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E:\Final Exam\Final Exam Review Condensed

  1. 1. Final Exam Review<br />Art Appreciation 2010<br />
  2. 2. ART 1101<br />Chapter 6<br />Drawing<br />
  3. 3. Drawing Surfaces<br />Paper<br />Cave walls<br />Pottery<br />Papyrus<br />Parchment<br />Silk<br />Digital realms<br />Walls<br />
  4. 4. Most common drawing surface?<br />Most long-lasting drawing surface?<br />Rendering?<br />Graphite?<br />Media?<br />Techniques ?<br />
  5. 5. Drawing materials<br />Pencil *- also called graphite<br />Metalpoint*- a wire scratches across surface<br />Charcoal *-made from burned wood<br />Pastel *- color media, comes in crayon for<br />Brush and Ink *<br />Most common drawing media used in asia<br />Mixed media<br />Using more than one media in an artwork<br />
  6. 6. This is contour line drawing, its basically an outline, all of the lines are of the same thickness.<br />
  7. 7. This is a line variation drawing, it is basically an outline, it uses thinner lines to show where the light would hit the subject and thicker lines to show where shadow would be.<br />
  8. 8. A rendered drawing:it has value changes from light to dark<br />
  9. 9. This is a stippled drawing, it uses dots to show value changes from dark to light by making the dots closer together or farther apart. <br />
  10. 10. This is a cross-hatched drawing.It is a rendered drawing, it shows value changes from dark to light.<br />
  11. 11. Art Appreciation<br />Chapter 7<br />Painting<br />
  12. 12. painting terms<br />*Pigment – powdered color<br />Vehicle – a liquid that holds pigment together<br />Binder – helps the paint to stick to the surface<br />*Support – the painting surface<br />Primer – a preliminary coating to prepare the surface for painting<br />Gesso – mixture of white pigment and glue used to seal a surface to prepare for painting<br />*Medium – has multiple meanings in art<br />1. the material used to make art (oil, charcoal, clay, glass)<br />2. standard category of art (sculpture, painting, ceramics)<br />3. a liquid used to make paint, also used to thin paint (linseed oil)<br />
  13. 13. Painting media<br />Encaustic<br />Fresco<br />Tempera<br />Oil<br />Watercolor<br />Gouache<br />Acrylic<br />Mixed media<br />
  14. 14. Encaustic<br />Pigment is mixed with wax<br />Once the painting is complete, the artist brings the heat source close to the surface to fuse the colors (burning in)<br />Used in ancient Greece and in Roman-Egyptian portraiture<br />
  15. 15. Fayum mummy portrait,encausticYoung Woman with a Gold Pectoral,Roman Egypt, 2nd century<br />
  16. 16. Fresco<br />Pigment is mixed with water and applied to plaster, usually a wall<br />True fresco is applied to wet lime plaster<br />Used for large scale murals since ancient times<br />
  17. 17. Tempera<br />Sometimes called egg tempera<br />The vehicle for it is an emulsion; can be oil, fat, wax, resin, casein, but most famously egg yolk<br />Retains the brilliance of its colors for centuries<br />
  18. 18. oil<br />Pigment compounded with oil, usually linseed oil<br />Allowed artists to switch from painting on wood panels to canvas<br />Paint can be used in various thicknesses<br />Glazes - thin, translucent veils of color<br />Impasto – very thick paint, often strait from the tube<br />Dries VERY slowly<br />
  19. 19. Starry Night, detail<br />Impasto – <br />A technique where paint is applied so thick that it looks like frosting on a cake<br />
  20. 20. Sfumato– a way of layering glazes of oil paints to produce a translucent, smoky effect<br />
  21. 21. Girl Arranging Her Hair, Berthe Morisot, 1885-86, oil on canvasbroken color - a technique where the painting is made up of individual strokes rather than a smooth blended field of color<br />
  22. 22. La Grande Odalisque, Ingres, 1814, oil on canvas<br />
  23. 23. Grisaille – painting technique where a monochromatic underpainting utilizing the desired value changes is produced before adding colored glazes in layers to float over it<br />This is a computerized grisaille version of the Ingres masterpiece<br />
  24. 24. Linda Nochlin – art historian (p. 173)<br />Wrote “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” 1971, ArtNews<br />Her work is thought to be the impetus for the Feminist Art movement in the 1970s.<br />
