Geo 1


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  • Geo 1

    1. 1. Human Geography Beginnings…
    2. 2. Geography <ul><li>“ Geography is the science of place. Its vision is grand, its view panoramic. It sweeps the surface of the Earth, charting the physical, organic and cultural terrain, their areal differentiation, and their ecological dynamics with humankind. Its foremost tool is the map…” </li></ul><ul><li>-Leonard Krishtalka </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>“ Geography is the science of place…” </li></ul>
    4. 8. <ul><li>“… Its vision is grand, its view panoramic…” </li></ul>
    5. 10. <ul><li>“ It sweeps the surface of the Earth, charting the physical…” </li></ul>
    6. 12. <ul><li>“… organic…” </li></ul>
    7. 14. <ul><li>“… and cultural terrain, their areal differentiation </li></ul>
    8. 16. <ul><li>“… their ecological dynamics with humankind…” </li></ul>
    9. 24. Geography <ul><li>“ Geography is a representation of the whole known world together with the phenomena which are contained therein…” </li></ul><ul><li>-Ptolemy, Geographia </li></ul><ul><li> 2nd Century A.D. </li></ul>
    10. 32. <ul><li>What is a map? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer : A two dimensional flat scale model of the Earth, or a portion of it. </li></ul>
    11. 33. Key Concepts Space <ul><li>Place : A specific point on Earth distinguished by a specific character. </li></ul>
    12. 37. Key Concepts Spaces <ul><li>Region : Area on Earth distinguished by a combination of physical and cultural features. </li></ul>
    13. 46. Key Concepts Space <ul><li>Why do different places on Earth have the same features? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer : Scale , Space and Connections </li></ul>
    14. 47. Key Concepts <ul><li>Scale : Relationship between the portion of the Earth being studies and the Earth as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Space : Physical interval between two objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Connections : Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. </li></ul>
    15. 50. Key Concepts (Space) <ul><li>Latitude and Longitude - a reference system designed to provide “ absolute ” location (as opposed to relative locations). A system used to designate space. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallels of Latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Meridians of Longitude </li></ul>
    16. 52. 1 o latitude = approx. 69 miles (25,000 mi. /360 o ). Range: 0 - 90 degrees N or S Latitude - angular measurement of distance north or south of the Equator.
    17. 53. Longitude - the angular measurement of distance east or west of the Prime Meridian. Maximum value reached at International Date Line - 180 o Range: 0 o - 180 o E or W
    18. 55. Key Concepts Space <ul><li>Magnetic North v/s Geographic North </li></ul>
    19. 57. <ul><li>Angle of Declination… </li></ul>
    20. 59. <ul><li>Dowagiac has an angle of declination of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4° 57' W changing by 0° 4' W/year </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 60. Key Concepts: Tobler’s 1 st Law of Geography <ul><li>All things are related. However, all other things being equal, those things that are closest together are more related. </li></ul><ul><li>Related Concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance Decay / Friction of Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul>
    22. 62. Key Concepts <ul><li>Spatial Distribution : The regular arraignment of phenomenon across the Earth’s surface. </li></ul>
    23. 65. Spatial Distribution <ul><li>Density : The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration : The spread of something over a given area. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern : The geometric or regular arraignment of something over a given area. </li></ul>
    24. 68. Key Concepts <ul><li>REGION – an area defined by shared characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Types of Culture Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal - all members share a characteristic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional - defined by a node of activity and distance decay from center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vernacular - perception of cultural identity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 69. Overlapping Formal and Functional Regions
    26. 70. Vernacular Regions
    27. 71. Diffusion The spread of people, customs, phenomenon, objects, or ideas. <ul><li>Four Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Contagious </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Use these terms to explain the spread of: </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Music </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Practices </li></ul>
    28. 72. Sense of Place <ul><li>Every place is unique. Imagine where you lived as a child. Where is home? </li></ul><ul><li>Why and how do places take on meaning for human individuals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is each place unique? </li></ul>
    29. 73. Sense of Place Groveland, CA Bourbon Street
    30. 74. What kinds of cultural values are reflected in each of these American houses? Gated community?
    31. 75. Where are we? What values are reflected in each? What relation to physical environment?
    32. 76. Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey Timber House, Switzerland Yurt on Mongolian Steppe Suburban Home, Chicago
    33. 77. Human-Environment Interaction (Cultural Ecology) <ul><li>Successful cultures are those that adapt well to their environments. (Chaco Canyon, North Africa, Fertile Crescent, Easter Island) </li></ul>Chaco Canyon, New Mexico Easter Island, Polynesia
    34. 78. Key Concepts: Core-Periphery <ul><li>Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S., Europe, Japan, Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls Media and Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically advanced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periphery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon Core countries for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 79. <ul><li>Um, the end? </li></ul>