Rome This is my roman project and this is for history. By: Samuel Alexander Lippe
The Pantheon was a temple in honor of the Olympic gods; in fact, the word pantheon is Greek for "of all the gods." It is the best-preserved of all the Roman monuments. The original Pantheon was constructed by M. Vispanius Agrippa in 27 B.C. The Pantheon we see today, however, is a reconstruction built by the Emperor Hadrian, perhaps after a fire. In A.D. 609, Pope Boniface VIII received the building as a gift from the emperor of Byzantium. He made it into a Christian church dedicated it to the Madonna and the martyrs.
Although partially destroyed, the Coliseum is still enormous, one of the largest Ancient Roman ruins. In A.D. 70, the emperor Vespasian began construction of the 45-50,000 seat stadium (that's larger than some baseball stadiums of today!). The building was completed in A.D. 75 and inaugurated by Vespasian's son Titus. It was used for shows, mostly gladiatorial combats and wild beast hunts.
The Roman Forum is a square which is surrounded by some of the most ancient Roman monuments. The Forum is also the origin of the first Latin population 2600 years ago.
The Arch of Titus, Roman Forum
The Arch of Titus was dedicated to Titus for his victory over Judea by the Senate, the Roman population, and Titus' brother Domitianus in 79 A.D. Inside the arch are engravings depicting the conquest of Jerusalem.
The Arch of Septimius Severus, Roman Forum
Erected in 203 A.D. to honor Septimius Severus for his victories, the Arch of Septimius Severus has an interesting history. The arch has an inscription on top to Septimius Severus and his son, Caracalla, but upon closer inspection one can see that part of the inscription hides another inscription. Apparently the arch was originally dedicated not only to Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla but also to Severus' other son, Geta. After Severus' death, the two sons divided the imperial power, but less than one year later, in 212, Caracalla killed Geta and became Emperor. Of course Caracalla wanted to destroy any memories of his brother, so he covered the reference to Geta with a different inscription.
The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, Roman Forum
The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina was built in 141 A.D., during the reign of Antoninus Pius to honor his wife Faustina. The Senate dedicated the temple in her memory and proclaimed her a goddess after her death. Antoninus' name was added after his death, and placed first.
The Circus Maximus
The Circus Maximums was a track used primarily for horse-racing, although it was used on occasion for hunts or mock battles. It had 300,000 seats and was famous throughout the ancient world. Built in the 6th century B.C. during the time of the Tarquins, the history of the Circus Maximums is troubled. It was twice destroyed by fire and on at least two occasions the stands collapsed, killing many people. There was a long barrier (spina) that ran down the middle of the track, in the area of the picture where you now see only grass. In addition to obelisks, fountains, statues, and columns, there were also two temples on the spina, one with seven large eggs and one with seven dolphins. At the end of each lap of the seven lap race, one egg and one dolphin would be removed from each temple, to keep the spectators and the racers updated on how many laps had been completed. In the Circus Maximums, unlike the amphitheatres of the day, men and women could sit together. The Circus Maximums also had the ancient equivalent of the skyboxes you see now in stadiums for professional sports. The Emperor had a reserved seat, as did senators, knights, those who financially backed the race, those who presided over the competition, and the jury that awarded the prize to the winners. The last race held at the Circus Maximums was in 549 A.D., nearly a full millennium after the track's construction
The ROMAN EMPIRE
The first distinguishable culture in Italy was the Etruscan culture. These people developed cities in the areas around Florence. Meanwhile, the Greeks had a toe-hold on the heel and sole of the Italian boot. But in the 7th Century BC, the city of Rome was founded and the history of the great civilization began.
Rome, the capital city of Italy since 1871, is a city with an incredibly rich history. It was the main city of the vast Roman Empire, whose control reached from Rome to places as far away as England. The Roman Empire left an enduring legacy throughout Western civilization -- and many enduring ruins throughout Rome. You can visit some of these ruins by following the links below.
The Piazza Navona is one of the reasons that Rome is also known as the "City of Fountains." Built where a Roman stadium (Domitian's Stadium) once existed, the piazza is home of the Fountain of the Four Rivers (Fontana dei Fiumi), built by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, as well as the Neptune Fountain (see picture below). At each end of the Piazza there are small fountains. As you stroll the piazza, you sense the opulence and beauty that filled Rome in the 17th and 18th centuries. You can also see another one of Bernini's famous sculptures--a large-tusked elephant supporting an Egyptian obelisk, as well as the Church of Sant'Agnese in Agone, visible in the background of the picture.