Early Childhood Development And Abuse
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Early Childhood Development And Abuse






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Early Childhood Development And Abuse Early Childhood Development And Abuse Presentation Transcript

  • Ages 2-5 By Rissa, Mary, Jennifer, Heidi, and Jenna Early Childhood
  • Multicultural and Gender Considerations
    • Begin to develop unique sense of self
    • Recognize ethnic differences
    • Exposure to other cultures limited by caregiver
  • Cross Culturally Adopted Children
    • Do not differ in self-esteem or adjustment compared to same-race adoptees
    • Children adopted younger seem to do better (stability?)
    • Environment, Family, community play an important role
  • Gender Role and Sexual Identity
    • Strong notions of sex-typed play
    • Age 3- sense of gender identity
    • Age 4-gender stability
    • Seem genetic-- male aggression and female nurturance
    Sex Stereotyping
    • Help or limit children forming identity?
    • Cultural vale assigned
    • Greater competency attributed to boys
  • Gay foster care and adoption
    • More than half of gay men and 41 percent
    • of lesbians want to have a child.
    • More than one in three lesbians have given
    • birth and one in six gay men have fathered
    • or adopted a child.
    • An estimated two million GLB people are
    • interested in adopting.
    • An estimated 65,500 adopted children are
    • living with a lesbian or gay parent.
    • Same-sex couples raising adopted children
    • are older, more educated, and have more
    • economic resources than other adoptive parents.
    • Adopted children with same-sex parents are younger and more likely to be foreign born.
    • Gay and lesbian parents are raising four percent of all adopted children in the United States.
    • An estimated 14,100 foster children are living with lesbian or gay parents.
    • Gay and lesbian parents are raising three percent of foster children in the United States.
    • A national ban on GLB foster care could cost from $87 to $130 million. Costs to individual states could range from $100,000 to $27 million.
  • “ Perfection” or Permanency?
  • Social Strengths and Hazards
    • Poverty
      • Negative effects most pronounced in 1 st 5 years
      • WIC, Head Start, SCHIP, School Breakfast/Lunch
    • Poverty Linked to Child abuse
    • Neglect is result of lack of resources- goods such as food, education on parenting or development, or services such as childcare
  • Child Abuse Composition of substantiated (DHHS) child abuse in 2000:    879,000 children were victims of child maltreatment.    Neglect ~ 63%    Physical ~ 19%    Sexual ~10%    Psychological ~ 8%   1 of every 7 victims of sexual assault were under age 6;    40% of offenders who victimized children under age 6 were juveniles (under age 18). Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Rate of child abuse by race:    White = 51%    African American = 25%    Hispanic = 15%    American Indian/Alaska Natives = 2%    Asian/Pacific Islanders = 1%
    • Types of abuse (most to least common)
      • Neglect
      • Physical
      • Sexual
      • Psychological
    • Why Not Report?
    • Cues from family
    • Don’t realize importance
    • Do realize importance
    • Guilt
    • Relationship with abuser
    • No framework
  • Reporting
    • Most children don’t report, especially males
    • Trusting age, and child nearly always knows perpetrator
    • Difficult to substantiate
    • Can children’s testimony be trusted?
    • Usually testimony more reliable than physical exams ( Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati)
    • The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children, most of who do not report the offence. Source: National Institute of Mental Health, 1988.
  • Effects
    • Long term effects of child abuse include fear, anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, inappropriate sexual behavior, poor self esteem, tendency toward substance abuse and difficulty with close relationships. Source: Browne & Finkelhor, 1986.
    • Guilt
    • Self-destructive behavior
    • May not manifest until child is older
    • Social maladjustment
    • Victimizing others
  • Risk Factors
    • Substance Abuse
    • Family size
    • Stress and Poverty
    • Social isolation
    • History of child abuse in caregiver
    • Age of caregiver
    • Education of caregiver
    • Child has Disabilities
    • Family Structure (single, step-family, extended family)
    • Parental employment
    • Relationship of parent/child
      It is estimated that children with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more vulnerable to sexual abuse than their non-disabled peers. Source: National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 1992.
  • Child Interviews
  • Resources
    • http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ Administration of Children and Families
    • Adoption and Foster Care by Lesbian and Gay Parents in the United States , Author(s): Gary Gates, Lee M.V. perman e nt link: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=411437
    • A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice User Manual Series (2003) Author(s):  Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (HHS) Goldman, Salus, Wolcott, Kennedy Year Published:  2003
    • Liederman, David S. “Child Welfare Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
    • Wells, Susan J. “Child Abuse and Neglect Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
    • Barth, Richard P. “Adoption” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
    • http://www.prevent-abuse-now.com/stats.htm
    • http://www.childwelfare.gov/index.cfm Child Welfare Information Gateway
    • Brisset-Chapman, Sheryl. “Child Abuse and Neglect: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
    • Conte, Jon R. “Child Sexual Abuse Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
    • Berliner, Lucy. “Child Sexual Abuse: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW