Pollution Effects On Health


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shafaque saira malik 's presentation on effects of pollution on health in the international training on effects of climate change and AQM

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Pollution Effects On Health

  1. 1. HEALTH EFFECTS OF POLLUTION Presented by: Shafaque Saira Malik Lecturer ,Deptt of CS & IT University of Balochistan
  3. 3. <ul><li>December 4th 1952, -> fog; </li></ul><ul><li>Smog lasted for 5 days & led to 4000 more deaths than usual. </li></ul><ul><li>The deaths were attributed to the increase in air pollution during the period, with 7 fold ↑ in SO2, and 3-fold ↑ in smoke than before </li></ul><ul><li>The peak in the number of deaths coincided with the peak in both smoke and SO2 pollution levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1 </li></ul><ul><li>SO2 & SMOKE LEVELS BY DEATH RATE </li></ul>HISTORY
  4. 4. HEALTH EFFECTS: LONDON SMOG 1952 <ul><li>RESPIRATORY EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of deaths occurred due to influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbation in Asthma, Bronchitis, Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Short term decrease in breathing ability </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in chest pains </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the lungs and damage to respiratory cells </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent lung damage & reduced life quality due to ozone. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased number of asthma attacks due to nitrogen dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of oxygen in the bloodstream in those with heart disease due to carbon monoxide. </li></ul>
  5. 5. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION IN GENERAL <ul><ul><li>The air we breathe 26000 times per day contains nitrogen, oxygen, CO2, water, argon, other trace gases, and a volume of 14,000 liters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation is effected when absorbed through pores, soil, and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife and animals can get affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition on water bodies affecting its quality, and organisms in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity and symptoms experienced depend on the pollutant, its concentration in air, length of exposure and individual sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic nature of particulate matter (PM) could vary </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. HEALTH EFFECTS IN GENERAL <ul><li>Healthy individuals may not notice effects from air pollution, except when the pollution is very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who have asthma, heart conditions or lung diseases, may experience distress and other health effects, even at lower levels of </li></ul><ul><li>pollution. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Annual Deaths <ul><li>Air Pollution 23,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Drunk Driving 17,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Murder 20,000 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who is at Risk? <ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Prior heart or lung disease patients </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetics </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who work/exercise outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise healthy adults and children </li></ul>
  9. 10. 4 Main Pollutants <ul><li>Ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Particulates, especially PM 2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Air-borne toxics </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul>
  10. 11. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION <ul><li>NATURAL </li></ul><ul><li>Gases and ash from volcanoes, windborne dust, grit and pollen </li></ul><ul><li>Human body is designed to cope with some of natural pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Air passages produce mucus to trap particles from dust and grit from nose to lower bronchioles; mechanism of sneezing and cough are further extremes </li></ul><ul><li>MAN MADE </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Factories </li></ul><ul><li>Power stations </li></ul><ul><li>Airplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic coal, wood, biomass, rice husk </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Altered rheology </li></ul><ul><li>Increased coagulability </li></ul><ul><li>Translocated particles </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral thrombosis </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced oxygen saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Increased CRP </li></ul><ul><li>Proinflammatory mediators </li></ul><ul><li>Leukocyte & platelet activation </li></ul>PM Inhalation <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cerebrovascular ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Altered cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>autonomic function </li></ul><ul><li>Increased dysrhythmic susceptibility </li></ul><ul><li>Altered cardiac repolarization </li></ul><ul><li>Increased myocardial </li></ul><ul><li>ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Vasculature </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis, </li></ul><ul><li>accelerated progression of and destabilization of plaques </li></ul><ul><li>Endothelial dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Vasoconstriction and Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative stress </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated progression </li></ul><ul><li>and exacerbation of COPD </li></ul><ul><li>Increased respiratory symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Effected pulmonary reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced lung function </li></ul>There are multiple mechanistic pathways have complex interactions and interdependencies Figure 2
  12. 13. Carbon Monoxide (CO) <ul><li>HB binds with CO to form carboxy-hemoglobin (COHB) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents O2 transport to tissues -> hypoxia </li></ul><ul><li>Binding affinity of CO to HB is 250 times > O2 </li></ul><ul><li>Brain, heart, & muscles are sensitive to hypoxia; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of COHB levels lead to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% to loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% to confusion and collapse upon exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% to headache, fatigue, and impaired judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-20% to ↓ visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, complex tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.9-4.5%--decreased exercise capacity in healthy men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance for those vulnerable to cardiac conditions (e.g. angina) </li></ul><ul><li>Other nervous system effects are disturbances in hand eye coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Reported to cause Low Birth Weight </li></ul>
  13. 14. Ozone <ul><li>Volatile organic compounds (VOC) react with sunlight to form NO2; a by-product of high temperature & automobile combustion </li></ul><ul><li>organic chemicals like gasoline; vaporize easily </li></ul><ul><li>SHORT TERM EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing difficulty during outdoor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Throat and lung irritation </li></ul><ul><li>LONG-TERM EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Premature aging of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased lung function </li></ul><ul><li>Worsened symptoms of asthma, emphysema, and other lung diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation and damage of the lining of the lungs </li></ul>
  14. 15. Ozone: Other Effects <ul><li>allergy symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory infections </li></ul><ul><li>ear infections </li></ul><ul><li>emphysema attacks </li></ul><ul><li>overall death rates </li></ul>
  15. 16. Sulphur dioxide <ul><li>Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a water soluble, colorless, gas with a sharp odor; that reacts with airborne solid particles </li></ul><ul><li>Irritates the eyes and air passages. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common source is burning of fossil & fuel, combustion, smelting, manufacture of sulphuric acid, conversion of wood pulp to paper, incineration of refuse and production of elemental sulphur. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal burning accounts for about 50% of annual global emissions, with oil burning accounting for a further 25-30%. </li></ul><ul><li>The natural source is volcanoes. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Table 1 TYPES OF POLLUTANTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS Short term respiratory symptoms; irritant effect on lungs & airway inflammation Photochemical pollutant Ozone Cancer (long term effect) Petrol, deisel Rubber tyre Benzene/ Butadiene Intellectual development, poisoning Petrol, paints industry Lead Breathing difficulties, irritation of eyes, nose, throat and lungs. Asthmatics Coal & heavy oil combustion SO2 COHB, Headaches, nausea, dizziness Traffic, fuel, industry CO Respiratory, Cardiovascular Long-term effects? IMR, LBW? Traffic, industry Biomass PM airway irritation; respiratory infection & impaired lung function Vehicles Domestic NO2 HEALTH EFFECTS SOURCES TYPE
  17. 19. “ Pyramid of Effects”
  18. 20. Particulate Physiology <ul><li>Penetrate deeply into lungs to alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Irritate lung linings-more asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate immune system inflammatory proteins </li></ul>
  19. 21. Diesel Exhaust Permanently Changes Immune Response <ul><li>More Asthmatic and Allergic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the culprits </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel and vehicle exhaust and coal smoke </li></ul>Nel, A.E., et al., J of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2001
  20. 22. Air Pollution and Next-Day Heart Attacks <ul><li>Short term exposure to particulates (PM2.5) increases the incidence of heart attacks for one day following exposure </li></ul><ul><li>As air pollution goes up the risk of heart attack goes up </li></ul>Increased Particulate Air Pollution and the Triggering of Myocardial Infarction Peters, et al.; Circulation, June 12, 2001, vol. 103
  21. 23. Traffic Emissions and Death <ul><li>Near-road group had: </li></ul><ul><li>Almost double the death rate from heart and lung disease </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 times higher overall death rate </li></ul>Hoek, G., et al. “Association between Mortality and Indicators of Traffic-related Air Pollution in the Netherlands: A Cohort Study” Lancet 360 (2002) 1203
  22. 24. References <ul><li>www.lungusa.org (Annotated Bibliography of Recent Studies…) </li></ul><ul><li>www.lungnc.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.healtheffects.org (Understanding the Health Effects of Components of the Particulate Matter Mix: Progress and Next Steps) </li></ul><ul><li>www.epa.gov/airnow </li></ul><ul><li>www.nga.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.landofsky.org/airquality </li></ul><ul><li>www.cleartheair.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.airtrust.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.saminet.orgAIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH MEDICAL EVIDENCE by Clay Ballantine, M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION by Dr. Amna Rehana Siddiqui MD PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor, </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Community Health Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Aga Khan University . </li></ul>
  23. 25. Final Points <ul><li>Health and economic issue </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize air quality improvement in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Over half the problem is traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Massive hidden health costs in transportation and power pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed risk on all population groups, especially our children and elderly </li></ul>
  24. 26. Human Chain can combat pollution Thank You