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Early Childhood Development And Abuse
 

Early Childhood Development And Abuse

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    Early Childhood Development And Abuse Early Childhood Development And Abuse Presentation Transcript

    • Ages 2-5 By Rissa, Mary, Jennifer, Heidi, and Jenna Early Childhood
    • Multicultural and Gender Considerations
      • Begin to develop unique sense of self
      • Recognize ethnic differences
      • Exposure to other cultures limited by caregiver
    • Cross Culturally Adopted Children
      • Do not differ in self-esteem or adjustment compared to same-race adoptees
      • Children adopted younger seem to do better (stability?)
      • Environment, Family, community play an important role
    • Gender Role and Sexual Identity
      • Strong notions of sex-typed play
      • Age 3- sense of gender identity
      • Age 4-gender stability
      • Seem genetic-- male aggression and female nurturance
      Sex Stereotyping
      • Help or limit children forming identity?
      • Cultural vale assigned
      • Greater competency attributed to boys
    • Gay foster care and adoption
      • More than half of gay men and 41 percent
      • of lesbians want to have a child.
      • More than one in three lesbians have given
      • birth and one in six gay men have fathered
      • or adopted a child.
      • An estimated two million GLB people are
      • interested in adopting.
      • An estimated 65,500 adopted children are
      • living with a lesbian or gay parent.
      • Same-sex couples raising adopted children
      • are older, more educated, and have more
      • economic resources than other adoptive parents.
      • Adopted children with same-sex parents are younger and more likely to be foreign born.
      • Gay and lesbian parents are raising four percent of all adopted children in the United States.
      • An estimated 14,100 foster children are living with lesbian or gay parents.
      • Gay and lesbian parents are raising three percent of foster children in the United States.
      • A national ban on GLB foster care could cost from $87 to $130 million. Costs to individual states could range from $100,000 to $27 million.
    • “ Perfection” or Permanency?
    • Social Strengths and Hazards
      • Poverty
        • Negative effects most pronounced in 1 st 5 years
        • WIC, Head Start, SCHIP, School Breakfast/Lunch
      • Poverty Linked to Child abuse
      • Neglect is result of lack of resources- goods such as food, education on parenting or development, or services such as childcare
    • Child Abuse Composition of substantiated (DHHS) child abuse in 2000:    879,000 children were victims of child maltreatment.    Neglect ~ 63%    Physical ~ 19%    Sexual ~10%    Psychological ~ 8%   1 of every 7 victims of sexual assault were under age 6;    40% of offenders who victimized children under age 6 were juveniles (under age 18). Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Rate of child abuse by race:    White = 51%    African American = 25%    Hispanic = 15%    American Indian/Alaska Natives = 2%    Asian/Pacific Islanders = 1%
      • Types of abuse (most to least common)
        • Neglect
        • Physical
        • Sexual
        • Psychological
      • Why Not Report?
      • Cues from family
      • Don’t realize importance
      • Do realize importance
      • Guilt
      • Relationship with abuser
      • No framework
    • Reporting
      • Most children don’t report, especially males
      • Trusting age, and child nearly always knows perpetrator
      • Difficult to substantiate
      • Can children’s testimony be trusted?
      • Usually testimony more reliable than physical exams ( Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati)
      • The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children, most of who do not report the offence. Source: National Institute of Mental Health, 1988.
    • Effects
      • Long term effects of child abuse include fear, anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, inappropriate sexual behavior, poor self esteem, tendency toward substance abuse and difficulty with close relationships. Source: Browne & Finkelhor, 1986.
      • Guilt
      • Self-destructive behavior
      • May not manifest until child is older
      • Social maladjustment
      • Victimizing others
    • Risk Factors
      • Substance Abuse
      • Family size
      • Stress and Poverty
      • Social isolation
      • History of child abuse in caregiver
      • Age of caregiver
      • Education of caregiver
      • Child has Disabilities
      • Family Structure (single, step-family, extended family)
      • Parental employment
      • Relationship of parent/child
        It is estimated that children with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more vulnerable to sexual abuse than their non-disabled peers. Source: National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 1992.
    • Child Interviews
    • Resources
      • http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ Administration of Children and Families
      • Adoption and Foster Care by Lesbian and Gay Parents in the United States , Author(s): Gary Gates, Lee M.V. perman e nt link: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=411437
      • A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice User Manual Series (2003) Author(s):  Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (HHS) Goldman, Salus, Wolcott, Kennedy Year Published:  2003
      • Liederman, David S. “Child Welfare Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
      • Wells, Susan J. “Child Abuse and Neglect Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
      • Barth, Richard P. “Adoption” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
      • http://www.prevent-abuse-now.com/stats.htm
      • http://www.childwelfare.gov/index.cfm Child Welfare Information Gateway
      • Brisset-Chapman, Sheryl. “Child Abuse and Neglect: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
      • Conte, Jon R. “Child Sexual Abuse Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
      • Berliner, Lucy. “Child Sexual Abuse: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW