lean- ISD Session #415 TRAINING ’98 Conference Presentation Peter R. Hybert Guy W. Wallace CADDI, Inc.
lean <ul><li>Concept from the book: </li></ul><ul><li>The Machine That Changed the World </li></ul><ul><li>by: </li></ul><...
lean <ul><li>Best of both  mass  and  craft  production </li></ul><ul><li>Principles and attributes of  lean </li></ul><ul...
lean <ul><li>Attributes of a  lean  process/methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined process/steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
ISD <ul><li>Common Benefits Common Complaints </li></ul><ul><li>More interactivity and/or testing </li></ul><ul><li>More e...
ISD <ul><li>Common Benefits Common Complaints </li></ul>The bottom line—it is difficult to get consistent, reliable result...
lean- ISD <ul><li>lean  applied to ISD would have beneficial impacts on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><...
lean- ISD via the PACT SM  Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>CAD Curriculum Architecture ...
lean- ISD via the PACT SM  Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>CAD MCD Curriculum Architect...
lean- ISD via the PACT SM  Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD MCD Curriculum Archi...
lean- ISD via the PACT SM  Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT Analysis MCD Cu...
lean- ISD via the PACT SM  Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT Analysis MCD Pr...
lean- ISD via the PACT SM  Processes for T&D <ul><li>Three levels of ISD </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT Analysis MCD Project Plann...
lean- ISD via the PACT SM  Processes for T&D <ul><li>Akin to systems engineering of products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Car dev...
lean- Car Development Component Design & Development Auto Integrated Systems Design Customer Requirements & Supplier Capab...
lean- Telecommunications Product Development Component Design & Development Network Integrated Systems Design Customer Req...
lean- Software Development Component Design & Development Application Suite Systems Design Customer Requirements & Supplie...
PACT Processes for T&D CAD -  Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul>
PACT Processes for T&D CAD -  Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>...
PACT Processes for T&D CAD -  Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis and systems engineering design of the T&D pr...
PACT Processes for T&D CAD -  Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>...
PACT Processes for T&D MCD -  Modular Curriculum Development <ul><li>Midlevel analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Akin t...
PACT Processes for T&D MCD -  Modular Curriculum Development <ul><li>Midlevel analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Akin t...
PACT Processes for T&D IAD -  Instructional Activity Development <ul><li>Microlevel analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>...
PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Similar front-end analysis for each PACT Process for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT An...
PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis
PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data
PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data Performanc...
PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data Performanc...
PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data Performanc...
PACT Processes for T&D Project Planning & Management <ul><li>PACT embraces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured processes </li...
PACT Processes for T&D Project Planning & Management <ul><li>Planning and communications tools and templates </li></ul><ul...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process has a gated process model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gate...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process has a gated process model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gate...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process has a gated process model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gate...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/ada...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/ada...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/ada...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/ada...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/ada...
PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/ada...
PACT Processes for T&D Teams & Roles/Responsibilities <ul><li>Typical Teams — CAD </li></ul>Project Steering Team Analysis...
PACT Processes for T&D Teams & Roles/Responsibilities <ul><li>Typical Teams — MCD </li></ul>Project Steering Team Analysis...
PACT Processes for T&D Teams & Roles/Responsibilities <ul><li>Typical Teams — IAD </li></ul>Project Steering Team Analysis...
PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates <ul><li>Word Processing Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan  </li></ul><ul...
PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates Analysis <ul><li>Word Processing Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audience Da...
PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates Design <ul><li>Word Processing Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Event Specs and Maps...
PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates Development Word Processing Templates Tools and Go-by’s
lean- ISD via the PACT Processes for T&D Business Benefits <ul><li>Customer/Stakeholder </li></ul><ul><li>Project is visib...
lean- ISD via the PACT Processes for T&D Business Benefits Ensures voice of the customer and voice of the supplier in ISD ...
lean- ISD Summary <ul><ul><li>A blend of the best of both  craft  and  mass  production approaches, applied to ISD </li></...
lean- ISD Summary <ul><ul><li>A blend of the best of both  craft  and  mass  production approaches, applied to ISD </li></...
lean- ISD Thank You!
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Lean ISD - for Training Conference 1998

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A Presentation done by myself and partner Pete Hybert in 1998 for the Training Conference.

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Lean ISD - for Training Conference 1998

  1. 1. lean- ISD Session #415 TRAINING ’98 Conference Presentation Peter R. Hybert Guy W. Wallace CADDI, Inc.
  2. 2. lean <ul><li>Concept from the book: </li></ul><ul><li>The Machine That Changed the World </li></ul><ul><li>by: </li></ul><ul><li>James P. Womack </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel T. Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Roos </li></ul>
  3. 3. lean <ul><li>Best of both mass and craft production </li></ul><ul><li>Principles and attributes of lean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient use of resources and elimination of waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. lean <ul><li>Attributes of a lean process/methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined process/steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined roles/responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard tools/templates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ISD <ul><li>Common Benefits Common Complaints </li></ul><ul><li>More interactivity and/or testing </li></ul><ul><li>More effective instructional process </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on job performance and learning versus content </li></ul><ul><li>Better use of instructional media </li></ul><ul><li>Takes too long </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to forecast and manage </li></ul><ul><li>Variable results— depends on the designer </li></ul><ul><li>Each designer uses his/her own process, formats, defaults, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ISD <ul><li>Common Benefits Common Complaints </li></ul>The bottom line—it is difficult to get consistent, reliable results implementing ISD in a corporate training organization <ul><li>More interactivity and/or testing </li></ul><ul><li>More effective instructional process </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on job performance and learning versus content </li></ul><ul><li>Better use of instructional media </li></ul><ul><li>Takes too long </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to forecast and manage </li></ul><ul><li>Variable results— depends on the designer </li></ul><ul><li>Each designer uses his/her own process, formats, defaults, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. lean- ISD <ul><li>lean applied to ISD would have beneficial impacts on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. lean- ISD via the PACT SM Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>CAD Curriculum Architecture Design
  9. 9. lean- ISD via the PACT SM Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>CAD MCD Curriculum Architecture Design Modular Curriculum Development
  10. 10. lean- ISD via the PACT SM Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD MCD Curriculum Architecture Design Modular Curriculum Development Instructional Activity Development
  11. 11. lean- ISD via the PACT SM Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT Analysis MCD Curriculum Architecture Design Modular Curriculum Development Instructional Activity Development
  12. 12. lean- ISD via the PACT SM Processes for T&D <ul><li>CADDI’s PACT Processes for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT Analysis MCD Project Planning & Management Curriculum Architecture Design Modular Curriculum Development Instructional Activity Development
  13. 13. lean- ISD via the PACT SM Processes for T&D <ul><li>Three levels of ISD </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT Analysis MCD Project Planning & Management Curriculum Architecture Design Modular Curriculum Development Instructional Activity Development
  14. 14. lean- ISD via the PACT SM Processes for T&D <ul><li>Akin to systems engineering of products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Car development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications product development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software development </li></ul></ul>Let’s look at some examples
  15. 15. lean- Car Development Component Design & Development Auto Integrated Systems Design Customer Requirements & Supplier Capabilities System Design & Development Project Planning & Management e.g., Four-door pickup truck e.g., H/V/AC system design e.g., Backseat fan control mechanism
  16. 16. lean- Telecommunications Product Development Component Design & Development Network Integrated Systems Design Customer Requirements & Supplier Capabilities System Design & Development Project Planning & Management e.g., Networked phone system e.g., Phone handset e.g., “Redial” button
  17. 17. lean- Software Development Component Design & Development Application Suite Systems Design Customer Requirements & Supplier Capabilities System Design & Development Project Planning & Management e.g., Integrated corporate financial system e.g., Spreadsheet application e.g., “Cut & paste” function
  18. 18. PACT Processes for T&D CAD - Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul>
  19. 19. PACT Processes for T&D CAD - Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis and systems engineering design of the T&D product line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular design product line </li></ul></ul>Product X
  20. 20. PACT Processes for T&D CAD - Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis and systems engineering design of the T&D product line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular design product line </li></ul></ul>Product Y Product X
