Drawing Surfaces Paper Cave walls Pottery Papyrus Parchment Silk Digital realms Walls
Most common drawing surface? Most long-lasting drawing surface? Rendering? Graphite? Media? Techniques ?
Drawing materials Pencil *- also called graphite Metalpoint*- a wire scratches across surface Charcoal *-made from burned wood Pastel *- color media, comes in crayon for Brush and Ink * Most common drawing media used in asia Mixed media Using more than one media in an artwork
This is contour line drawing, its basically an outline, all of the lines are of the same thickness.
This is a line variation drawing, it is basically an outline, it uses thinner lines to show where the light would hit the subject and thicker lines to show where shadow would be.
A rendered drawing:it has value changes from light to dark
This is a stippled drawing, it uses dots to show value changes from dark to light by making the dots closer together or farther apart.
This is a cross-hatched drawing.It is a rendered drawing, it shows value changes from dark to light.
Art Appreciation Chapter 7 Painting
painting terms *Pigment – powdered color Vehicle – a liquid that holds pigment together Binder – helps the paint to stick to the surface *Support – the painting surface Primer – a preliminary coating to prepare the surface for painting Gesso – mixture of white pigment and glue used to seal a surface to prepare for painting *Medium – has multiple meanings in art 1. the material used to make art (oil, charcoal, clay, glass) 2. standard category of art (sculpture, painting, ceramics) 3. a liquid used to make paint, also used to thin paint (linseed oil)
Painting media Encaustic Fresco Tempera Oil Watercolor Gouache Acrylic Mixed media
Encaustic Pigment is mixed with wax Once the painting is complete, the artist brings the heat source close to the surface to fuse the colors (burning in) Used in ancient Greece and in Roman-Egyptian portraiture
Fayum mummy portrait,encausticYoung Woman with a Gold Pectoral,Roman Egypt, 2nd century
Fresco Pigment is mixed with water and applied to plaster, usually a wall True fresco is applied to wet lime plaster Used for large scale murals since ancient times
Tempera Sometimes called egg tempera The vehicle for it is an emulsion; can be oil, fat, wax, resin, casein, but most famously egg yolk Retains the brilliance of its colors for centuries
oil Pigment compounded with oil, usually linseed oil Allowed artists to switch from painting on wood panels to canvas Paint can be used in various thicknesses Glazes - thin, translucent veils of color Impasto – very thick paint, often strait from the tube Dries VERY slowly
Starry Night, detail Impasto – A technique where paint is applied so thick that it looks like frosting on a cake
Sfumato– a way of layering glazes of oil paints to produce a translucent, smoky effect
Girl Arranging Her Hair, Berthe Morisot, 1885-86, oil on canvasbroken color - a technique where the painting is made up of individual strokes rather than a smooth blended field of color
La Grande Odalisque, Ingres, 1814, oil on canvas
Grisaille – painting technique where a monochromatic underpainting utilizing the desired value changes is produced before adding colored glazes in layers to float over it This is a computerized grisaille version of the Ingres masterpiece
Linda Nochlin – art historian (p. 173) Wrote “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” 1971, ArtNews Her work is thought to be the impetus for the Feminist Art movement in the 1970s.
