Early Childhood Development And AbusePresentation Transcript
Ages 2-5 By Rissa, Mary, Jennifer, Heidi, and Jenna Early Childhood
Multicultural and Gender Considerations
Begin to develop unique sense of self
Recognize ethnic differences
Exposure to other cultures limited by caregiver
Cross Culturally Adopted Children
Do not differ in self-esteem or adjustment compared to same-race adoptees
Children adopted younger seem to do better (stability?)
Environment, Family, community play an important role
Gender Role and Sexual Identity
Strong notions of sex-typed play
Age 3- sense of gender identity
Age 4-gender stability
Seem genetic-- male aggression and female nurturance
Help or limit children forming identity?
Cultural vale assigned
Greater competency attributed to boys
Gay foster care and adoption
More than half of gay men and 41 percent
of lesbians want to have a child.
More than one in three lesbians have given
birth and one in six gay men have fathered
or adopted a child.
An estimated two million GLB people are
interested in adopting.
An estimated 65,500 adopted children are
living with a lesbian or gay parent.
Same-sex couples raising adopted children
are older, more educated, and have more
economic resources than other adoptive parents.
Adopted children with same-sex parents are younger and more likely to be foreign born.
Gay and lesbian parents are raising four percent of all adopted children in the United States.
An estimated 14,100 foster children are living with lesbian or gay parents.
Gay and lesbian parents are raising three percent of foster children in the United States.
A national ban on GLB foster care could cost from $87 to $130 million. Costs to individual states could range from $100,000 to $27 million.
“ Perfection” or Permanency?
Social Strengths and Hazards
Negative effects most pronounced in 1 st 5 years
WIC, Head Start, SCHIP, School Breakfast/Lunch
Poverty Linked to Child abuse
Neglect is result of lack of resources- goods such as food, education on parenting or development, or services such as childcare
Child Abuse Composition of substantiated (DHHS) child abuse in 2000: 879,000 children were victims of child maltreatment. Neglect ~ 63% Physical ~ 19% Sexual ~10% Psychological ~ 8% 1 of every 7 victims of sexual assault were under age 6; 40% of offenders who victimized children under age 6 were juveniles (under age 18). Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Rate of child abuse by race: White = 51% African American = 25% Hispanic = 15% American Indian/Alaska Natives = 2% Asian/Pacific Islanders = 1%
Types of abuse (most to least common)
Why Not Report?
Cues from family
Don’t realize importance
Do realize importance
Relationship with abuser
Most children don’t report, especially males
Trusting age, and child nearly always knows perpetrator
Difficult to substantiate
Can children’s testimony be trusted?
Usually testimony more reliable than physical exams ( Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati)
The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children, most of who do not report the offence. Source: National Institute of Mental Health, 1988.
Long term effects of child abuse include fear, anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, inappropriate sexual behavior, poor self esteem, tendency toward substance abuse and difficulty with close relationships. Source: Browne & Finkelhor, 1986.
May not manifest until child is older
Stress and Poverty
History of child abuse in caregiver
Age of caregiver
Education of caregiver
Child has Disabilities
Family Structure (single, step-family, extended family)
Relationship of parent/child
It is estimated that children with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more vulnerable to sexual abuse than their non-disabled peers. Source: National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 1992.
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ Administration of Children and Families
Adoption and Foster Care by Lesbian and Gay Parents in the United States , Author(s): Gary Gates, Lee M.V. perman e nt link: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=411437
A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice User Manual Series (2003) Author(s): Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (HHS) Goldman, Salus, Wolcott, Kennedy Year Published: 2003
Liederman, David S. “Child Welfare Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
Wells, Susan J. “Child Abuse and Neglect Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
Barth, Richard P. “Adoption” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
http://www.childwelfare.gov/index.cfm Child Welfare Information Gateway
Brisset-Chapman, Sheryl. “Child Abuse and Neglect: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
Conte, Jon R. “Child Sexual Abuse Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW
Berliner, Lucy. “Child Sexual Abuse: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW