Recycling Energy & Resources from Waste


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Overview of solid waste management practices and history of NYC waste management

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  • I respectfully disagree with a couple of the ideas on Wow: Waste Management's Ways to "Think Green" especially as it has to do with recover waste energy but will research this further externally on Sunday to see how I feel about this.
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Recycling Energy & Resources from Waste

  1. 1. Recycling, Climate Change & Green Energy: Your Waste Makes a Difference! Presenter: Jeremy Abramowitz
  2. 2. What are we talking about today? <ul><li>Garbage : when you throw something “away,” what happens to it? </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling : how can we use our waste as a resource instead of throwing it out? </li></ul><ul><li>Energy : Where does it come from, how do we use it? </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change : Why what we do with our waste and where we get our energy matters </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Terms: What do you know about these concepts? <ul><li>Renewable Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable Material </li></ul>
  4. 4. Garbage: Where does it go? <ul><li>Most garbage in the U.S. goes to landfills. </li></ul><ul><li>A landfill is a specially designed site that must hold lots of garbage without letting solid material, liquids, or odors seep into nearby air, water, and soil </li></ul><ul><li>What might be some ways to reuse a landfill once it is capped and closed? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Landfills Have Gas! <ul><li>As garbage slowly breaks down inside a landfill, a gas called methane is released. </li></ul>Below: An engine powered by landfill gas generates renewable energy <ul><li>Methane facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Strong greenhouse gas (20x CO2 strength) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for energy (same gas found in natural gas) </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike natural gas, landfill gas is renewable and not a fossil fuel </li></ul>
  6. 6. Greenhouse Gas Basics: Waste Sector
  7. 7. Other Sectors Impacted by Changes in Waste Management Practices
  8. 8. Puente Hills 50 Megawatt Boiler, Los Angeles Largest Landfill Gas Power Plant in U.S.
  9. 9. Innovative Use for Landfill Gas: Green Vehicle Fuel Liquid carbon dioxide wash for pre-compression cleanup Fueling station for CNG-powered cars & trucks, Franklin County, OH landfill
  10. 10. Innovative Use for Landfill Gas: Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cell powered by landfill gas, Finland
  11. 11. Landfill Operations Daily Production & Compaction Gas Treatment Gas Flaring Leachate Treatment Daily Cover Gas/Condensate Monitoring & Collection
  12. 12. Landfill Compactors: Heavy Duty Did you know? A landfill compactor can weigh up to 120,000 pounds! Imagine 1,000 of today’s presenter jumping up and down on a pile of trash…
  13. 13. Landfill Reuse: Turning a Liability into an Asset Park Ridge Golf Course, Palm Beach, FL, formerly Lantana Road Landfill
  14. 14. Landfill Reuse: Renewable Energy Wind power installed at a landfill in China Solar Energy Cover replaces traditional closed landfill cover, Tessman Road Landfill outside San Antonio, TX
  15. 15. Waste-to-Energy: An Alternative to Landfills <ul><li>A waste-to-energy power plant located in Westchester County </li></ul>
  16. 16. Advantages and Challenges of Energy from Waste 58 megawatt Waste-to-Energy power plant, expanded in 2007 (FL) 1.4 gigawatt coal power plant, closed in 2005 (NV) Vs.
  17. 17. WTE Operations: Receiving Pit & Crane
  18. 18. WTE Operations: Sorting Refuse Derived Fuel
  19. 19. WTE Operations: Combustion Grates
  20. 20. WTE Operations: Boiler System
  21. 21. WTE Operations: Turbine & Electrical Generator
  22. 22. WTE Operations: District Energy Did you know? 70% of the buildings in downtown Detroit, MI are heated and cooled by the Greater Detroit Resource Recovery Facility
  23. 23. WTE Operations: Air Pollution Controls Scrubbers Continuous Emissions Monitoring System Fabric Filter Baghouses
  24. 24. WTE Operations: Controls & Emissions Monitoring
  25. 25. WTE Operations: Ash Management
  26. 26. WTE Operations: Ferrous Metal Recycling
  27. 27. WTE Operations: Non-Ferrous Metal Recycling
  28. 28. Emerging Technology: Waste Conversion 100 ton-per-day Ottawa plasma arc gasification demonstration facility: Cleaner, Better, More Efficient …perhaps
  29. 29. 450 Ton per Day Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment Facility, Germany
  30. 30. Litter: Uncollected Garbage <ul><li>Litter is garbage that accumulates outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Where can litter come from? </li></ul><ul><li>- Pedestrians </li></ul><ul><li>- Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>- Garbage trucks/carts </li></ul><ul><li>- Yards, parks, public spaces </li></ul><ul><li>- Others? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does most of it end up? </li></ul>
  31. 31. … where does most litter end up? The ocean!!! <ul><li>The Great Pacific Garbage Patch or Pacific Garbage Vortex is the world’s largest collection of waterborne plastic. </li></ul>Not-so-fun facts about ocean plastic: -The Pacific Garbage Patch is twice the size of Texas! -Plastic does NOT biodegrade and harms seabirds and ocean life when it accumulates in the water -There is 5x as much plastic in the patch as plankton (natural debris) by weight Above: Harvesting plastic from the ocean Below: The ocean currents that deposit plastic into the Pacific Garbage Patch
