm Chemurgic movement, founded by William “Billy” Hale, sought to use these crops in industrial applications for both fuel and textiles. They pushed for legislation that required blending alcohol with conventional gas and offering subsidies to oil companies who’d invest in it.
  • -The Chemurgic movement shifted it’s focus from conventional crops to those better suited for fuel and fiber, like Jersusalem artichokes, sorghum, ect. Farmers were unlikely to make the switch since most had invested their money into machines and systems specifically designed around one type of crop.-New Deal programs like the Agricultural Adjustment Act and Crop Insurance set up grain banks which allowed farmers to adjust their output to meet the demands of the market. This made switching to crops favored by the Chemurgistseven less attractive than before.-Leaded gasoline was the “final nail in biofuel’s coffin”. Gasoline caused a “knock”, which limited the development of faster and more powerful engines. Thomas Midgely, an engineer who worked for General Motors, discovered that adding lead compounds to gasoline eliminated the knock. GM held onto the patents, and the gasoline markets became vertically integrated within the company. They used their market power to pressure dealers into dropping the sale of alcohol, and effectively eliminated biofuel from the market.
  • -Self explanatory
  • -Usage of biofuels went into remission for a solid 70 years. The oil embargo and concerns for the national security risks involved with using foreign oil-Nixon pushed the “Project Independence” act through congress in 1974 with the stated goal of becoming completely energy independent by 1980. While it was unrealistic, this legislation got the ball rolling, and every administration since has had plans for finding alternatives to foreign oil.-The public was growing conscious of the damage that gasoline was dealing to both public health and the environment. Thomas Midgelypublished several studies which lead to the removal of lead additives to gas. There was also public concern growing about acid rain, would could be attributed to sulfur compounds present in fossil fuels.
  • -Research was gaining momentum all around the world as biofuels became promising candidates to replace gas. Work was done using sunflowers in South Africa, and Brazil launched their National Alcohol Program in 1975 which has proven to be one of the most successful implementations of biofuels in restructuring a national fuel market.-Regulations passed by the Clinton Administration in the 1990s set new standards to lower sulfur and GHG emissions. Biofuels lack the sulfur compounds that can cause acid rain, and the emissions from burning the fuel contain less GHGs.-Many reasons why biofuels were popular in the earlier part of the century were being considered, like energy security and revitalizing our agricultural communities.
  • -Flex-fuel car sales have been steadily increasing. Where only a quarter of a million flex-fuel cars were sold in 2006, the number jumped to 1.8 million cars sold in 2007, which equals about 1.1% of all cars sold.-Our output of ethanol is six times what it was just ten years ago. We’ve also tripled the number of processing plants now in use.-We surpassed Brazil in ethanol production in 2006. However, we aren’t exporting any yet. All ethanol currently produced is still consumed domestically.
  • -The world debit crisis has driven oil prices down which has slowed down ethanol production. Some biofuel companies have gone bankrupt, and many others hover on the brink.-Numerous studies have been published in the last few years that evaluate the environmental effects of expanding agriculture to accommodate biofuels. Some state that biofuel production may ultimately contribute to GHG emissions through changes in land use.-The media and bloggers have focused their attention on a possible link between the expansion of the biofuel market and famine. A majority of “wall posts”, “tweets”, and other updates state that using biofuels is not unlike “robbing the poor to feed the rich”. While it’s true that studies have been published that suggest biofuels may contribute to famine, our perception of the mechanisms behind it are warped somewhat.
  • -Nearly every political cartoon published about biofuel follows a specific formula: -Malnourished child with dark colored skin and an empty food bowl -Many feature a guy in a business suit, which we can assume is a rich western consumer -A majority of these also feature corn. The U.S. is the only country abroad that uses corn as a major biofuel crop.
  • -The global food crisis doesn’t have a single cause. Many people focus on biofuel production because it’s an easy target. The main causes of hunger are nebulous and hard to control.-Obviously more people means more food consumption, and our rates of production have not risen to match our rise in population-The past 3 years have been devastating on crops worldwide. Droughts, floods, and political instability has driven food production down in many areas, especially in developing countries-Meat consumption is at it’s highest ever around the world, and devoting grain to feedstock for animals results in a net loss of food available-Finally, the high price of fossil fuels are directly contributing to the surge. This is a problem that the production of biofuel aims to solve.
  • -It’s my last slide!-And with that, I’d like to hand things over to Sarah who will be expanding the topic of biofuels in the present
  • This part of the presentation is going to concentrate on biofuels today – I want to tell you a little about renewable bioenergy that is already in use (the kind that you can get at the local gas station) and touch on bioenergy that is forthcoming. I will talk about some of the research being done here at KBS and how it fits into the grand scheme of things. I will also talk about unique uses of the GLBRC sites – I know we have some teachers in the audience today who might be able to appreciate that part.
  • This is a pretty short presentation – about 15 minutes. In that time, here are some of the topics I hope to cover.
  • First of all, I want to start off with this quote from an issue of Scientific American. There is something special about this quote that may not be readily apparent….
  • This quote is from an article published in 1918! Our search for renewable energies is not new. It has been persisting for almost a century. With technology how it is today, maybe we can finally start to see some real results.
  • Why ARE we, and have we BEEN, interested in renewable resources? We want to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels - gas, oil, coal. We want to reduce our reliance on foreign oil – most of which comes from outside our borders. We want to lower emissions of greenhouse gases – like methane, sulfur, and carbon dioxide. The idea of growing biofuel crops IN ADDITION to food crops also excites farmers.
  • There is a very human dimension to all of these factors – having renewable fuel source is being sustainable - it ensures fuel sources forfuture generations. Having energy independence, or being able to produce all of our own oil, means that the US no longer has to rely on oil from volatile areas (the middle East) – local conflicts cause oil prices to drastically rise and fall. Being independent means more stable. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions takes away gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. As for rural economies… farmers will have more people to grow their crops for, stimulating the agriculture sector.
  • There are some problems with fossil fuels. 1) It’s finite; 2) It’s dirty; 3) We need to get it from other countries.
  • Largely because of coal and petroleum combustion, the amount of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the air today are 35% and 18% higher, respectively, than they were before the industrial era.
  • Largely because of coal and petroleum combustion, the amount of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the air today are 35% and 18% higher, respectively, than they were before the industrial era.
  • Largely because of coal and petroleum combustion, the amount of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the air today are 35% and 18% higher, respectively, than they were before the industrial era.
  • Corn ethanol burns much more cleanly – the emissions are 30% water, and all of the other pollutants are reduced. For many, it is the environmental benefits are most appealing. [Should I have drawbacks after this slide?]
  • Corn ethanol burns much more cleanly – the emissions are 30% water, and all of the other pollutants are reduced. For many, it is the environmental benefits are most appealing. [Should I have drawbacks after this slide?]
  • All of us in this room are coming from a different background– some people came from Detroit, Lansing – even as far away as Washington State. Because of that, I want to frame this in terms of policy that affects all of us.
  • We get a lot of oil from OPEC countries. (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) It’s an oil cartel – agreement between competing companies.
  • The colored sections are non-OPEC countries.
  • 2007, Bush signed the Independence and Security of 2007.
  • Taken right out of the Act: Some goals are to achieve greater energy security and independence, increase production of clean renewable fuels, promote research….. And to protect consumer and increase efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles. This is a step in the right direction!
  • Let’s talk aboutbiofuels you can get today. Two weeks ago, I rented this car – I was driving to a place called Ithaca, NY (which is beautiful) – and of course, had to stop to fill up along the way. Well, when I popped open the little door to pump the gasoline in, I saw this:
  • No E-85. What is E-85 exactly? Some of us know a little bit about It – it relates because it’s a biofuel in use today.
  • Biofuels – Local interest
  • Flex-Fuel Vehicles
  • Flex-Fuel Vehicles
  • Ethanol
  • 1 hectare is about 2.5 acres.
  • The southwestern Brazilian Amazon is one of the world’s largest agricultural frontiers. Native vegetation and pastures are rapidly being converted to heavily mechanized row-crop agriculture, including soybean and corn. Researchers from MBL’s Ecosystems Center and Brown University are studying how regional land cover and land use change affect carbon (CO2) and nitrogen (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere.
  • Brazil – A Case Study
  • Biofuels – Local interest
  • Biofuels – Local interest
  • Biofuels – Local interest
  • Energy Policy
  • Energy Policy
  • Energy Policy
  • Cellulose is basically fibrous plant material.