Watercolor Pigment using gum arabic as a binder The most common support is paper
Gouache Watercolor with an inert white pigment added Gouache is opaque (watercolor is transparent) Pronounced go – osh
Acrylic Paint made from synthetic plastic resin A more proper name would be polymer paints
Collage An innovation of Picasso and Braque, after Cubism; they called it “synthetic cubism” Collage is a french word meaning “pasting” or “gluing”
What is a print? Courtesy of moma http://www.moma.org/interactives/projects/2001/whatisaprint/print.html
Relief The background image is cut away The raised areas hold ink Woodcut Wood engraving
Edvard Munch, woodcut
Hiroshige from his series The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō. **European artists at the end of the 19th century were highly influenced by Japanese woodcut prints
Wood engraving Uses the end grain of the board Uses harder wood More highly detailed Quick video showing fine detail http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzZ26udfPs0&feature=player_embedded
intaglio Refers to 5 techniques Engraving Drypoint Mezzotint Etching Aquatint *Opposite of relief, the ink goes into the grooves on the surface. *Artist makes lines or grooves into a metal plate using a sharp tool or acid
engraving Began from the practice of incising designs into armor
Etching The entire plate is covered with a ground, like beeswax or asphalt The artist draws through the ground on the plate using an etching needle The entire plate is dipped into acid Acid eats away the lines The ground is removed The plate is inked and printed
lithography Lithography artists draw onto smooth limestone surface using a greasy material It works based on the idea that oil and water do not mix
La Goulue, Toulouse-Lautrec, lithograph poster,use multiple stones to reproduce images in color
Alphonse Mucha, Fruit, 1897, lithogrph
Nestle’s Food for Infants, Mucha, lithograph, 1897
Hand with Reflecting Sphere,Escher, 1935, lithograph
Screenprinting The artist uses a screen Also called Serigraphy They block out certain areas that are not meant to be printed Place the screen over paper and force ink thru the screen using a squegee
Chapter 9 Camera Arts
3 types of camera art: photography, film, and video Daguerreotype – first photographic process, uses a camera obscura and a copper plate coated with silver iodide, required a very long exposure time Landscape photography was popular because it showed places that most people couldn’t get to Photojournalism – recording newsworthy events The first important conflict to be documented in photography was the American Civil War. Pure photography – did not crop or manipulate images in any way Ansel Adams – landscape photographer Alfred Stieglitz – pure photographer Dorothea Lange – photojournalist Charlie Chaplin - filmaker
Film is an illusion of motion in a still image, 24 frames per second. An auteur is an “author” of a film. Orson Welles, Citizen Kane, 1941. Considered to be one of the greatest American film of all time. Animation means “bringing to life” Video art is about mass communication
Chapter 10 Graphic design and illustration
the goal is communication of a specific message Usually trying to sell something or give directions
How old is graphic design art? Graphic art began with Written languages Symbols Industrial Revolution, 18th-19th centuries Increased commercial applications Prior, most products were local After, mass manufacturing
symbols Most basic level of communication Letters are symbols Ω ЖΦШМ Even arrows had to be developed -> Δ
typography The arrangement and appearance of letters
layout Blueprint for the composition of an extended work such as a book or magazine
posters/ads Color lithography (19th century) brought about eye-catching posters Color wasn’t practical in magazines or newspapers Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Flat simplified forms influenced by Japanese prints Immediately collector’s items
illustration An image created to accompany words Books - Poems Magazines - Newspapers
Norman Rockwelldid about 6 covers a year for The Saturday evening Post for over 40 yrs. He did 322 covers for TSEP
Chapter 11 Sculpture and Installation
Sculpture Sculpture is 3D, the third dimension is depth Installation incorporates the entire exhibit space
4 basic methods for making sculpture Modeling
Liquid is poured into a mold to harden
Modeling The most direct sculpture method The pliable material is shaped and formed with hands and tools
Casting Very indirect method of forming sculpture Liquid is poured into a mold made of the original
Ife, bronze casting from Yoruba, 13th century
lost-wax casting Be able to describe the process!! Textbook, pg 254 http://www.andresteadsculpture.com/casting.php
carving A directtechnique Sculptor begins with a block of material
assembling Assemblage – Various individual parts can be placed on or near each other Sometimes this art is called “found object”
Sculpture Low relief – the subject projects very slightly from the background A coin, carved doors, an Egyptian tomb wall High relief – the subject projects much more boldly from the background Projects at least half its depth sculpture “in the round” – the viewer can walk completely around the sculpture, the view from all sides is interesting Sometimes there is still a front and back
earthwork Maybe … Name a famous earthwork The serpent mound Cahokia mounds Spiral Jetty The Nasca Lines
Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970 - present
ESSAY QUESTION Something along the lines of comparing and contrasting the terms art & craft Do you consider craft a fine art, make the argument that it is or isn’t Use specific examples like Voulkos and Chicago, see the last several slides for more craft/art information 3 paragraph+ essay with an intro a body and a conclusion
CRAFT Most crafts have roots in the middle ages, when a craftsman had a trade – potter, glassblower, woodworker, weaver. The word “craft” alludes to expert work done by hand. “Craft” and “Art” originally had the same meaning. During the Renaissance, painting, sculpture and architecture were elevated to a different level. Thus much of art history before the Renaissance includes craft.
