Appendicular Skeleton


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Appendicular Skeleton

  1. 1. The Appendicular Skeleton<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Clavicle<br />Clavicle<br />Pectoral<br />girdle<br />Scapula<br />Scapula<br />Humerus<br />Hip bone<br />Pelvis<br />Sacrum<br />Ulna<br />Radius<br />Carpus<br />Metacarpal<br />bones<br />Phalanges<br />Femur<br />Patella<br />Fibula<br />Tibia<br />Metatarsal bones<br />Tarsus<br />Phalanges<br />(a) Anterior view<br />(b) Posterior view<br />
  3. 3. Clavicle<br />Sternal<br />end<br />Acromial<br />end<br />Conoid tubercle<br />(a) Superior view<br />Conoid tubercle<br />Sternal<br />end<br />Acromial<br />end<br />(b) Inferior view<br />
  4. 4. Scapula<br />Superior<br />border<br />Superior angle<br />Suprascapular<br />notch<br />Acromion<br />Acromion<br />Supraspinous<br />fossa<br />Coracoid<br />process<br />Lateral<br />angle<br />Glenoid<br />cavity<br />Spine<br />Subscapular<br />fossa<br />Infraspinous<br />fossa<br />Lateral<br />border<br />Medial<br />border<br />Inferior angle<br />(a) Anterior view<br />(b) Posterior view<br />
  5. 5. Humerus<br />Greater<br />tubercle<br />Greater<br />tubercle<br />Head<br />Lesser<br />tubercle<br />Anatomical<br />neck<br />Surgical<br />neck<br />Intertubercular<br />sulcus<br />Nutrient<br />foramen<br />Deltoid<br />tuberosity<br />Deltoid<br />tuberosity<br />Coronoid<br />fossa<br />Radial<br />fossa<br />Medial<br />supracondylar<br />ridge<br />Lateral<br />supracondylar<br />ridge<br />Lateral<br />epicondyle<br />Medial<br />epicondyle<br />Lateral<br />epicondyle<br />Capitulum<br />Olecranon<br />fossa<br />Trochlea<br />(a) Anterior view<br />(b) Posterior view<br />
  6. 6. Shoulder Joint<br />Acromioclavicular<br />joint<br />Acromion of scapula<br />Clavicle<br />Head of humerus<br />Coracobrachialis<br />muscle<br />Deltoid muscle<br />(cut and folded back)<br />Pectoralis major<br />muscle<br />Biceps brachii muscle:<br />Short head<br />Long head<br />(a) Anterior dissection<br />© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Timothy L. Vacula, photographer<br />
  7. 7. Radius and Ulna<br />Olecranon<br />Olecranon<br />Trochlear notch<br />Radial notch<br />of ulna<br />Head of<br />radius<br />Head of<br />radius<br />Coronoid process<br />Neck of<br />radius<br />Neck of<br />radius<br />Ulnar tuberosity<br />Radial<br />tuberosity<br />Ulna<br />Radius<br />Interosseous<br />borders<br />Interosseous<br />membrane<br />Ulnar notch<br />of radius<br />Head of ulna<br />Styloid process<br />Styloid<br />process<br />Styloid<br />process<br />Articular facets<br />(a) Anterior view<br />(b) Posterior view<br />
  8. 8. Bones of the Hand<br />Distal phalanx II<br />Key to carpal bones<br />Distal row<br />Middle phalanx II<br />Proximal row<br />Proximal phalanx II<br />Distal<br />phalanx I<br />II<br />III<br />IV<br />Head<br />V<br />Phalanges<br />Body<br />Proximal<br />phalanx I<br />Base<br />I<br />Head<br />Body<br />First<br />metacarpal<br />Metacarpal<br />bones<br />Base<br />Hamulus of hamate<br />Trapezoid<br />Hamate<br />Trapezium<br />Carpal<br />bones<br />Pisiform<br />Carpal<br />bones<br />Capitate<br />Triquetrum<br />Scaphoid<br />Lunate<br />(a) Anterior view<br />
  9. 9. Coxal Bones<br />Iliac<br />crest<br />Iliac<br />fossa<br />Base of<br />sacrum<br />Ilium<br />Sacroiliac joint<br />Anterior<br />superior<br />iliac spine<br />Pelvic surface<br />of sacrum<br />Anterior inferior<br />iliac spine<br />Pelvic inlet<br />Spine<br />Coccyx<br />Acetabulum<br />Ischium<br />Body<br />Interpubic<br />disc<br />Ramus<br />Obturator<br />foramen<br />Superior ramus<br />Pubis<br />Inferior ramus<br />Body<br />Pubic symphysis<br />(a) Anterosuperior view<br />
  10. 10. Lateral View<br />Ilium<br />Ischium<br />Pubis<br />Iliac crest<br />Anterior gluteal<br />line<br />Inferior gluteal<br />line<br />Anterior superior<br />iliac spine<br />Posterior gluteal<br />line<br />Posterior superior<br />iliac spine<br />Posterior inferior<br />iliac spine<br />Anterior inferior<br />iliac spine<br />Greater sciatic notch<br />Body of ilium<br />Acetabulum<br />Superior ramus<br />of pubis<br />Ischial spine<br />Body of pubis<br />Lesser sciatic notch<br />Inferior ramus<br />of pubis<br />Body of ischium<br />Obturator foramen<br />Ischial tuberosity<br />Ramus of ischium<br />(a) Lateral view<br />
