Compettition in Golf Equippment Industry 2008Presentation Transcript
Competition in the Golf Equipment Industry in 2008
By: Dan McLindon
Golf Equipment Industry Key Question
Can golf equipment manufacturers continue to be profitable while still conforming to the increasingly tightening rules developed by the USGA and R&A?
Golf Equipment Industry Additional Question
How can club manufactures produce equipment that makes the game fun and easier for the beginning golfer so they stick with the game and become a core golfer?
How do premium equipment manufactures create products that appeal to existing core golfers and how do they grow the market of core golfers?
What is each golf equipment company’s competitive advantage?
How do golf club manufactures plan for the future with the uncertainty of further new rules limiting club and ball technology?
Is the timing right to pursue international expansion? Will the popularity of golf rebound in the United States?
A Very Brief History of Golf Origin 1452 in Scotland, as a game played by both Royalty and Commoners Growth In Europe Established game by 18 th Century in British Isles with tournaments, rules and golf clubs (St. Andrews) Growth In USA Started being played in late 1700’s, mostly as a game for wealthy. Rapid growth in popularity with TV coverage in 1950’s and the emergence of golf stars Palmer, Nicklaus, and Player. Peak in popularity in 1998, 2 years after Tiger Woods turned Pro. Governing Bodies United States Golf Association and Royal and Ancient Golf Club
Evolution of the Golf Equipment Industry
First equipment manufactures began in Scotland during 1700’s
Over time building materials changed, but types and design of clubs did not
Wood to steel to graphite shafts but still same club head designs
More durable and consistent golf balls
Mid to late 1990’s a period of great innovation began by premium golf equipment manufactures
Ping, Callaway, TaylorMade, Fortune Brands (Cobra and Titleist)
Innovations centered around game improving features
Larger Driver heads (ex. – Callaway Great Big Bertha)
More forgiving oversized irons
Deeper grooves in irons and woods to promote spin
Putters with larger sweet spots, face inserts
Multi-piece golf balls allowing for both distance off tee and feel around greens
Resulted in record industry profits
USGA and R&A Step In
In 2004 USGA and R&A begin regulating golf clubs and balls in an effort to preserve integrity of the game
Type of Equipment Regulation Year effective Drivers 0.83 COR 1998 Drivers 5x5 inches, not to exceed 460 CC 2004 Drivers 5,900 g-cm MOI 2006 Irons and Wedges No more U grooves 2010 Golf Balls Restrictions on distance Still in discussions
What is changing in the external environment?
PEST Analysis of the Golf Equipment Industry Category Issue Threats/Opportunities Ranking (1-5) Political USGA and R&A rules on equipment Threat 5 Economic 2008 Economy Sours Rising incomes in BRIC countries Threat Opportunity 3 3 Social Healthier, more active lifestyles Concern for environment Multiracial golf star Tiger Woods Opportunity Threat or Opportunity Opportunity 2 2 5 Technological New metals/alloys for larger, lighter clubs Computer technology for customer fitting Opportunity Opportunity 3 5
What is happening in the Golf Economy?
Overview of the Golf Market Total Number of Golfers 22.7 million in US, 2 million European, 17 million Asia (2007) Target Market 1/3 of golfers, about 7.5 million in US, considered “Core” and account for 91% of rounds played and 87% of equipment sales Growth Rate Number of golfers in America has declined 17% since peak in 1998 (from 27.5 to 22.7 million) Key Items Purchased Drivers, Irons, Wedges, Putters, apparel, shoes, golf balls, golf bags 4 Key Barriers for Consumers Too difficult to play Length of time it takes to play a round Too expensive Older players have health concerns
Breakdown of US Golf Population
Steady decline over last decade of number of golfers in USA
People who picked up the game with the boom in popularity in late 1990’s but did not stick with it
Too difficult to get good and did not become “Core” golfer
1998 2007 Percent Change Men 20 million 16.2 million -19% Women 5.8 million 5.1 million -12% Children 2.4 million 1.4 million -41%
What is the environment of the industry?
Fundamentals of the Industry
Innovation limited by USGA regulations
Merchandise manufacturing is outsourced
Early bird really does get the worm
Marketing and endorsements are vital
There are strong, established leaders in most golf equipment categories
# of golfers in the USA declining over the past decade
What are the changes in demand?