  • Agricultural wastes are a largely untapped resource. As of now, these agricultural residues are just plowed back into the soil, composted, burned or disposed in landfills.
  • Cellulosic biomass from trees,grasses, or agricultural wastes is harvested and delivered to the biorefinery. Biomassis ground into small, uniform particles. Thermal or chemical pretreatment separatescellulose from other biomass materials and opens up the cellulose surface to enzymatic attack. (3) A mix of enzymes is added to break down cellulose into simple sugars. (4) Microbes produce ethanol by fermenting sugars from cellulose and other biomass carbohydrates. (5) Ethanol is separated from water and other components of the fermentation broth and purified through distillation.
  • Because plants have undergone hundreds of millions of years of evolution to resist breakdown, the major component of plant cell walls, cellulose, is a challenge to convert. Converting it to ethanol is a complex and energy intensive process. Even though scientists know how to convert cellulose to ethanol, research is still being done on how this could be done on a large-scale.

Biofuels For Thought Biofuels For Thought Presentation Transcript

  • Biofuels for Thought:
    Historical, Modern, and Future Perspectives
  • Welcome
    2009 Kellogg Biological Station ROKS Students
    Semester theme: Biofuels
    Our final project for our Integrated Social Sciences Class
  • Our Goals for this Evening
    To present the topic of biofuels in a neutral and informative way.
    To change the current discourse on biofuels
    To facilitate dialogue amongst attendees and create meaningful social networks centered around biofuels
    To totally 4 point this presentation.Hey Geoff! (*Hint hint*)
    • What are Biofuels?
    • A Brief History
    • Media Case Study
    I will discuss:
  • Biofuels in a Nutshell
    Ali David
    ROKS Final Project
    December 2009
  • Bi-o-fu-el[bahy-oh-fyoo-uhl] /baɪoʊ,fyuəl/
    -noun
    “Any fuel standard derived from an organic substance, including but not excluded to starches harvested from agricultural systems, waste from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and residues from processing timber.”
    Definition taken from Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  • Animal
    Vegetable
    Not Rock
  • Biofuels come from a variety of sourcesand in many different forms
    • Corn
    • Switchgrass
    • Miscanthus
    • Algae
    • Used Cooking Oil
    • Manure
    • Whey
    • Forest Residues
    • Ethanol
    • Biodiesel
    • Biobutanol
    • Biomass Pellets
    • Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG)
  • How much of our energy currentlycomes from biofuels?
    Chart taken from Energy Information Administration Website on 11/23/09: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/renew_energy_consump/figure1.html
  • The Million Dollar Question:
    Why are we preferentially using biofuels for our energy needs more than other forms of renewable energy?
  • Biofuels have the same variety of applications as fossil fuels
    Wind, Water, Solar, and other Renewable Sources
    Electricity
    Biofuels
    Electricity, Gas, and Oil for Combustion Engines
    Based on statement given by Fred Mays of the Energy Information Administration
  • Why are we in this current situation?
    Production and use of biofuels have increased dramaticallyworldwide
    Scientific community divided on many core issues
    Public is either uninformed, apathetic, or highly skeptical
  • Looks like it’s time for…
    A Brief History of Biofuels
  • The origins of Biofuels: An early struggle
    1850s-1900s
    Campheneas an alternative whale oil in lamps
    $2.00/gallon tax placed on all alcohol (adjusted for inflation = $42.64)
    Kerosene replaced Camphene as a cheaper fuel source
    Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425
  • Reemergence and the Farm Chemurgic Movement
    1900s – 1930s
    Alcohol tax was repealed in 1906
    Early combustion engines designed to run on both gasoline and alcohol
    Farm Chemurgic Movement: Industrial Applications for surplus crops
    Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425
  • Why didn’t biofuels succeed back then?
    1900s – 1930s
    Mechanization = Less Flexibility
    New Deal programs favored conventionalcrops
    Proliferation of leaded gasoline as an alternative to alcohol
    Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425
  • 40 years of expanding infrastructure…
    1930s – 1970s
    While industry grew at an unprecedented rate in the United States, it was entirely powered by fossil fuel. Little progress or emphasis was placed on biofuel
  • Foreign oil becomes a liability
    1970s –2000s
    1970s oil embargo, formation of OPEC
    Nixon introduces “Project Independence” in 1974
    Other concerns for negative health and environmental effects associated with gasoline
    Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halvorsen K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425
  • How did biofuels make a comeback?