  25. 25. Watercolor<br />Pigment using gum arabic as a binder<br />The most common support is paper<br />
  26. 26. Gouache<br />Watercolor with an inert white pigment added<br />Gouache is opaque (watercolor is transparent)<br />Pronounced go – osh<br />
  27. 27. Acrylic <br />Paint made from synthetic plastic resin<br />A more proper name would be polymer paints<br />
  28. 28. Collage<br />An innovation of Picasso and Braque, after Cubism; they called it “synthetic cubism”<br />Collage is a french word meaning “pasting” or “gluing”<br />
  29. 29. Art Appreciation<br />Chapter 8<br />Prints<br />
  30. 30. 4 basic methods<br />Relief<br />Intaglio<br />Lithography<br />Screenprinting<br />
  31. 31. What is a print?<br />Courtesy of moma<br />http://www.moma.org/interactives/projects/2001/whatisaprint/print.html<br />
  32. 32. Relief<br />The background image is cut away<br />The raised areas hold ink <br />Woodcut<br />Wood engraving<br />
  33. 33. Edvard Munch, woodcut<br />
  34. 34. Hiroshige from his series The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō.<br />**European artists at the end of the 19th century were highly influenced by Japanese woodcut prints<br />
  35. 35. Wood engraving<br />Uses the end grain of the board<br />Uses harder wood<br />More highly detailed<br />Quick video showing fine detail<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzZ26udfPs0&feature=player_embedded<br />
  36. 36. intaglio<br />Refers to 5 techniques<br />Engraving<br />Drypoint<br />Mezzotint<br />Etching<br />Aquatint<br />*Opposite of relief, the ink goes into the grooves on the surface.<br />*Artist makes lines or grooves into a metal plate using a sharp tool or acid<br />
  37. 37. Intaglio demo<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNKn4PORGBI<br />MC Escher Mezzotint<br />http://www.mcescher.com/Film/Eschermezotintprint.mpg<br />Lithography demo<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHw5_1Hopsc<br />Screenprinting demo<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wogKeYH2wEE<br />
  38. 38. engraving<br />Began from the practice of incising designs into armor<br />
  39. 39. Etching<br />The entire plate is covered with a ground, like beeswax or asphalt<br />The artist draws through the ground on the plate using an etching needle<br />The entire plate is dipped into acid<br />Acid eats away the lines<br />The ground is removed<br />The plate is inked and printed <br />
  40. 40. etching<br />
  41. 41. lithography<br />Lithography artists draw onto smooth limestone surface using a greasy material<br />It works based on the idea that oil and water do not mix<br />
  42. 42. La Goulue, Toulouse-Lautrec, lithograph poster,use multiple stones to reproduce images in color<br />
  43. 43. Alphonse Mucha, Fruit, 1897, lithogrph<br />
  44. 44. Nestle’s Food for Infants, Mucha, lithograph, 1897<br />
  45. 45. Hand with Reflecting Sphere,Escher, 1935, lithograph <br />
  46. 46. Screenprinting<br />The artist uses a screen<br />Also called Serigraphy<br />They block out certain areas that are not meant to be printed<br />Place the screen over paper and force ink thru the screen using a squegee<br />
  47. 47. Chapter 9<br />Camera Arts<br />
  48. 48. 3 types of camera art: <br />photography, film, and video<br />Daguerreotype – first photographic process, uses a camera obscura and a copper plate coated with silver iodide, required a very long exposure time<br />Landscape photography was popular because it showed places that most people couldn’t get to<br />Photojournalism – recording newsworthy events<br />The first important conflict to be documented in photography was the American Civil War.<br />Pure photography – did not crop or manipulate images in any way<br />Ansel Adams – landscape photographer<br />Alfred Stieglitz – pure photographer<br />Dorothea Lange – photojournalist<br />Charlie Chaplin - filmaker<br />
  49. 49. Film is an illusion of motion in a still image, 24 frames per second.<br />An auteur is an “author” of a film. <br />Orson Welles, Citizen Kane, 1941. Considered to be one of the greatest American film of all time.<br />Animation means “bringing to life”<br />Video art is about mass communication<br />
  50. 50. Chapter 10<br />Graphic design and illustration<br />