Porter’s Five Forces HIGH LOW HIGH LOW MED-HIGH Threat of Substitutes Threat of New Entrants Supplier Power Buyer Power Competitive Rivalry
Porter’s Five Forces Factor Rank 1=lowest 5=highest Threat of New Entrants 1
Costly and takes time to build reputation
Huge learning curve....technology-driven
Current name brands are very strong
Acquisitions may be the only way ($$$)
Power of Suppliers 1-2
Relationships are well established
Raw materials are abundant
Other manufacturing sources are readily available
Threat of Substitutes 3-4
Customers have a wide variety of sports and leisure to spend their time and money on
buy used items, internet, auctions
Power of Buyers 4
# of recreational players declining
buyers forcing new pricing strategies
buyers are price sensitive now more than ever
Competitive Rivalry 4-5
Intense between the top dogs
Established brands have difficult time entering new areas of golf equipment and supplies
Where are all the golfers going? # of participants in selected sports in millions 33.8M ↑ 50% 28.9M 22.5M Fitness Clubs 12.3M ↑ 7% 11.0M 11.5M Tennis 30.4M ↑ 37% 24.7M 22.2M Running 2007 22.7M 2% 2002 1996 23.1M Golfers
Strategy of Major Golf Brands Product Price Endorsements Innovation Callaway Diverse Drivers : 4 lines incl. Big Bertha Putters : Odyssey and premium black series Irons : X series (high end), Bertha, Hogan, Top Flite (low end) Other: Fairway woods, hybrids, footwear, balls Diverse Well defined price ranges on driver, putter, iron lines. Tight price ranges on fairway woods and hybrids Low 12 Staff Pros 7 Contract Pros Medium Two Ball putter Perimeter weighted irons, prepositioned weights on drivers, interchangeable shafts Slow to react to changes in regulation and consumer preference (driver size and hybrids) Fortune (Titleist/ Cobra) Diverse but focused Focus on Balls and Footjoy apparel . Drivers, Woods, Hybrids, Irons: Titleist line for pros and highly skilled rec. Cobra for rec and game improvement. Putters: Cameron (high end) and Cobra Diverse, well-defined High vs. low end Balls : Pro VI to Pinnacle (value brand) Clubs : Titlest, Volkey, Cameron vs. Cobra High 100 PGA pros to use V1 ball Medium Push limits of USGA regulations with Cobra L4V brand Perimeter weighted irons
Strategy of Major Golf Brands Product Price Endorsements Innovation TaylorMade/ Adidas Diverse Drivers, hybrids , woods, Irons: r7 and Burner lines Putters: 11 models Apparel : Adidas Brand Balls: Diverse Clubs: r7 vs. Burner (low end Putters: Why have 11 models in tight price range? High 70 Pros for driver, 11 clubs, apparel 40 Pros for driver
-early entry in hybrid market
-perimeter weighted irons
Ping Diverse Irons: 4 lines Putters: Large line including premium offerings Drivers, Hybrid Woods: G10 and Rapture Diverse Clubs: G10 vs. Rapture (low end) Low 20 PGA and 12 LPGA Medium -Fixed weights -Perimeter weighted irons Nike Diverse Clubs, balls, and apparel Club offerings not as diverse as competition Low High end irons only $600. Clubs often priced below MSRP High Only 18 pros, but large financial commitment in Tiger Woods Medium - Driver pushes USGA regulation limits, but not much innovation elsewhere
Strategy of Major Golf Brands Product : Be all things for all golfers. All major brands offer a spectrum of products to match a golfers level, recreational to pro. Price: Matched to level of product. Comparable across industry. Nike allows retailers to sell below MSRP Endorsements: Significant source of differentiation and brand recognition. Innovation: With the major brands having met the regulated limits, innovation is focused on increased launch angles and adjustable features. No significant innovations because of the regulations. Major brands are choosing to not go beyond the regulation specs. Operational: Key production activities are often contracted offshore. Major brands may just be an assembler.
What are the internal factors affecting golf equipment manufacturers?
Innovation of products drives growth
USGA rules discourage innovation and allow less technologically advanced manufacturers to catch up to industry leaders
Manufacturers struggle to differentiate their products when everyone has the same technological limitations
Lowered operational costs industry wide
Allowed counterfeiters to copy equipment
Led to Golf Manufacturing Industry alliance
Units of Products Sold (in millions)
Total units of products sold have remained fairly flat over last decade…
Golf Industry Sales Figures
Sales price per unit has declined for large ticket items like drivers
Increased for putters
And remained relatively flat for other sectors
Conclusion – Equipment manufactures have moved to competing on price due to challenges with differentiation brought on by new USGA and R&A rules
Golf Industry Sales Figures
Golf Equipment Industry Product Mix 1997 2007
Not many significant changes in size of each segment from 1997 to 2007
Size of overall pie is larger from $2.4 billion in 1997 to $2.9 billion in 2007
20% increase in total industry sales in US despite decrease in overall number of golfers
What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of golf equipment manufacturers?
Good following - 22.7m US golfers, 2m Europe, 17m Asia