Taftip8 March2010 Edit Ii


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Taftip8 March2010 Edit Ii

  1. 1. Human Trafficking in India:Opportunities for The Asia Foundation<br />SadikaHameed, Sandile Hlasthwayo, Evan Tanner, MeltemTürker, and Jungwon Yang – March 10, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Part I: Introduction & methodology<br />Part II: Root causes & legal framework <br />Part III: Findings on NGO, donor, and government intervention efforts<br />Part IV: Recommendations<br />Title photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br /><ul><li> Two categories of trafficking: sex and labor, both of which are widespread in India
  4. 4. Half of the 612 districts in India are affected by trafficking
  5. 5. 3 million sex workers in India, with 40% being children
  6. 6. India is a source, transit point, and destination for trafficking
  7. 7. 90% of Indian trafficking is domestic, 10% is international</li></ul>Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />3<br />
  8. 8. Formally, Trafficking in Persons (TIP) means…<br />“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of:<br />Threat or use of force or other forms of coercion<br />Abduction<br />Fraud<br />Deception<br />The abuse of power<br />A position of vulnerability<br />The giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation.” (UN Palermo Protocol, 2000)<br />4<br />
  9. 9. Informally, Trafficking in Persons means…<br /><ul><li>Preeti has not been allowed outdoors since she was enslaved in a household at age eight, fifteen years ago.
  10. 10. 17-year-old Rana is raped by twenty to fifty men every day.
  11. 11. 13-year-old Mehti has been underground weaving carpets for five years, with one meal a day.
  12. 12. 14-year-old Priyanka was sold by her father for US$22 into a life of torture, starvation, and agricultural labor.</li></ul>Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />5<br />
  13. 13. Objectives<br />Evaluate the political, social, economic, legal, and intervention landscape of the anti-trafficking movement in India<br />Research current NGO, donor, and government efforts to combat trafficking in India<br />Provide TAF with actionable recommendations with regards to a human trafficking program in India<br />Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />6<br />
  14. 14. Geographic Scope<br />Limiting of states/territories based on:<br />A pervasive and increasing trend in TIP<br />State & local government receptivity<br />Representation of source, transit, and destination points for TIP<br />Secondary data availability<br />Representation of a variety of dynamics that could influence TIP<br />Chosen states/territory (shown in black):<br />Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Jharkhand, Orissa (Odisha), Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.<br />Collectively, the states/territories represent roughly 40% of India’s population. <br />7<br />
  15. 15. Methodology<br />Stage 1: Literature Review & Synthesizing of Secondary Data<br />Studied general global/India-specific TIP literature<br />Analyzed trafficking in nine representative states/territories<br />Researched anti-trafficking interventions in those regions<br />Conducted a legal framework analysis<br />Stage 2: Interviews<br />Supplemented intervention research with 19 NGO/donor interviews<br />8<br />
  16. 16. Data Constraints<br />The hidden nature of human trafficking<br />Illegality<br />Lack of records<br />Efforts to keep the practice hidden<br />Danger to current victims for speaking out<br />Social stigmatization of survivors<br />Challenge in distinguishing victims from voluntary migrants<br />Scope of the problem<br />Inability to conduct field research<br />9<br />
  17. 17. II. Root Causes & Legal Framework of TIP in India<br />
  18. 18. Root Causes Of Trafficking<br />11<br />
  19. 19. 12<br />NGO/Donor Perceptions of the<br />Problem of TIP in India<br />
  20. 20. Summary of Legal Framework<br />13<br />
  21. 21. Strengths and Weaknesses of Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts<br />14<br />
  22. 22. Strengths and Weaknesses of Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts (continued)<br />15<br />
  23. 23. III. Findings on Government, Donor, & NGO Efforts in Anti-TIP<br />
  24. 24. Types of Trafficking Intervention Programs<br />3Ps +C : Prevention, Prosecution, Protection and Capacity Building<br />17<br />
  25. 25. Representative Government Anti-TIP Efforts<br />Central Government<br />SwadharProgram<br /><ul><li>Supports 200 shelters (> 13,000 women and girls rescued)
  26. 26. Annual budget: $1 million
  27. 27. Designing national protocols & guidelines</li></ul>Ujjawala Program<br /><ul><li>Central gov’t grants to state gov’t projects in TIP
  28. 28. 53 state projects (> 1,700 victims)</li></ul>Central Government<br />Integrated Anti-Human Trafficking Units (IAHTUs)<br /><ul><li>In 2009, MoHAallocated $18 million to create 297 anti-human trafficking units
  29. 29. Multi disciplinary approach
  30. 30. Joint response by all stake holders, such as police, prosecutors, NGOs, civil society and media