  51. 51. <ul><li>Graphic design</li></ul>the goal is communication of a specific message<br />Usually trying to sell something or give directions<br />
  52. 52. How old is graphic design art?<br />Graphic art began with <br />Written languages<br />Symbols<br />Industrial Revolution, 18th-19th centuries<br />Increased commercial applications<br />Prior, most products were local <br />After, mass manufacturing<br />
  53. 53. symbols<br />Most basic level of communication<br />Letters are symbols<br />Ω ЖΦШМ<br />Even arrows had to be developed <br />-> Δ<br />
  54. 54. typography<br />The arrangement and appearance of letters<br />
  55. 55. layout<br />Blueprint for the composition of an extended work such as a book or magazine <br />
  56. 56. posters/ads<br />Color lithography (19th century) brought about eye-catching posters<br />Color wasn’t practical in magazines or newspapers<br />Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec<br />Flat simplified forms influenced by Japanese prints<br />Immediately collector’s items<br />
  57. 57. Toulouse-Lautrec<br />
  58. 58. illustration<br />An image created to accompany words<br />Books - Poems<br />Magazines - Newspapers<br />
  59. 59. Norman Rockwelldid about 6 covers a year for The Saturday evening Post for over 40 yrs.<br />He did 322 covers for TSEP<br />
  60. 60. Chapter 11<br />Sculpture and Installation<br />
  61. 61. Sculpture<br />Sculpture is 3D, the third dimension is depth<br />Installation <br />incorporates the entire exhibit space<br />
  62. 62. 4 basic methods for making sculpture<br />Modeling<br /><ul><li>Additive process</li></ul>Assembling<br /><ul><li>Additive process</li></ul>Carving<br /><ul><li>Subtractive process</li></ul>Casting<br /><ul><li>Liquid is poured into a mold to harden</li></li></ul><li>Modeling<br />The most direct sculpture method<br />The pliable material is shaped and formed with hands and tools<br />
  63. 63. Casting<br />Very indirect method of forming sculpture<br />Liquid is poured into a mold made of the original<br />
  64. 64. Ife, bronze casting from Yoruba, 13th century<br />
  65. 65. lost-wax casting<br />Be able to describe the process!!<br />Textbook, pg 254<br />http://www.andresteadsculpture.com/casting.php<br />
  66. 66. carving<br />A directtechnique<br />Sculptor begins with a block of material<br />
  67. 67. assembling<br />Assemblage – Various individual parts can be placed on or near each other<br />Sometimes this art is called “found object”<br />
  68. 68. Sculpture<br />Low relief – the subject projects very slightly from the background<br />A coin, carved doors, an Egyptian tomb wall<br />High relief – the subject projects much more boldly from the background<br />Projects at least half its depth<br />sculpture “in the round” – the viewer can walk completely around the sculpture, the view from all sides is interesting<br />Sometimes there is still a front and back<br />
  69. 69. earthwork<br />Maybe …<br />Name a famous earthwork<br />The serpent mound<br />Cahokia mounds<br />Spiral Jetty<br />The Nasca Lines<br />
  70. 70. Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970 - present<br />
  71. 71. Chapter 12Crafts<br />
  72. 72. ESSAY QUESTION<br />Something along the lines of comparing and contrasting the terms art & craft<br />Do you consider craft a fine art, make the argument that it is or isn’t<br />Use specific examples like Voulkos and Chicago, see the last several slides for more craft/art information<br />3 paragraph+ essay with an intro a body and a conclusion<br />
  73. 73. CRAFT<br />Most crafts have roots in the middle ages, when a craftsman had a trade – potter, glassblower, woodworker, weaver.<br />The word “craft” alludes to expert work done by hand.<br />“Craft” and “Art” originally had the same meaning. During the Renaissance, painting, sculpture and architecture were elevated to a different level.<br />Thus much of art history before the Renaissance includes craft.<br />
  74. 74. Craft vs Art<br />Western cultures (Europe & US) have Fine Art and Craft in separate categories.<br />Often the dividing line is function.<br />Many other cultures around the world attribute artistic meaning to craft objects.<br />Often fine art objects like sculpture have a spiritual function.<br />There is no definite division between art and craft, nor should there be.<br />Labels are a convenience for talking about art.<br />