    1970s –2000s
    Research performed in the ’70s and ’80s
    New Regulations introduced in the ’90s: Clean Air Act, Energy Policy Act, EPACT Act
    Renewed interest in rural development and energy security
    Information from DiPardo, J. “Outlook for biomass ethanol production and demand.” Energy Information Administration website. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/features/biomass.pdf
  • The Great Ethanol “Boom”
    2000s-Now
    Flex-fuel cars introduced into the market
    1.6 billion gallons of ethanol in 2000, to 9 billionin 2009
    US is now the world’s leading producer of biofuels
    Information taken from Automotive News Data Center http://www.autonews.com/section/datacenter
    And the Renewable Fuels Association Website http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#A
  • New practices bring new problems
    2000s-Now
    Ethanol boom may have gone “bust”
    Researchers now question environmental effects of ethanol production
    Media/blogosphere focused on negative consequences for developing nations
    Information from the National Biodiesel Board, Science Magazine, Twitter.com, and Wordpress.org
    Wyner, W. T. (2008).“The US Ethanol and Biofuels Boom: Its Origins, Current Status, and Future Prospects” BioScience, 58(7), 646-653.
  • Sidenote: Political Cartoonists aren’t very creative
  • Why are these misleading?
    The sharp rise in global food prices has many contributing factors other than the expansion of biofuel production:
    A rapidly growing population worldwide
    Widespread Crop failures
    People in developing countries consuming more meat
    High prices of oil raise costs of production and shipping
    Information taken from International Food Policy Research Institute Website http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/bp001.pdf
  • Ultimately, decreasing or halting the production of biofuels will not reduce rates of global hunger in a significant way.
  • In Summary…
    Biofuels come from many different sources and in many forms
    We preferentially use biofuel since it has similar applications to fossil fuels
    Biofuels have been in our history for 150 years
    Media has not accurately presented core arguments about biofuels, especially those concerning famine and food prices
  • On to the present…
    • What is corn ethanol?
    • Current usage & policy
    • Pros & Cons
    I will discuss:
  • Corn and Beyond:
    Biofuels in the World Today
    Sara Cole - ROKS Fall 2009
    Kellogg Biological Station
  • Contents
    Some of the things we will cover today:
    • Why are we interested in biofuels?
    • Ethanol vs. fossil fuels
    • What are the current energy goals of the US?
    • What kinds of biofuels are we already using?
    • Unique learning opportunities through research
  • Quote:
    The fuel problem is rapidly getting more serious… It has been found that a mixture of 25% each of gasoline with 50% ethanol works very satisfactorily in our present motors; those proportions correspond fairly well with the output of various ingredients that may be anticipated. This may prove to be the solution of the fuel problem.
    “New Fuels” from Scientific American
  • Quote:
    The fuel problem is rapidly getting more serious… It has been found that a mixture of 25% each of gasoline with 50% ethanol works very satisfactorily in our present motors; those proportions correspond fairly well with the output of various ingredients that may be anticipated. This may prove to be the solution of the fuel problem.
    “New Fuels” from Scientific American
    Published on April 13,1918!
    We have been searching for renewable
    fuel sources for almost 100 years!
  • Why biofuels?
    There are many reasons why we are interested in biofuels:
    • To reduce our dependence on fossil fuels
    • To reduce reliance on foreign oil
    • To lower emissions of greenhouse gases
    • To bring business to rural economies
    Richland, Michigan
  • Why biofuels?
    There are many reasons why we are interested in biofuels:
    • To reduce our dependence on fossil fuels
    • To reduce reliance on foreign oil
    • To lower emissions of greenhouse gases
    • To bring business to rural economies
    Sustainability
    Energy Independence
    Human Health
    Stimulates the local Economy
    Human Dimensions
    Richland, Michigan
  • A Clear Need for Alternative Fuel
  • Fossil Fuels
    Environmental Issues
    Standard emissions from a car powered by gasoline:
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Nitrous oxide
    • Sulfur oxides
    • Nitrogen oxides
    • Hydrocarbons
    Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”
    http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-hidden-cost-of-fossil.html
  • Fossil Fuels
    Environmental Issues
    Standard emissions from a car powered by gasoline:
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Nitrous oxide
    • Sulfur oxides
    • Nitrogen oxides
    • Hydrocarbons
    }
    Heat-trapping gases warm the
    atmosphere
    }
    Contribute to acid rain; causes
    lung irritation, bronchitis, pneumonia
    }
    Reacts with nitrogen oxides to form smog
    Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”
    http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-hidden-cost-of-fossil.html
  • Fossil Fuels
    Environmental Issues
    Carbon dioxide
    Nitrogen oxides
    Sulfur oxides
    Carbon monoxide
    Methane
    Dust, soot, smoke
    Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”
    http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/the-hidden-cost-of-fossil.html
  • Ethanol
    Environmental Issues
    Ethanol is a cleaner burning fuel!
    • Emissions = 35% Oxygen (O2)
    • Ethanol does not contain toxic gasoline components such as benzene, a carcinogen.
    • Ethanol is non-toxic, water soluble, and quickly biodegradable.
    Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”
    University of Nebraska - Lincoln
  • Ethanol
    Environmental Issues
    ... But it is not without social and environmental concerns:
    • How much land will it take to grow that many crops?
    • What happens in cases of water scarcity?
    • Farmers will benefit – but will consumers?
    • How will other countries be affected if companies begin to grow their crops abroad?
    Instead of making a 100% switch to biofuel, it might be better to have it be one of many alternative sources.
    Union of Concerned Scientists - “The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels”
    University of Nebraska - Lincoln
  • Fossil Fuels
    Political Issues
    Most vehicles in the US run on gasoline, which requires crude oil to be made. Where does our oil come from?
    From a different country:
    From within the United States:
    Energy Information Administration
    http://www.eia.doe.gov
  • Fossil Fuels
    Political Issues
    Most vehicles in the US run on gasoline, which requires crude oil to be made. Where does our oil come from?
    From a different country:
    From within the United States:
    35%
    Energy Information Administration
    http://www.eia.doe.gov
  • Fossil Fuels
    Political Issues
    Most vehicles in the US run on gasoline, which requires crude oil to be made. Where does our oil come from?
    From a different country:
    From within the United States:
    65%
    35%
    Energy Information Administration
    http://www.eia.doe.gov
  • Fossil Fuels
    Political Issues
  • Fossil Fuels
    Political Issues
  • Current Energy Policy
    The US Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
    Improving Fuel Economy
    Reducing Oil Dependence
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html
  • Current Energy Policy
    The US Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
    Goals:
    For greater energy independence and security
    To protect consumers
    To increase production of clean renewable fuels
    To increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles
    To promote research on and
    deploy greenhouse gas capture storage options
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html
  • Current Energy Policy
    Will you be affected?
    Major Provisions:
    • Requires the production of 36 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2022
    • Higher car & fuel efficiency standards of 35 MPG for all cars and trucks by 2020
    • A new car & fuel efficiency program for manufacturers and manufacturer’s fleets
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html
  • Current Energy Policy
    Will you be affected?
    Major Provisions:
    • Requires the production of 36 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2022
    • Higher car & fuel efficiency standards of 35 MPG for all cars and trucks by 2020
    • A new car & fuel efficiency program for manufacturers and manufacturer’s fleets
    Maybe if you are buying a car, or if fuel prices go up and it becomes too expensive to drive on gasoline
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html
  • Current Energy Policy
    Will you be affected?
    15 billion from corn ethanol
    Major Provisions:
    • Requires the production of 36 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2022
    • Higher car & fuel efficiency standards of 35 MPG for all cars and trucks by 2020
    • A new car & fuel efficiency program for manufacturers and manufacturer’s fleets
    Maybe if you are buying a car, or if fuel prices go up and it becomes too expensive to drive on gasoline
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/otheranalysis/aeo_2008analysispapers/eisa.html
  • Biofuels already in use today…
  • What is E-85?
    Biofuels Today
    • A blend of 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol
    • About 15% less expensive than gasoline at most gas stations
    • 85% is made from plant matter; renewable source but also 6-20% less fuel efficient (less MPG)
    http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/flexible_fuel.html
  • Who can use E-85?