  31. 31. Inter-departmental & inter-agency collaboration</li></ul>State Governments<br />TIP training to NGOs working on<br />HIV/AIDS<br /><ul><li>Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
  32. 32. Victims have greater risk of contracting the disease
  33. 33. Leverages synergies
  34. 34. High value multiplier effect</li></ul>18<br />
  35. 35. Government Anti-TIP Efforts: Findings<br />The central government’s programs are –<br /><ul><li>Still in design/recently launched
  36. 36. Unclear outcomes</li></ul>The state-led intervention programs emphasize –<br /><ul><li>Prevention  Protection  Prosecution </li></ul>State government interventions often fail because –<br /><ul><li>Poor coordination
  37. 37. Low awareness
  38. 38. Lack of an integrated plan
  39. 39. High level of corruption</li></ul>NGOs’ perception of gov’t efforts generally positive; however, it was indicated that government still lacks political will, coordination, and capacity<br />19<br />
  40. 40. Non-Governmental Organizations/ Donor Anti-TIP Efforts<br />Based upon<br /><ul><li>50 NGOs profiled
  41. 41. 19 NGOs interviewed</li></ul>20<br />
  42. 42. 1. Program Types<br />Many organizations with anti-TIP initiatives not exclusively focused onTIP.<br />The number of anti-TIP NGOs varies across states.<br />iii. Priority for Different Types of Anti-TIP interventions<br />21<br />Bias towards prevention and protection interventions for source/transit states.<br />v. Destination state NGOs focus on capacity-building, protection, and prosecution; but not prevention. <br />
  43. 43. Non-Governmental Organizations/ Donor Anti-TIP Efforts (continued)<br />2. Types of Intervention<br />22<br />
  44. 44. Non-Governmental Organizations/ Donor Anti-TIP Efforts (continued)<br />3. Challenges of NGOs<br />Primary – <br />Funding<br />Secondary –<br />Implementation of laws<br />Lack of cooperation/coordination<br />Lack of human resources<br />23<br />
  45. 45. 4. NGO Collaborations with Other NGOs, International NGOs, and Networks<br /><ul><li>Entry into an NGO network increases collaboration significantly.
  46. 46. Collaboration amongst NGOs is a key opportunity area for improving.</li></ul>5. NGO Collaborations with Government & the Authorities<br /><ul><li>15/19 collaborate with governments.
  47. 47. In rescue operations, all work closely with law enforcement. </li></ul>24<br />
  48. 48. 6. Selected NGO/Donor Best Practices in Anti-TIP<br />Prevention: Live theater / Media<br /><ul><li>The UNODC’s “One Life, No Price”
  49. 49. Live theater performances
  50. 50. Anti-trafficking messages in religious festivals
  51. 51. Benefit from private sector funding</li></ul> Protection: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs<br /><ul><li>Helpful partnerships and networks to find former victims jobs
  52. 52. Identify opportunities for cooperatives
  53. 53. Strategic training opportunities for victims</li></ul>Prosecution: Use of local informants at transit points<br /><ul><li>Using vendors and rickshaw pullers
  54. 54. Railroad stations, bus depots, etc. </li></ul>25<br />
  55. 55. IV. Recommendations & Implementation Analysis<br />
  56. 56. Evaluation of Alternatives<br />Originating from<br />What’s not working – identified gaps <br />What’s working – best practices<br />Ranking of the recommendations<br />Selected 14 criteria based on <br />What makes programs successful/ unsuccessful<br />TAF feedback (particularly for weightings) & advisor feedback<br />Implementation analysis<br />Suggested partners<br />Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />27<br />
  57. 57. Primary Criteria <br />28<br />
  58. 58. Additional Criteria <br /><ul><li>Given lower weighting of 5% each.
  59. 59. Other criteria included—
  60. 60. TAF’score competencies
  61. 61. Adverse outcomes
  62. 62. $100K budget
  63. 63. Sustainability
  64. 64. Changes in government policy
  65. 65. Human capital
  66. 66. Ease of scaling up
  67. 67. Private sector partnership</li></ul>Photo by Kay Chernush for the U.S. State Department<br />29<br />
  68. 68. Results of Recommendations’ Ranking<br />30<br />
  69. 69. Creation of Economic Cooperatives (Ranking: 1/16)<br />PROTECTION<br />31<br />
  70. 70. Reaching Vulnerable Populations (Ranking: 2/16) <br />PREVENTION<br />32<br />
  71. 71. The Importance of Transit Points (Ranking: 2/16) <br />PROSECUTION<br />33<br />
  72. 72. Linking Resources with Need (Ranking: 2/16) <br />PROTECTION<br />34<br />
  73. 73. Central Monitoring & Evaluation (Ranking: 3/16) <br />CAPACITY BUILDING<br />35<br />
  74. 74. The Asia Foundation really values innovation, in addition to “tried and tested” programs.<br />Here are our two most “out of the box” ideas. <br />36<br />
  75. 75. Police Incentive Program (Ranking: 13/16) <br />PROSECUTION<br />37<br />
  76. 76. Rescue and Rehabilitation Experts (RREs)(Ranking: 12/16) <br />PROTECTION<br />38<br />
  77. 77. Acknowledgments<br /><ul><li>Kate Francis
  78. 78. Prof. Joe Nation, Marcos Rosales, Sarah Duffy
  79. 79. Prof. Erik Jensen and NanditaBaruah
  80. 80. Ford Dorsey Program in International Policy Studies</li></ul>39<br />