Electrical Risk Management

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  • Electrical Risk Management

    1. 1. -Electrical Safety -Electrical Safety Global Developments Pillai Sreejith [email_address]
    2. 2. In this presentation…… <ul><li>Section I </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical accidents – Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Humans & Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Safety Programme elements </li></ul><ul><li>Section II </li></ul><ul><li>Global Developments in Electrical Safety </li></ul>
    3. 3. Electrical Accidents-Statistics <ul><ul><ul><li>25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB, (India) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS- 10 year Period, Chemical Industry
    5. 6. Electrical Near-Misses & Accidents- Major Causes <ul><li>Working on live equipment w/o authorization or PPE </li></ul><ul><li>Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of safe-energy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving unsafe conditions </li></ul>
    6. 7. Electricity and People <ul><li>A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the electricity </li></ul><ul><li>The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity always tries to travel to ground </li></ul>
    7. 8. ELECTRICAL FIRES …. <ul><li>ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STATIC DISCHARGES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LIGHTNING </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS AREAS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Earthing <ul><li>Most electrical equipment is designed with a earthing system </li></ul><ul><li>Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?) </li></ul><ul><li>Double & Single earthing- differentiation? </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Take action on high ER values </li></ul><ul><li>Identify all earth pits, maintain a Earth Pit lay out </li></ul>
    9. 10. Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers <ul><li>ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks </li></ul><ul><li>Detect small amount of leakage current and automatically switch off the power </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with extension cords and portable tools </li></ul><ul><li>Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment, not people </li></ul><ul><li>Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30, 100, 300 mA) </li></ul>
    10. 11. Static Electricity <ul><li>Created when materials rub together </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns </li></ul><ul><li>Can damage sensitive electronic equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced or prevented by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper grounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Static rubber matting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Electrical Fire Protection <ul><li>Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable cellars along with smoke detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Consider all major electrical fires in EMP </li></ul><ul><li>Install master control switches outside all stores </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels </li></ul>
    12. 13. Case Study <ul><li>An electrician received a shock while trying to replace a tube light ballast in live power condition. </li></ul><ul><li>He touched a live conductor. He was not wearing rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Post Accident Correction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working on live circuits not permitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOTO to be strictly enforced </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Equipment Operators <ul><li>Never tamper with electrical interlocks </li></ul><ul><li>Do not repair electrical components of your machine </li></ul><ul><li>Properly shut off machinery before operation </li></ul><ul><li>Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Follow PTW procedures strictly </li></ul>
    14. 15. Electrical Preventive Maintenance <ul><li>Identification of critical Electrical Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Alarm System </li></ul><ul><li>Protection Supply DC System </li></ul><ul><li>UPS System, Battery Banks </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70 B </li></ul>
    15. 16. Planning for EPM <ul><li>Personal Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Production Economics </li></ul>
    16. 17. Electrical Preventive Maintenance <ul><li>Implement EPM without slippage </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out all tests (ER, IR, transformer oil, DGA, LP system, transformer protective devices- simulation, FA system for electrical rooms, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt Risk Based maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector, Ultrasonic detectors, Thermography) </li></ul>
    17. 18. ‘ All electrical accidents are preceded by rise in temperature & sound ’
    18. 19. ELECTRICAL SAFETY AUDIT <ul><li>A systematic approach to critically analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view </li></ul>
    19. 20. Global Developments in Electrical Safety
    20. 21. Present Status - ES-India <ul><li>ES Awareness is slowly growing </li></ul><ul><li>Use of RCCBs in the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many </li></ul><ul><li>More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) </li></ul><ul><li>Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.) </li></ul>
    21. 22. Evolvement of ES Standards / organizations-United States <ul><li>NFPA - NEC ( 1897 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA ( 1970 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 ) </li></ul><ul><li>NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC </li></ul>
    22. 23. ES Products...
    23. 24. ES Auditing Techniques <ul><li>Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking against applicable standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 780 Lightning Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk - Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues - correction at the next available opportunity . Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation
    25. 26. RCCB Tripping <ul><li>How do we solve this problem in India ? </li></ul>Bypass it !!!
    26. 27. ES related Information <ul><li>Indian Electricity Rule, 1956 (2000 rev.): </li></ul><ul><li>(MoP, CEA web site, http://powermin.nic.in) </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning Protection Risk Assessment: www.furse.com </li></ul><ul><li>National Electrical Safety Foundation : www.nesf.org </li></ul><ul><li>Free safety Power Point presentations : http://siri.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Accidents : http://www.safteng.net : </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE IAS ES WS –Delhi Dec. 2004 </li></ul>
    27. 28. Standards & Codes <ul><li>NFPA 70 E & B- E-Safety & Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 780- Lightning Protection </li></ul><ul><li>API RP 2003- Static Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>API RP 500- HAC </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA 29 CFR- part 1910- Arc Flash </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 70- NEC </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 1584- Arc Flash Protection </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 77- Static Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety </li></ul>
    28. 29. Summary <ul><li>Electricity will try to reach ground even if it means going through a person </li></ul><ul><li>Earthing has an important role in ES </li></ul><ul><li>Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified </li></ul><ul><li>Understand effects of Lightning- it could save your life! </li></ul><ul><li>Major fires, explosions occurred due to ESD , lightning in flammable atmospheres </li></ul>
    29. 30. Thank you!! Pillai Sreejith [email_address]

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