  21. 21. <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis and systems engineering design of the T&D product line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular design product line </li></ul></ul>PACT Processes for T&D CAD - Curriculum Architecture Design Product X Product Y
  22. 22. PACT Processes for T&D CAD - Curriculum Architecture Design <ul><li>Macrolevel ISD analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis and systems engineering design of the T&D product line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular design product line </li></ul></ul>Product X Product Y CAD assists in a reuse strategy for modules/chunks of T&D content
  23. 23. PACT Processes for T&D MCD - Modular Curriculum Development <ul><li>Midlevel analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Akin to the ADDIE Model, also known as the “big block diagram,” from the work of Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, Robert Moran, and Robert Branson </li></ul>
  24. 24. PACT Processes for T&D MCD - Modular Curriculum Development <ul><li>Midlevel analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Akin to the ADDIE Model, also known as the “big block diagram,” from the work of Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, Robert Moran, and Robert Branson </li></ul>Analysis A Design D Development D Implementation I Evaluation E
  25. 25. PACT Processes for T&D IAD - Instructional Activity Development <ul><li>Microlevel analysis and design </li></ul><ul><li>Development of typical instructional elements or activities, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured, on-the-job training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Similar front-end analysis for each PACT Process for T&D </li></ul>IAD CAD PACT Analysis MCD Project Planning & Management
  27. 27. PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis
  28. 28. PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data
  29. 29. PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data Performance Modeling
  30. 30. PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data Performance Modeling Knowledge/Skill Analysis
  31. 31. PACT Processes for T&D Analysis <ul><li>Four types of ISD Analysis </li></ul>PACT Analysis Target Audience Data Performance Modeling Knowledge/Skill Analysis Existing T&D Assessment
  32. 32. PACT Processes for T&D Project Planning & Management <ul><li>PACT embraces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predefined roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer control of content/ supplier control of process </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. PACT Processes for T&D Project Planning & Management <ul><li>Planning and communications tools and templates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic engagement of customers and stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right people doing the right things at the right time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Plan templates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MCD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IAD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PST gate review meeting presentations </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process has a gated process model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gates are key customer/stakeholder review/approval/decision points </li></ul></ul>CAD Phase 4 Implementation Planning CAD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off CAD Phase 2 Analysis CAD Phase 3 Design
  35. 35. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process has a gated process model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gates are key customer/stakeholder review/approval/decision points </li></ul></ul>MCD Phase 4 Development/ Acquisition MCD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off MCD Phase 2 Analysis MCD Phase 3 Design MCD Phase 5 Pilot Test MCD Phase 6 Revision & Release
  36. 36. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process has a gated process model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gates are key customer/stakeholder review/approval/decision points </li></ul></ul>IAD Phase 4 Development IAD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off IAD Phase 2 Analysis IAD Phase 3 Design IAD Phase 5 Pilot Test IAD Phase 6 Revision & Release
  37. 37. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase combinations are possible </li></ul></ul>CAD Phase 4 Implementation Planning CAD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off CAD Phase 2 Analysis CAD Phase 3 Design
  38. 38. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase combinations are possible </li></ul></ul>CAD Phase 4 Implementation Planning CAD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off CAD Phases 2/3 Analysis/Design
  39. 39. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase combinations are possible </li></ul></ul>MCD Phase 4 Development/ Acquisition MCD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off MCD Phase 2 Analysis MCD Phase 3 Design MCD Phase 5 Pilot Test MCD Phase 6 Revision & Release
  40. 40. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase combinations are possible </li></ul></ul>MCD Phases 2/3 Analysis/Design MCD Phase 4 Development/ Acquisition MCD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off MCD Phase 5 Pilot Test MCD Phase 6 Revision & Release
  41. 41. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase combinations are possible </li></ul></ul>IAD Phase 4 Development IAD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off IAD Phase 2 Analysis IAD Phase 3 Design IAD Phase 5 Pilot Test IAD Phase 6 Revision & Release