Craft vs Art Western cultures (Europe & US) have Fine Art and Craft in separate categories. Often the dividing line is function. Many other cultures around the world attribute artistic meaning to craft objects. Often fine art objects like sculpture have a spiritual function. There is no definite division between art and craft, nor should there be. Labels are a convenience for talking about art.
Traditional Materials of Craft Ceramics Glass Metal Wood Fiber
Maria Martinez, Blackware A ceramic artist Ceramic art can be formed by hand-building, wheel-throwing or casting
Magdalene Odundo, Vessel Series II asymmetrical, no.1, 2005, red clay, carbonized and multi-fired Bodily terms are used to describe vessels Mouth Neck Shoulder Body Foot
Chinese Longquan celadon, Song Dynasty, 13th centuryceladon glaze was invented in China to mimic Jade
Glass Can be formed in many ways Blown glass Fused glass, fired in a kiln Various types of molds Cutting sandblasting
Metal Types of metals Copper - Silver Brass - Gold Bronze - Steel Nickel - Iron Can be shaped in many ways Casting - Forging Cutting - Hammering Soldering Can be decorated in many ways Cloissone Chasing & Repoussé
Modern Chinese cloisonné enamel Understand that it is made by attaching metal wires to a piece of metal which is filled in with enamel then fired.
Detail showing cloisons before enameling. Wire is soldered to the piece to separate each color
This slide shows a girl meticulously adding frit to areas, the piece will be kiln fired, then ground and polished.
Lidded copper-body cloisonné enamel vase with a dragon motif, Probably from Nagoya, it is dated to 1880-1890
Chasing and repoussé - high relief Understand that the metal is shaped by tools and hammering on either side of the metal.
The underside of the ginko leaf relief
Fiber Also known as textiles Construction methods are unique to itself Weaving – the general method for all textiles Warp – held taut Weft – is interwoven through the warp Tapestry – a type of weaving
The Hunt of the Unicorn, 1475-1500 A series of 7 tapestry panels from the 15th century
The Hunters Enter the Woods
Gee’s Bend Quilts A rural community near Selma, Alabama Was once the site of cotton plantations The unique quilting style has been practiced for at least 6 generations
Women of Gee's Bend, Alabama, quilting, 2005
Jade and Lacquer Jade – a mineral stone of either nephrite or jadeite Color from white to brown to green Found mostly in the East, Central Asia & Central America Prized in China for 6000 yrs Lacquer – made from the sap of a tree that originally only grew in China, it is brushed over wood in very thin coats Hardens to a smooth glasslike finish Demands patience, can take 30 coats to build up a substantial layer, must fully dry between coats
Blurring the Boundaries between Art and Craft Taking something functional and making it nonfunctional gives it a whole new meaning Voulkos’s Pottery broke this barrier Using craft methods to make Fine Art elevates the notion of craft Chicago’s The Dinner Party used traditional “womens work” in multiple ways to create a fine art installation.
Peter Voulkos,Noodle, 1996,stoneware sculpture
Peter Voulkos plates, 1981
Peter Voulkos is on the left.
The Dinner Party, Judy Chicago, 1979 http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/dinner_party/place_settings/webtour/ The table has 39 place settings to honor influential women in history. An additional 999 important women’s names are written on the tile floor.
Mary Wollstonecraft and Sojourner Truth place settings
The Virginia Woolf setting
Judy Chicago with her masterpiece.
Blurring the lines between high brow and low brow art: High art Painting Sculpture Fine photography Low art Pottery Comic books Advertisements
End of Final Exam Review 200 points Multiple choice Matching 1 Long Essay question 1 Listing Question 1 Short Answer Question