Extremophiles
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EXTREMOPHILES

EXTREMOPHILES

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Extremophiles Extremophiles Presentation Transcript

  • Slides from extemophile lab Definitions and types of extremophiles from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extremophile Class assignment – define extremophile Choose a couple of extremophile categories, give an example of an organism and the environment in which it is found 1) Extremes in pH: Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles 2) Extremes in temperature: Thermophiles and Psychrophiles 3) Extremes in pressure: Barophiles/Piezophiles 4) Extreme dryness: Xerophile 5) Extreme saltiness: Halophile 6) Extreme radioactivity: Radioresistant
  • Defining Extremophiles • An organism that thrives under extreme conditions • The term frequently refers to prokaryotes and can be interchangeable with archaea and bacteria • Most known extremophiles are microbes • They are classified by the conditions in which they inhabit • Categorization is not mutually exclusive, so some can exist within multiple categories • “microbes that thrive in environments that would terminate us humans in seconds flat” (NOVA http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/caves/extremophiles.html) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Deinococcus_radiodurans.jpg ‐ Transmission electron microgragh (TEM) of Deinococcus radiodurans
  • Extreme pH • Defining Acidophiles: – These are extremophiles thriving in conditions with a pH of 2.0 or below – They have evolved efficient mechanisms that pumps protons out of the intracellular space to keep the cytoplasm at or near neutral pH…in other words, this is how they survive – Because of this they do not need to develop acidic stability • Example and Habitat: – Acidobacteria – Most species of acidobacteria have been found in poor or polluted acidic soils – They are hard to grow in laboratory cultures, thus they are poorly understood bacteria http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidobacterium
  • Extreme pH • Defining Alkaliphiles: • These are extremophiles thriving in conditions with a pH of 9.0 or above • Some alkaliphiles have more than one pH optimum for growth. This change depends on the growth conditions, in particular nutrients, metal ions, and temperature. • Example and Habitat: – Bacillus okhensis – One of the largest locations of Alkaliphiles on Earth is Lake Natron. These thrive here because it is a naturally Acidic community created by the rift valley. http://www.eol.org/pages/83228 www.icis.com/blogs/india‐chemicals/LakeNatron.jpg
  • Extremophiles Extreme Temperatures and Pressure  • Microorganisms that can live and thrive in  • Thermophiles: An organism that can thrive at  temperatures between 60–80 °C. [2] environments with extreme conditions such  • Psychrophiles: An organism that grows better at  as high or low temperatures and pH levels,  temperatures of 15 °C or lower; common in cold soils,  permafrost, polar ice, cold ocean water, and in or  high salt concentrations, and high pressure.  under alpine snowpack. [2] [1] • Barophiles: a microorganism which grows best (or can  only grow) in high‐pressure environments, such as  Colony of Pompeii worms  deep‐sea environments. [3] living near hydrothermal  vent (left). Single Pompeii  • Piezophiles: An organism that lives optimally at high  worm (right). hydrostatic pressure; common in the deep terrestrial  subsurface, as well as in oceanic trenches. [2] http://www.nsf.gov/news/overviews/earth‐environ/assets/interact09.jpg http://oldsite.dri.edu/deesprojects/images/Murray_Alvinella3.jpg Pompeii Worm References 1. http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/unit/unit_gloss.php?unit=1 • The Pompeii worm is a deep‐sea extremophile found only at  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extremophiles hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. 3. http://www.biology‐online.org/dictionary/Barophile 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeii_worm • May grow up to 5 inches in length. • “Hairs” made of bacteria colonies afford some insulation. Hydrothermal vent (right) where Pompeii worm  (left) is found. • Found attached to hydrothermal vents, they survive in  temperatures up to 176 ⁰F. • The Pompeii worm can  withstand hotter temperatures  than any other multicellular  organism.  