  32. 32. Recycling : It doesn’t have to be garbage! <ul><li>Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you know which materials go in which bins! </li></ul>What are the important parts of a city or county recycling program? The Bottom Line: Recycling saves energy and natural resources
  33. 33. The Three Rs of Recycling Plus One! Reduce Recycle Reuse RECOVER
  34. 34. What can be recycled? Metal <ul><li>Aluminum cans </li></ul><ul><li>Steel cans </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Scrap metal </li></ul><ul><li>Precious metals (gold, silver, platinum, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling metal is a high priority because almost all metals have strong market value! </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling metal saves energy and reduces the need for future mining! </li></ul>
  35. 35. What can be recycled: Paper <ul><li>Office Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Cardboard </li></ul><ul><li>Paper bags </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling paper saves trees and energy! </li></ul>
  36. 36. Recycling Operations: Sorting & Baling Paper
  37. 37. What can be recycled: Some Plastics… Many recyclers do not take plastic bags, styrofoam, and certain other plastics. Find out if your recycler accepts it before you toss it in the bin
  38. 38. Recycling Operations: Sorting & Baling Plastic Containers
  39. 39. Composting: Recycling Biological Material to Soil <ul><li>What is composting? </li></ul><ul><li>A natural process in which organic material such as yard waste and food scraps are turned into a rich, soil-like material that can be used as a fertilizer </li></ul>It’s organic, it’s biodegradable, but is it compostable?!
  40. 40. Building Materials: Recycling Old to New <ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Brick </li></ul><ul><li>Asphalt </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Flooring </li></ul><ul><li>Roofing </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><li>From demolition…to construction! </li></ul>
  41. 41. Recycled Asphalt Pavement Millings
  42. 42. Toilet Bowls Crushed into Construction Aggregate
  43. 43. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW): Not Safe for Landfills or Curbside Collection <ul><li>What kinds of waste present hazards? </li></ul><ul><li>- Electronics (contain toxics) </li></ul><ul><li>- Paint </li></ul><ul><li>- Medical waste, including biomedical sharps (needles) </li></ul><ul><li>- Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>- Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>- Light bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>- Mercury, other heavy metals (old thermometers, thermostats) </li></ul><ul><li>- Household chemicals & cleaners: drain cleaner, detergent, antifreeze, motor oil, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best way to recycle or safely dispose of these wastes? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Making Connections in Our Lives… <ul><li>Can you name 3 things you use every day that can be recycled? </li></ul><ul><li>How many ways can you think of that you use energy every day? Can you think of 3 ways to save energy in your home? </li></ul><ul><li>What we do with our waste affects the availability of energy and other natural resources. How so? </li></ul><ul><li>There’s only so much we can do to manage waste effectively! What are some ways we can reduce the amount of waste we produce in the first place? </li></ul><ul><li>There are lots of different careers available in waste management. What are some of the things you see people doing in these pictures? </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal is just the last step in the life cycle of a product. What are some of the other stages and what kinds of environmental impacts do those have? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Making Connections: A Brief History of Waste Management in and around New York City
  46. 46. Fresh Kills Municipal Landfill, Staten Island Picture of Fresh Kills taken c.1990, operated 1948-2001
  47. 47. Fresh Kills Municipal Landfill c. 2008 Site Remediation in Progress
  48. 48. Fresh Kills Gas Recovery Since 1999 Methane from the closed landfill is sold as heating fuel and used to heat up to 22,000 homes
  49. 49. Planned: Fresh Kills Park
  50. 50. Smaller Landfills in NYC Closed 1970-2000 Closed landfill in the Bronx, planned as future golf course Jamaica Bay Landfill Superfund site, Queens
  51. 51. Article Published 1919 WTE plants operate in NYC 1908-1993
  52. 52. Today: Remote Disposal Modern landfill in New Jersey overlooking Manhattan
  53. 53. Essex County Resource Recovery Facility Newark, NJ 2800 tons per day WTE
  54. 54. Wheelabrator Bridgeport, CT 2250 TPD WTE
  55. 55. Brooklyn Wastewater Digester Opened 2008
  56. 56. New York City Recycles More info: New York City Department of Sanitation
  57. 57. Electronics Recycling in NYC
  58. 58. Protecting People, Protecting the Environment: It’s All Connected <ul><li>Managing waste is all about protecting the environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, creating renewable energy, protecting our air and water, and recovering resources from waste to ensure a cleaner, healthier world for our children, our children’s children… </li></ul>… Because this is the only home we’ve got!
  59. 59. Questions???