    Biofuels Today
    • Flex-Fuel Vehicles can fill up with E-85 or gas
    http://www.greencar.com/articles/top-new-flex-fueled-autos-2008.php
    * Highway MPG
  • Who can use E-85?
    Biofuels Today
    • Flex-Fuel Vehicles can fill up with E-85 or gas
    • Already 8 million on the road today!
    http://www.greencar.com/articles/top-new-flex-fueled-autos-2008.php
    * Highway MPG
  • How is ethanol made?
    ç
    Sorghum
    • Ethanol comes mostly from starch and sugar-based crops: corn, wheat, sorghum
    • These crops contain simple sugars, which are processed into fuel through fermentation
    • 90% of ethanol in the United States currently comes from
    corn
  • What land do you use?
    ç
    • Current technology requires 75-112 million hectares of land to reach our energy goals
    180 M ha in current agriculture fields
    240 M ha in range and grasslands
    15 M ha in Crop Reserve Program
    http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/news/eco_news_12_03_07.html
    ROKS 2009 ZOL355 Biofuels Lecture
  • What about other countries?
    Clearing forests for crops= threats to habitat, biodiversity
    ç
    The southwestern Brazilian Amazon is one of the world’s largest agricultural frontiers. Native vegetation and pastures are rapidly being converted to heavily mechanized row-crop agriculture, including soybean and corn.
    Dr. Carlos Eduardo Cerri & Students trace gas emissions from cleared land in MatoGrosso, Brazil
    Brazil
    http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/news/eco_news_12_03_07.html# http://sugarcaneblog.com/2008/10/03/brazil%E2%80%99s-land-reform-biggest-culprit-for-amazon-deforestation/ http://leslietaylor.net/gallery/animals/mammals.htm
  • What about other countries?
    ç
    ?
    Palm Oil is #1 biofuel in Indonesia, but growing it is accompanied by a number of problems
    Indonesia
    “Indonesia’s Biodiversity Will Be Gone Within 30 Years”
    Map: http://www.trfic.msu.edu/products/seasia_products/LUCC/LUCC.html http://intercontinentalcry.org/state-of-the-forest-indonesias-battle-to-save-its-rainforests/ http://www.whatsthatbug.com/2009/03/16/massive-cicada-from-borneo/
  • E-85 stations around the US
  • E-85 stations in Gull Lake area
    Kellogg Biological Station
    .
  • Closest ethanol plant (today)
    The Andersons - Albion, Michigan
  • Biofuels: Current Education
    ç
    • The GK-12 Program
    A great opportunity for local K-12 schools to participate in biofuels research at Kellogg Biological Station!
    • K-12 students use real data and crop fields to learn science – “Inquiry Based” science
    • Emphasis on outdoor education
    • Hosts teacher workshops, research opportunities
    • Eleven school systems currently participate in this program
    • Funded by the National Science Foundation GK-12 (Graduate Fellows in K-12 Education) Program and MSP (Math Science Partnership) Program
  • In sum:
    ç
    • We need an alternative fuel source
    • Biofuels = renewable; provides energy security; generally cleaner than oil
    • Corn ethanol is the most common biofuel today
    • Corn ethanol is not perfect - be sensitive to the environmental issues it presents
    • New technology must be developed – fuel from cellulosic or algal ethanol…?
  • Thank you!
  • Spinning Straw into Biofuel: Cellulosic Ethanol
    Neva Anasovich – ROKS 2009
    Kellogg Biological Station
    • What is cellulosic ethanol?
    • Production
    • Current Research
    I will discuss:
  • What is cellulosic ethanol?
    A biofuel made from glucose (a simple sugar) which is derived from cellulose.
    Cellulose is:
    a major component of all plant cell walls
    the most abundant biological material on earth
  • Sources of Cellulose for Ethanol Production
    Cellulose is available from two major sources:
    Residues
    - Agricultural wastes such as corn stover (non-edible parts of plants)
    - Industrial and municipal solid wastes like paper pulp
    - Forest industrial wastes like sawdust
    Dedicated crops
    - Energy crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus, and hybrid poplars
  • How is it produced?
    1. Harvested and delivered to biorefinery
    2. Pretreated thermally or chemically to soften/partially break down
    3. Broken down into simple sugars by enzymes
    4. Fermented by microbes into ethanol
    5. Separated from water and other components and purified through distillation
    End result is chemically identical to grain ethanol
  • Current Research at KBS!