http://www.noc.soton.ac.uk/chess/science/images/alvinella_hq.jpg http://cache.gawker.com/assets/images/io9/2009/07/pompeii‐worm.jpg http://www.astro.yale.edu/chunter/presentations/cty/Hydrothermal_vent.jpg Definition of Extremophiles Thermophiles • "Thermophiles" are microorganisms with  An extremophile is an organism that thrives  optimal growth temperatures between 60  under "extreme" conditions. The term  and 108 degrees Celsius, isolated from a  frequently refers to prokaryotes and is  number of marine and terrestrial  sometimes used interchangeably with  geothermally‐heated habitats including  Archaea. shallow terrestrial hot springs, hydrothermal  vent systems, sediment from volcanic  islands, and deep sea hydrothermal vents. http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/extreme/extremophiles.html
  • Thermophiles at Yellowstone National Park Psychrophiles • Is an organism that reproduces and grows best at  low temperatures, typically in the range ‐10 to  20°C (14 to 68°F). Psychrophiles are a type of  extremophile. • Psychrophiles possess enzymes that are adapted  to function at low temperatures and are  http://serc.carleton.edu/images/ denatured at moderate temperatures. microbelife/extreme/extremehea • Present in alpine and arctic soils, high‐latitude  t/Sunset_Lake.jpg and deep ocean waters, Arctic ice, glaciers and  snowfields. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grand _prismatic_spring.jpg Psycrophiles Piezophiles Fig 1: Snowfield Algae • Organisms, both macroscopic and microscopic that  Fig 2: Ice core sample  thrive in environments where the pressure is unusually  high. • Habitat: deep in the ocean or far underground. Three  categories of microbes found in high‐pressure  environments can be distinguished.  – Barotolerant microbes are found in the ocean to depths of  4 km (about 400 atm) but grow better at 1 atm. – Barophilic species occur at 5 to 6 km and grow better at  high pressure (500 to 600 atm) than low.  Fig 1 and Fig2 http://www.thelivingcosmos.com/Extremop – Extreme barophiles live at great depths where the  hiles/Psychrophiles_12May06.html pressure is at least 700 atm and will not grow at all at 1  atm. Piezophile References Piezophiles are found at high  • Slide 1  temperatures and pressures, and  http://www.scitech.ac.uk/sciprog/aurora/images/Hydphilel can be found at the bottom of the  arge.jpg ocean floor in hydrothermal vents,  • Slide 2  also called, “black smokers.” http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/extreme/extremophil es.html • Slide 3 Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, 2002.  A piezophilic bacterium. The  vol.3.  bar in the lower left‐hand  • Slide 5  corner is one micron (one  http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/P/psychrophile millionth of a meter). .html,  http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Psychrophile http://www.ia.spacegrant.org/ NEWS/newsbrief1103.htm • Slide 7  http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/B/barophiles.h tml http://www.treehugger.com/deep%20sea%20h ydrothermal%20vent.jpg
  • What is an extremophile? Thermophiles • Thermophiles are organisms that thrive in  • An extremophile is an organism which thrives  high temperatures (50⁰C/120⁰F‐ 70⁰C/158F ⁰) in conditions which greatly differ from what  • Habitats include geothermal hot springs and  humans consider normal. ‐Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles live in extreme ph hydrothermal vents ‐Thermophiles live in extremely hot temperatures ‐Psychrophiles live in extremely cold temperatures ‐Barophiles and Piezophiles live at extreme pressures             ‐Halophiles live in extremely salty conditions ‐Xerophiles live in extremely dry conditions http://www.graphicsforums.com/public/list.asp?id=195 http://www.astro.yale.edu/chunter/presentations/ct y/earth‐habitat.html http://www.flickr.com/photos/paparocket/343920462/ http://www.coolantarctica.com/gallery/scenic/Seaice%20formation/Antarctica_sea_ice2.htm Thermus aquaticus References • A thermophilic bacterium discovered in a hot  • 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermus_aquaticus spring in Yellowstone National Park in 1960 [1]. • 2. http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/thenewgenetics/chapter3.html • Capable of surviving in temperatures ranging  from 50⁰C‐80⁰C • Origin of the Taq enzyme used for copying DNA, and DNA fingerprinting [2]. http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/upload/7/7b/TaqPol.jpg What is an Extremophile? Introducing: Deinococcus Radiodurans Deinococcus Radiodurans is a radioactive resistant bacteria that is Definition: An extremophile is an organism capable of living in a radioactive environment. Deinococcus which thrives in an extreme environment such Radiodurans is a polyextremophile, it can survive in extreme cold, dehydration, vacuum and low pH as well as radioactive as high temperature, high pressure or extreme environments. It is listed by The Guiness Book Of World Records as pH. Most extremophiles are single celled the worlds toughest bacteria. [2] microbes, however not all extremophiles are single celled. Deinococcus Radiodurans [3] Radioactive hazard sign [4]
  • So what does this all mean? Where could one find Deinococcus Surviving in extreme cold: Any organism that can survive in 15*C is defined as being an extremophile capable of living in a cold environment. Radiodurans? Dehydration: Dehydration means without water or lacking water. Any organism Deinococcus Radiodurans is a bacteria which is commonly capable of surviving in an environment which is devoid of water is an found in meat, feces, soil and sewage. It has also been found in extremophile dried food, textiles and even on medical instruments. It’s Surviving in a vacuum: Most organisms require a comfortable level of pressure to resistance to radioactivity was discovered when scientists tried to survive. A vacuum has very extremely low pressure which is not favorable for disinfect meat with high levels of radiation. After prolonged living. Any organism that can survive in a vacuum is an extremophile. exposure to radiation, Deinococcus Radiodurans were still alive and well within the meat. This came as a great surprise. [2] Surviving in an acidic environment: Finding a comfortable pH is extremely important for living organisms. Most known organisms prefer a pH of around 7, which is the pH of water. Organisms that are capable of living in pH higher than 9 or lower than 5 are extremophiles. Polyextremophile: A polyextremophile is an extremophile which is capable of withstanding more than one kind of extreme environment. Sources Cited What is an Extremophile? [1] tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4726 • Organism adapted to live  in extreme environment [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinococcus_radiodurans • Classified by type of  [3] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Deinococcus_radiodurans.jpg environment [4] http://scienceblogs.com/aardvarchaeology/upload/2007/02/Radioactive.jpg – Examples: • Acidophile – very low ph • Alkaliphile – very high ph • Thermophile – very high  tempeture • Halophile – High  concentrations of salt  (NaCl) Acidophile Ferroplasma acidiphilum (source:  http://scienceray.com/biology/microbiology/extreme ‐bacteria/) Halophile Dunaliella salina • Live in environments with  • Halophilic algae that lives  very high salt concentrations in inland seas, saline lakes  and salt marshes. • Categorized by  • Harvested for anti‐ “halotolerance” or salinity  oxidant content in  level of their environment carotene and glycerol [1] • Some environments: – Used in cosmetics and  dietary supplements – Hypersaline lakes (Dead Sea) Dunaliella salina in sea salt (source:  • “Turns red when  Dunaliella, an extremely halophilic species of  – Salt marshes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FleurDeSel.JPG) physiologically stressed” green algae (source:  http://starcentral.mbl.edu/microscope/portal.p hp?pagetitle=assetfactsheet&imageid=18910) • Usually bacteria and algae [1]
  • Xerophile Xerophile Environments  • These organisms can  • The conditions in which  grow dry environments many of these  • Many other plants  extremophiles live is  cannot survive in these  the desert  conditions characterized by low  • They are tolerant of dry  moisture and high  conditions aridity  • Examples • One of the most  abundant types of  – Cacti, Mold, and Yeast Ferocactus  (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cactus1web.jpg) Saguaro cactus xerophile is cacti  (source: http://image18.webshots.com/18/8/42/34/205584234csPWML_fs.jpg) Ferocactus (Barrel Cactus) References • [1]  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/173578/Dunaliella • Desert: Sonoran and  • [2] http://www.desertusa.com/mag99/june/papr/barrelcactus.html Chihuahuan deserts [2] • Height: 4‐11ft • Spines: Red with a grey  surface layer • Flowers: Orange, Red,  