Electrical Risk Management
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Electrical Risk Management

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Electrical Risk Management Electrical Risk Management Presentation Transcript

  • -Electrical Safety -Electrical Safety Global Developments Pillai Sreejith [email_address]
  • In this presentation……
    • Section I
    • Electrical hazards
    • Electrical accidents – Statistics
    • Humans & Electricity
    • Electrical Safety Programme elements
    • Section II
    • Global Developments in Electrical Safety
  • Electrical Accidents-Statistics
        • 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA)
        • 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH)
        • Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH
        • About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB, (India)
        • 42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD)
        • 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity
  • ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS- 10 year Period, Chemical Industry
  •  
  • Electrical Near-Misses & Accidents- Major Causes
    • Working on live equipment w/o authorization or PPE
    • Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of safe-energy conditions
    • Leaving unsafe conditions
  • Electricity and People
    • A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the electricity
    • The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground
    • Electricity always tries to travel to ground
  • ELECTRICAL FIRES ….
    • ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.)
          • STATIC DISCHARGES
          • LIGHTNING
          • USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS AREAS
  • Earthing
    • Most electrical equipment is designed with a earthing system
    • Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?)
    • Double & Single earthing- differentiation?
    • Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70
    • Take action on high ER values
    • Identify all earth pits, maintain a Earth Pit lay out
  • Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers
    • ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks
    • Detect small amount of leakage current and automatically switch off the power
    • Can be used with extension cords and portable tools
    • Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment, not people
    • Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30, 100, 300 mA)
  • Static Electricity
    • Created when materials rub together
    • Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns
    • Can damage sensitive electronic equipment
    • Reduced or prevented by:
      • Proper grounding
      • Anti-Static rubber matting
      • Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines
  • Electrical Fire Protection
    • Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable cellars along with smoke detectors
    • Consider all major electrical fires in EMP
    • Install master control switches outside all stores
    • Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms
    • Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels
  • Case Study
    • An electrician received a shock while trying to replace a tube light ballast in live power condition.
    • He touched a live conductor. He was not wearing rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand.
    • Post Accident Correction:
      • Working on live circuits not permitted
      • LOTO to be strictly enforced
  • Equipment Operators
    • Never tamper with electrical interlocks
    • Do not repair electrical components of your machine
    • Properly shut off machinery before operation
    • Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures
    • Follow PTW procedures strictly
  • Electrical Preventive Maintenance
    • Identification of critical Electrical Equipment
    • Emergency lighting
    • Fire Alarm System
    • Protection Supply DC System
    • UPS System, Battery Banks
    • Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70 B
  • Planning for EPM
    • Personal Safety
    • Equipment Failure
    • Production Economics
  • Electrical Preventive Maintenance
    • Implement EPM without slippage
    • Carry out all tests (ER, IR, transformer oil, DGA, LP system, transformer protective devices- simulation, FA system for electrical rooms, etc.)
    • Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance
    • Adopt Risk Based maintenance
    • Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector, Ultrasonic detectors, Thermography)
  • ‘ All electrical accidents are preceded by rise in temperature & sound ’
  • ELECTRICAL SAFETY AUDIT
    • A systematic approach to critically analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view
  • Global Developments in Electrical Safety
  • Present Status - ES-India
    • ES Awareness is slowly growing
    • Use of RCCBs in the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many
    • More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India
    • Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings)
    • Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)
  • Evolvement of ES Standards / organizations-United States
    • NFPA - NEC ( 1897 )
    • NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE
    • NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970
    • OSHA ( 1970 )
    • NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA
    • Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 )
    • NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC
  • ES Products...
  • ES Auditing Techniques
    • Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique
    • Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment
    • Benchmarking against applicable standards:
      • NFPA 780 Lightning Protection
      • NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance
      • NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety
  • Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk - Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues - correction at the next available opportunity . Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation
  • RCCB Tripping
    • How do we solve this problem in India ?
    Bypass it !!!
  • ES related Information
    • Indian Electricity Rule, 1956 (2000 rev.):
    • (MoP, CEA web site, http://powermin.nic.in)
    • Lightning Protection Risk Assessment: www.furse.com
    • National Electrical Safety Foundation : www.nesf.org
    • Free safety Power Point presentations : http://siri.org/
    • Electrical Accidents : http://www.safteng.net :
    • IEEE IAS ES WS –Delhi Dec. 2004
  • Standards & Codes
    • NFPA 70 E & B- E-Safety & Maintenance
    • NFPA 780- Lightning Protection
    • API RP 2003- Static Electricity
    • API RP 500- HAC
    • OSHA 29 CFR- part 1910- Arc Flash
    • NFPA 70- NEC
    • IEEE 1584- Arc Flash Protection
    • NFPA 77- Static Electricity
    • OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety
  • Summary
    • Electricity will try to reach ground even if it means going through a person
    • Earthing has an important role in ES
    • Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged
    • Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified
    • Understand effects of Lightning- it could save your life!
    • Major fires, explosions occurred due to ESD , lightning in flammable atmospheres
  • Thank you!! Pillai Sreejith [email_address]