    ç
    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC)
    The GLBRC, here at Kellogg Biological Station, is a leader in studying the effects of candidate crops on the environment.
    Seeks to answer questions such as:
    - At what market price would farmers start to grow crops for cellulosic biofuels?
    - How will cellulosic biofuel crops affect habitat for wildlife and beneficial insects, water conservation, and soil quality?
    - How much cellulosic ethanol can be produced from various crops?
    http://lter.kbs.msu.edu/maps/images/KBS-GLBRC-Main-Site-lg.gif
  • What are the advantages?
    Cellulose is abundant--wide range of abundant feedstocks
    Agricultural wastes are a low cost feedstock
    Usage of crop residues creates new source of income for farmers from existing acreage
    Lower fuel and carbon dioxide costs than grain crops
    Perennial energy crops prevent soil erosion and increase soil fertility
    Energy crops can be grown on land unsuitable for food crops, thus solving the fuel vs. food debate
  • What is holding us back from using it?
    Difficult to break down and convert to ethanol
    Process is complex, and energy intensive
    Viable technologies do not yet exist
  • What is necessary for its successful implementation?
    Development of technologies for producing cellulosic ethanol at a large, commercial scale
    Mandatory flex-fuel requirement for new vehicles
    Increased nation-wide ethanol pump stations
    • Algae as a biofuel
    • Facilities and Processes
    • The Future
    I will discuss:
  • Pond scum and how it could one day fuel your transportation
    A brief overview of algal biofuels
    Chris Woelk
    ROKS 2009
  • Algal Biofuels
    What are algal biofuels?
    What is produced?
    They are fuels that are derived from algae in oceans, lakes and ponds
    Algae are capable of producing carbohydrates such as starch, glycogen (sugars) and lipids (fats & oils)
  • What common types of algae are used?
    Most algae studied are Chlamydomonasreinhardtii, Volvoxcarteri and the diatom Phaeodactylumtricornutum.
    Recent improvements in technology have allowed for the studying of other cyanobacteria, algae and diatoms.
    Volvox carteri cell courtesy of Cambridge University
  • Inputs: What do you need to put in?
    The utilization of algae requires slightly lesswater than what is needed to grow corn
    8-foldless water than rape seed cultivation on fertilized land
    6-10 foldmore than needed by unfertilized switchgrass
    Matt Cardy/Getty Images
    Rapeseed plants growing on a farm near Tetbury, England.
    Rape seed, corn and soybeans are among the sources for the current generation of biofuels.
  • More Specific Inputs
    The natural water source for algae is seawater which can also be substituted with nutrient-laden agricultural runoff, while terrestrial biofuel crops require freshwater
    The high concentrations of salt needed for algae could be obtained from the brine that is currently discarded during the desalination of seawater
    Courtesy of Enegis LLC
  • Methods for growing algae
    Courtesy of Getty Images
    Algae can be cultivated in several ways:
    On an open-pond system where the algae can be skimmed off the waters surface and then harvested
    In a clear tube/tank (often referred to as a bioreactor) with carbon dioxide (CO2)filtered into the reservoir as a nutrient source where, after sufficient growth, the biomass and secreted lipids can be harvested
  • Lipids
    Lipids contain twice the energy stored per carbon atom when compared to carbohydrates
    This translates into a twofold increase in fuel energy content
    Courtesy of algaeforbiofuels.com
  • Benefits of Algal Biofuels
    Little to no land-space is necessary
    No need for freshwater
    No fertilization
    Algae can be cultivated indoors
    Fuel derived from algae produces little to no emissions in comparison to gasoline
    Image courtesy of agmrc.org
  • Implementation
    Algae have been cultivated on a commercial basis for decades now
    They have been used in the production of high value compounds for food, feed, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products
    Bioreactor designs need to be more affordable. They can be closed tubes, plates or bags made of plastics, glass or other transparent materials
    Currently there are no bioreactors in place that could be used practically for the mass production of algae
    Algae need only light, nutrients and carbon dioxide
    CO2used for driving photosynthesis in algae can be taken from many CO2 emitting sources such as smoke stacks on powerplants
  • Example bioreactors
    High density vertical bioreactor bags
    (Photo courtesy of Global Green Solutions)
    Photo-bioreactor composed of horizontal
    Closed-growth chambers
    (Photo courtesy of Solix Biofuels, Inc.)