Yellow and blooms in  July through September • Elevation: 1,000‐4,600ft Ferocactus  (source: http://www.nuggetwranglers.com/images/barrelcactus.jpg) What is an extremophile? Thermophile and Psychrophile • Microbes that live in conditions that would  • A thermophile is an organism that lives in  extremely hot environments kill other creatures  –Difficult to study because of such hot conditions –Live in either extreme pH, extreme  –Best reproduction temperature is between 50C and  temperature/pressure, or extremely salty or dry 70C –Can’t grow if the temperature reaches 20C • A psychrophile is an organism that lives in  extremely cold environments –Found mostly in Arctic and Antarctic oceans –Best reproduction temperature is between ‐10C and  Thermophile, found at Yellowstone National Park 20C –Can’t grow or reproduce if the temperature exceeds  20C
  • Specimens Barophile/Piezophile • Rhizomucor pusillus is an example of  • A barophile is an organism that lives in areas  a thermophile of extreme pressure –Found in compost piles –Hypahe stick upwards forming a  Rhizomucor pusillus –Deep under the earth or water fluffy/fuzzy appearance –3 kinds of the microorganisms: • Polaromonas vacuolata (Ice worms) is  • Barotolerant grow best in 1 atm but can survive in up to  an example of a psychrophile 400 atm –Found in the Antarctic sea ice • Barophilic grow best between 500 and 600 atm –Can’t reproduce above 13C Ice worms • Extreme barophiles grow best in 700 atm or more, but  some can survive in 1 atm –Get nourishment through symbiosis Specimen Work Cited • Title: www.dailygalaxy.com/.../29/extremophiles_2.jpg • Pseudomonas are an example of  • Page 1: Extremophile  http://www.theguardians.com/Microbiology/gm_mbm04.htm a barophilic bacteria Thermophile  http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Grand_prismati –They are able to survive in such  c_spring.jpg/300px‐Grand_prismatic_spring.jpg • Page 2: Thermophile http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212089/therm.htm harsh conditions because of their  Psycrophile http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212089/psyc.htm tough cell wall and porins • Page 3: Thermophile http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212089/therm.htm Psychrophile  –Found in many diverse niches and  http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~townsend/static.php?ref=diploma‐6#toc‐ The_Psychrophiles tend to cause spoilage and decay • Page 4: Barophile  http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212089/baro.htm Pseudomona • Page 5: Barophile http://en.wikivisual.com/index.php/Pseudomonas –Have the ability to metabolize many  Pseudomona www.scienceclarified.com/.../uesc_02_img0068.jpg different nutrients Halophiles •Live in extremely salty environments such as halobacteria in the Dead Sea and the  Great salt lake where salinity can be almost ten times higher than oceans.[2] •There are two different strategies for halophilic organisms to survive high salinity.  •Extremo‐ meaning intense and ‐phile meaning “loving” Both involve techniques for maintaining osmosis in the cell: 1. Organic compound are accumulated into the cytoplasm of the cell. They can  •An extremophile is a microorganism that lives in extreme  either synthesized or pulled from the enivironment. conditions.   2. Involves an influx of potassium ions into the cytoplasm. [3] •These may be single celled or multicelled. •If these organisms are unable to perform these actions they will perish!!! This exteremophile is a diatom,  found in Antarctic ice.[1] This image shows colonies of  halophiles from the Great Salt  Lake.[2]
  • Xerophiles • These organisms can survive in extremely dry conditions such as deserts, the  dry Antarctic and even dry food.  Yeast and mold are common examples. [1] http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/extreme/extremophiles.html [2] http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/extreme/hypersaline/index.html [3] http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Halophile [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cactus [5] www.umd.umich.edu/casl/natsci/microbio/.../Extremophiles.ppt This is Desert varnish, a thin coating of Mn,  Fe, and clay on the surface of desert rocks,  •This Ferocactus pilosus cactus is an  formed by colonies of bacteria living on the  xerophile. Found in the southwestern  rock surface for thousands of years. [5] United States and Northwest Mexico. [4]