  11. 11. Medial View<br />Iliac crest<br />Iliac fossa<br />Anterior superior<br />iliac spine<br />Posterior superior<br />iliac spine<br />Arcuate line<br />Auricular surface<br />Anterior inferior<br />iliac spine<br />Posterior inferior<br />iliac spine<br />Greater sciatic notch<br />Ischial spine<br />Pectineal line<br />Location of<br />pubic symphysis<br />Obturator foramen<br />Ramus of ischium<br />(b) Medial view<br />
  12. 12. Femur<br />Fovea capitis<br />Greater trochanter<br />Greater trochanter<br />Head<br />Neck<br />Intertrochanteric crest<br />Intertrochanteric line<br />Lesser trochanter<br />Longest, heaviest, and strongest bone<br />Articulates proximally with acetabulum of hip<br />Articulates distally with tibia and patella<br />Spiral line<br />Gluteal tuberosity<br />Linea aspera<br />Shaft<br />Medial supracondylar line<br />Lateral supracondylar<br />line<br />Popliteal surface<br />Lateral epicondyle<br />Lateral epicondyle<br />Medial epicondyle<br />Patellar surface<br />Lateral condyle<br />Intercondylar fossa<br />Medial condyle<br />Base of patella<br />Articular facets<br />Apex of patella<br />(b) Posterior view<br />(a) Anterior view<br />
  13. 13. Coxal Joint<br />Acetabular labrum<br />Acetabulum<br />Head of femur<br />Greater trochanter<br />Round ligament<br />Shaft of femur<br />(a) Anterior dissection<br />© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Timothy L. Vacula, photographer<br />
  14. 14. Coxal Joint<br />Round<br />ligament (cut)<br />Fovea<br />capitis<br />Acetabulum<br />Head of<br />femur<br />Labrum<br />Greater<br />trochanter<br />Ischial<br />tuberosity<br />Femur<br />Obturator<br />membrane<br />Transverse<br />acetabular<br />ligament<br />(b) Lateral view, femur retracted<br />
  15. 15. Tibia and Fibula<br />Intercondylar eminence<br />Medial<br />condyle<br />Lateral condyle<br />Apex<br />Head of fibula<br />Tibial<br />tuberosity<br />Proximal tibiofibular<br />joint<br />Interosseous<br />membrane<br />Lateral surface<br />Anterior crest<br />Tibia<br />Fibula<br />Distal tibiofibular joint<br />Medial<br /> malleolus<br />Lateral malleolus<br />Lateral malleolus<br />(b) Posterior view<br />(a) Anterior view<br />
  16. 16. Medial<br />Lateral<br />Knee Joint<br />Femur:<br />Shaft<br />Patellar surface<br />Medial condyle<br />Lateral condyle<br />Joint capsule<br />Joint cavity:<br />Anterior cruciate<br />ligament<br />Medial meniscus<br />Lateral meniscus<br />Tibia:<br />Lateral condyle<br />Medial condyle<br />Tuberosity<br />Patellar ligament<br />Patella<br />(posterior surface)<br />Articular facets<br />Quadriceps<br />tendon (reflected)<br />© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray, photographer/Don Kincaid, dissections<br />
  17. 17. Femur<br />Femur<br />Medial<br />condyle<br />Patellar surface<br />Anterior cruciate<br />ligament<br />Medial condyle<br />Lateral<br />condyle<br />Tibial<br />collateral<br />ligament<br />Posterior cruciate<br />ligament<br />Fibular<br />collateral<br />ligament<br />Fibular collateral<br />ligament<br />Anterior cruciate<br />ligament<br />Medial<br />meniscus<br />Lateral meniscus<br />Lateral<br />meniscus<br />Medial meniscus<br />Articular cartilage<br />of tibia<br />Posterior<br />cruciate<br />ligament<br />Tibial collateral<br />ligament<br />Transverse<br />ligament<br />Patellar ligament<br />(cut)<br />Fibula<br />Fibula<br />Tibia<br />Tibia<br />(b) Posterior view<br />(a) Anterior view<br />Quadriceps<br />femoris<br />Quadriceps<br />femoris tendon<br />Lateral meniscus<br />Posterior cruciate<br />ligament<br />Femur<br />Suprapatellar<br />bursa<br />Bursa under lateral<br />head of gastrocnemius<br />Medial meniscus<br />Prepatellar bursa<br />Synovial<br />membrane<br />Joint capsule<br />Patella<br />Articular cartilage<br />Medial condyle<br />of tibia<br />Synovial membrane<br />Joint cavity<br />Meniscus<br />Infrapatellar fat pad<br />Superficial<br />infrapatellar bursa<br />Anterior cruciate<br />ligament<br />Lateral condyle<br />of tibia<br />Patellar ligament<br />Tibia<br />Deep<br />infrapatellar bursa<br />(c) Sagittal section<br />(d) Superior view of tibia and menisci<br />
  18. 18. Bones of the Foot<br />Distal phalanx I<br />Distal<br />phalanx V<br />Proximal phalanx I<br />Middle<br />phalanx V<br />Proximal<br />phalanx V<br />Metatarsal<br />II<br />I<br />III<br />IV<br />V<br />Medial cuneiform<br />Intermediate cuneiform<br />Lateral cuneiform<br />Navicular<br />Cuboid<br />Talus<br />Calcaneus<br />Trochlear surface<br />of talus<br />Key to tarsal bones<br />Distal group<br />Proximal group<br />Tuberosity of calcaneus<br />(a) Superior (dorsal) view<br />