    YouTube - Making fuel out of algae
  • Uses for algae
    Lipids (oils) less dense than algal biomass
    and water
    (Courtesy of Solix Biofuels, Inc)
  • Uses for Algae
    Biocrude – untreated oil extracted from algal biomass, also produced from soy, palm and canola
    Green Diesel – renewable diesel produced by removing oxygen atoms from the biocrude
    Biodiesel – created by chemicallyconverting lipids (fats/oils) so they can be blended with traditional diesel to make biodiesel at a lower cost than green diesel
    Bioethanol – produces ethanol that can be used in FlexFuel and E85 ready vehicles.
    Biobutanol – a different type of automotive fuel, it is 10% less dense than gasoline and can be used in place of regular unleaded fuels
    Image courtesy of the New York Times
  • Additional Uses
    Biojet – Jet fuel produced from biocrude, equivalent to jet fuel and jet engines do not require modification to run on 100% biojet
    Co-products – comprised of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, it is roughly 40% oil depending on the algal species being used
    Lipids can be used in biofuel production and to make fibers and polymers
    Carbohydrates can be used to make biodegradable plastics, polymers and coatings
    Proteins can be used for animal and fish feed or pesticides
    Image courtesy of MSNBC depicts a Continental Airlines 737 that ran one engine on a 50:50 mixture of jet fuel and biojet
    Image courtesy of Sapphire Energy depicting a hose containing a 91 octane fuel (Jet fuel) from algae
  • Costs
    The current (2009) price of algal biomass is currently traded for more than 5000€/ton (roughly $7500)
    This is due to the perceived nutritional value of biomass produced for animal feed and the small production scale
    Most algae produced is skimmedfrom open ponds which is expensive and inefficient
    High costs for classical photo-bioreactor designs
    As demand increases and technology improves these costs can be driven down
    Image courtesy of heatusa.com
  • Leading research facilities
    An aerial view of a open-pondalgae farm being used by PetroAlgae
    A landscape view of PetroAlgae’s most recent field site in Melbourne, Florida
  • Global Green Solutions Inc.
    Known for converting waste biomass into low coststeam for industrial purposes and also to cogenerate electricity.
    It is also a leader in algae research for biofuel use
    Image of the homepage for Global Green Solutions Inc.www.globalgreensolutionsinc.com
  • Large scale and an efficient lab experiment
    Algae are grown in areas with lots of sunlight and at moderate temperatures
    To make profit, a business would need to have a significant amount of land to lay out growth chambers, or have engineers create a multilevel building that allows equal lighting to all bioreactors.
    What makes them successful?
    Courtesy of University of Dayton Research Institute
  • Places for improvement
    Algal growth depends mostly on the amount of light and quality of light that reaches chlorophyll within the cells of the algae
    The best bioreactors have the highest surface area and allow the most light in or contain an internal light source
    Utilize methods to reduceauxilary energy demands
    Long term research
    Efficient mixing
    Image courtesy of biofuelsdigest.com depicting a proposed Eco-Pod addition to Filene’s in Boston
  • What needs to happen for its successful implementation (improvements)?
    There needs to be technological developments to prevent contamination in open-air systems like ponds
    For closed systems a consistent, cheap source of sterile CO₂ needs to be found and implemented.
    Image courtesy of ozones.com
  • Globally
    Brazil (sugar cane, jatropha) Malaysia (canola oil)
    Germany (rape seed) Indonesia (palm oil)
    United States (corn oil)
  • The European Commission confirmed a target of 10 percent biofuels; and, proposed that the fuels must be sustainable, not just renewable.
    Biodiesel Pump in Europe
  • According to the Nikkei Business Daily (via Tradingmarkets.com), Japan’s Suzuki Motor Company will begin selling cars that run completely on 100% ethanol in the US and Brazil by 2010.
    Suzuki
  • Special Thanks To…
    Gwen Pearson and Kay Gross, Staff at KBS
    Geoff Habron, our professor
    Steve Hamilton, Susann Sippel, And Aaron McCright, our other professors
    Researchers at the LTER
    Dennis Pennington from MSU Extension
    Researchers at the GLBRC
    The Staff of the Conference Center