  42. 42. PACT Processes for T&D Gated Project Phases <ul><li>Each PACT Process is the starting point for situational adjustment/adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase combinations are possible </li></ul></ul>IAD Phases 4/5/6 Development, Pilot Test, and Revision & Release IAD Phases 2/3 Analysis/Design IAD Phase 1 Project Planning & Kick-off
  43. 43. PACT Processes for T&D Teams & Roles/Responsibilities <ul><li>Typical Teams — CAD </li></ul>Project Steering Team Analysis Team Design Team Implementation Planning Team
  44. 44. PACT Processes for T&D Teams & Roles/Responsibilities <ul><li>Typical Teams — MCD </li></ul>Project Steering Team Analysis Team Design Team Development Team Pilot Test Team
  45. 45. PACT Processes for T&D Teams & Roles/Responsibilities <ul><li>Typical Teams — IAD </li></ul>Project Steering Team Analysis Team Design Team Development Team Pilot Test Team
  46. 46. PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates <ul><li>Word Processing Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Project Steering Team Review Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Invitation and Confirmation Letters </li></ul>Project Planning & Management <ul><li>Tools and Go-by’s </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder/Customer Interview Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul>
  47. 47. PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates Analysis <ul><li>Word Processing Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audience Data </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Model </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge/Skill Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Existing T&D Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis Team Kick-off Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Project Steering Team Review Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and Go-by’s </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis Report </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis Database </li></ul>
  48. 48. PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates Design <ul><li>Word Processing Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Event Specs and Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Module Specs and Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Specs and Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Specs </li></ul><ul><li>Project Steering Team Review Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Design Team Kick-off Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and Go-by’s </li></ul><ul><li>Design Document </li></ul><ul><li>Design Database </li></ul>
  49. 49. PACT Processes for T&D Tools and Templates Development Word Processing Templates Tools and Go-by’s
  50. 50. lean- ISD via the PACT Processes for T&D Business Benefits <ul><li>Customer/Stakeholder </li></ul><ul><li>Project is visible and predictable in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T&D quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment and returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project tasks and schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides managerial review and control points </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Puts ISD suppliers in control of instructional integrity within the parameters set by the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Templates and tools enable detailed project planning and communications with the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul><ul><li>T&D is performance oriented and will have a positive impact on learner’s ability to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Modular structure provides flexibility for learner participation </li></ul>
  51. 51. lean- ISD via the PACT Processes for T&D Business Benefits Ensures voice of the customer and voice of the supplier in ISD projects <ul><li>Customer/Stakeholder </li></ul><ul><li>Project is visible and predictable in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T&D quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment and returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project tasks and schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides managerial review and control points </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Puts ISD suppliers in control of instructional integrity within the parameters set by the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Templates and tools enable detailed project planning and communications with the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul><ul><li>T&D is performance oriented and will have a positive impact on learner’s ability to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Modular structure provides flexibility for learner participation </li></ul>
  52. 52. lean- ISD Summary <ul><ul><li>A blend of the best of both craft and mass production approaches, applied to ISD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gated process models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of teams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of tools and templates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilevel design hierarchy used to ensure platform, modular, integrated ISD </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. lean- ISD Summary <ul><ul><li>A blend of the best of both craft and mass production approaches, applied to ISD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gated process models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of teams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of tools and templates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilevel design hierarchy used to ensure platform, modular, integrated ISD </li></ul></ul>Standard, but flexible processes and methodologies for ISD
  54. 54. lean- ISD Thank You!

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