Tourism Impacts on Indigenous people

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  • 1. Tourism impact on indigenous community Ewa Legowik 06058619 Hunter Marrian 07062117
  • 2. Overview
    • Definition of indigenous community
    • Ecuador case study
    • Australia case study
    • East Africa case study
    • Conclusion/Discussion
  • 3. What is indigenous community?
    • “ Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing on those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system” (United Nations, 2004).
    Adapted from Google images (2009).
  • 4. Distinguishing factors
    • Occupation of ancestral lands or part of them
    • Common ancestry with the original occupants of these lands
    • Culture in general, or in specific manifestations (such as religion, living under a tribal system, membership of an indigenous community, dress, means of livelihood, lifestyle, etc.)
    • Language (whether used as the only language, as mother-tongue, as the habitual means of communication at home or in the family, or as the main, preferred, habitual, general or normal language)
    • Residence on certain parts of the country, or in certain regions of the world (United Nations, 2004).
    Adapted from Google images (2009).
  • 5. Ecuador Case Study
    • About 45,000 people in six indigenous communities inhabit the Amazon region of Ecuador
    • The Amazon region in the eastern part of the country is receiving a greater number of tourists keen to explore the immense ecological and cultural diversity of this region
    • The relationship between tourists and the indigenous community is directed and managed by the tour operator or the guide (Drumm, 1991).
    Adapted from Google images (2009).
  • 6. Positives and Negatives of Tourism
    • Traditional ceramic production techniques are being positively encouraged by tourism in the region
    • Tour operator involves the local indigenous community in the development of tourism, which benefits the community financially
    • But…the increased economic power brought by tourism, caused inter-tribal jealousies and rivalries between the indigenous communities involved (Sionas and Secoyas). The Sionas are trying to monopolize access to tourism benefits and exclude the Secoyas.
    • Tourism is encouraging young men to abandon their plots of land to work as guides and porters. As a result, food production in the abandoned community suffers and contributions to communal work are lost (Drumm, 1991).
  • 7. Positives and Negatives of Tourism
    • Tourism is seen by indigenous leaders as a disruptive force in their communities, especially children who are becoming attracted to the foreign style of life
    • Lack of understanding of values and customs by tourists can lead to aggressive behaviour of local people.
    • Foreign customs displayed by the tourists are also stressful to local communities. For example, nude bathing in lakes and rivers and smoking marijuana are frequently cited as offensive tourist behaviour.
    • Romantic involvement between tourists and natives is increasingly cause for community concern. Traditional culture is broken down by a foreigner residing in the village (Drumm, 1991).
  • 8. Australia Case Study
    • The Djabugay people live in North Queensland, Australia, a popular tourist destination.
    • Tjapukai Aboriginal Cultural Park is the place that features Djabugay culture.
    • In The Park, Djabugay community members are involved in the representation and presentation of their cultural heritage to tourists ( Dyer et al ., 2002).
    Adapted from Google images (2009).
  • 9. Impact of Tourism
    • Positives:
    • Revival of Djabugay culture
    • Employment opportunities
    • Working together with other Djabugay community members
    • Increased cross-cultural understanding
    • Improved material welfare
    • Negatives:
    • Degradation of Djabugay culture
    • Exploitation of the Djabugay community
    • Minimal tourist/Djabugay interaction
    • Limited material improvement for the Djabugay ( Dyer et al ., 2002).
  • 10. Major issues
    • The community does not operate as an equal participant in the Park and therefore does not control or benefit fully from the presentation of its culture for tourist consumption.
    • Levels of attainment in the tourism industry are limited for Aboriginal people because their skills and circumstances are different from those required. Thus local people overall are usually employed in menial, low-paid positions in tourist enterprises.
    • The Djabugay people lack power and influence in the Park because of their minority shareholding, minimal voting powers, and lack of employee and managerial representation ( Dyer et al ., 2002).
    Adapted from Google images (2009).
  • 11. East Africa Case Study
    • Tourism in Africa has had profound effects on indigenous communities:
    • Wide scale eviction from their land
    • Economic dislocation
    • Breakdown of traditional values
    • Environmental degradation
    Adapted from Google images (2009).
  • 12. Major Issues
    • Vast numbers of lodges and camps were established near reserves making them major revenue earners.
    • 70% of protected lands and wildlife preserves are Maasai land.
    • Many of the Maasai were forced off their land.
    • Traditional economic activity was attacked for being primitive and destructive.
    • Disadvantaged from job opportunities.
    • Commercialized culture
  • 13. Threats from tourism.
    • Commodification – Turning local culture into commodities due to tourisms expectations. (reconstructed ethnicity)
    • Staged authenticity – The performing of shows as if they were in real life, as tourists want a glimpse of local culture and atmosphere staged authenticity is inevitable.
    • Cultural Erosion – Commodification of cultural goods as tourists always want souvenirs. Craftsmen will respond to growing demand and may make changes to designs to meet the needs of the tourists.
    • Economic Inequity – The majority of tourists who visit this region are from societies with different lifestyles and consumption patterns to the Maasai
    • Westernization – Cultural clashes can occur due to social interaction between cultures that without tourism would probably not happen. This can affect ethnicity, religion, values, language and values.
  • 14. Positive Impacts
    • Tourism is the second largest source of foreign exchange revenue after agriculture.
    • Diversity of culture is a massive attraction for tourists.
    • Conservation and preservation of the environment (natural and cultural heritage.)
    • Development of eco-tourism has encouraged local support to Maasai group ranches with; Schools, Water sources and Medical facilities.
  • 15. Conclusion
    • Tourism cannot develop in a sustainable fashion without greater involvement of, and consultation with, local indigenous communities and their representative organizations.
    • The communities themselves see very little benefit from tourism
    • Local people are totally unprepared for dealing with tourism and so risk exploitation and objectification by the industry
    • An attitude of antagonism to tourism is beginning to establish itself in several communities.
    • Closer collaboration between indigenous organisations and the tourism industry is necessary and would be beneficial for both.
    • Antagonism towards the tourism industry is due in part to a lack of appreciation and understanding of indigenous culture by guides. Solution: attempt to correct these failings by giving greater emphasis to multicultural awareness in its guide certification courses.
  • 16. To prevent revenge!! Question Time ? How do you feel about indigenous communities being exploited by the tourism industry?
  • 17. References
    • Drumm, A. (1991). An integrated impact assessment of nature tourism in Ecuador’s Amazon region. London: University of Greenwich
    • Dyer, P., Aberdeen, L. and Schuler, S. (2003). Tourism impacts on an Australian indigenous community : a Djabugay case study. Maroochydore: Pergamon.
    • Google Images (2009). Indigenous community. [Online]. Retrieved on 1 March 2009 from:
    • http://images.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi
    • United Nations (2004). The concept of indigenous peoples. New York: United Nations.
    • Theobald. W, F,. (2005). Global Tourism . 3rd Ed. London: Betterworth-Heinemann
    • Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (2007). Tourism and indigenous peoples: issues and implications. London: Butterworth-Heinmann
    • Berger, J. (1996). The challenge of integrating Maasai traditions with tourism . London: John Wiley & Sons