  75. 75. Traditional Materials of Craft<br />Ceramics <br />Glass<br />Metal<br />Wood<br />Fiber<br />
  76. 76. Maria Martinez, Blackware<br />A ceramic artist<br />Ceramic art can be formed by hand-building, wheel-throwing or casting<br />
  77. 77. Magdalene Odundo, Vessel Series II asymmetrical, no.1, 2005, red clay, carbonized and multi-fired<br />Bodily terms are used to describe vessels<br />Mouth<br />Neck<br />Shoulder<br />Body<br />Foot<br />
  78. 78. Chinese Longquan celadon, Song Dynasty, 13th centuryceladon glaze was invented in China to mimic Jade<br />
  79. 79. Glass<br />Can be formed in many ways<br />Blown glass<br />Fused glass, fired in a kiln<br />Various types of molds<br />Cutting<br />sandblasting<br />
  80. 80. Dale Chihuly<br />
  81. 81. Metal<br />Types of metals<br />Copper - Silver<br />Brass - Gold<br />Bronze - Steel<br />Nickel - Iron<br />Can be shaped in many ways<br />Casting - Forging<br />Cutting - Hammering<br />Soldering <br />Can be decorated in many ways<br />Cloissone<br />Chasing & Repoussé<br />
  82. 82. Modern Chinese cloisonné enamel<br />Understand that it is made by attaching metal wires to a piece of metal which is filled in with enamel then fired.<br />
  83. 83. Detail showing cloisons before enameling. Wire is soldered to the piece to separate each color<br />
  84. 84. This slide shows a girl meticulously adding frit to areas, the piece will be kiln fired, then ground and polished.<br />
  85. 85. Lidded copper-body cloisonné enamel vase with a dragon motif, Probably from Nagoya, it is dated to 1880-1890<br />
  86. 86. Chasing and repoussé - high relief<br />Understand that the metal is shaped by tools and hammering on either side of the metal.<br />
  87. 87. The underside of the ginko leaf relief<br />
  88. 88. Fiber<br />Also known as textiles<br />Construction methods are unique to itself<br />Weaving – the general method for all textiles<br />Warp – held taut <br />Weft – is interwoven through the warp<br />Tapestry – a type of weaving<br />
  89. 89. The Hunt of the Unicorn, 1475-1500<br />A series of 7 tapestry panels from the 15th century<br />
  90. 90. The Hunters Enter the Woods<br />
  91. 91. Gee’s Bend Quilts <br />A rural community near Selma, Alabama<br />Was once the site of cotton plantations<br />The unique quilting style has been practiced for at least 6 generations<br />
  92. 92. Women of Gee's Bend, Alabama, quilting, 2005<br />
  93. 93. Jade and Lacquer<br />Jade – a mineral stone of either nephrite or jadeite<br />Color from white to brown to green<br />Found mostly in the East, Central Asia & Central America<br />Prized in China for 6000 yrs<br />Lacquer – made from the sap of a tree that originally only grew in China, it is brushed over wood in very thin coats<br />Hardens to a smooth glasslike finish<br />Demands patience, can take 30 coats to build up a substantial layer, must fully dry between coats<br />
  94. 94. Blurring the Boundaries between Art and Craft<br />Taking something functional and making it nonfunctional gives it a whole new meaning<br />Voulkos’s Pottery broke this barrier<br />Using craft methods to make Fine Art elevates the notion of craft<br />Chicago’s The Dinner Party used traditional “womens work” in multiple ways to create a fine art installation. <br />
  95. 95. Peter Voulkos,Noodle, 1996,stoneware sculpture<br />
  96. 96. Peter Voulkos plates, 1981<br />
  97. 97. Peter Voulkos is on the left.<br />
  98. 98. The Dinner Party, Judy Chicago, 1979<br />http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/dinner_party/place_settings/webtour/<br />The table has 39 place settings to honor influential women in history.<br />An additional 999 important women’s names are written on the tile floor.<br />
  99. 99.
  100. 100. Mary Wollstonecraft and Sojourner Truth place settings<br />
  101. 101. The Virginia Woolf setting<br />
  102. 102. Judy Chicago with her masterpiece.<br />
  103. 103. Blurring the lines between high brow and low brow art:<br />High art<br />Painting<br />Sculpture<br />Fine photography<br />Low art<br />Pottery<br />Comic books<br />Advertisements<br />
  104. 104. End of Final Exam Review<br />200 points<br />Multiple choice<br />Matching<br />1 Long Essay question<br />1 Listing Question<br />1 Short Answer Question<br />