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1 ksa%20conference%202010%20 %20 mary%20kuo[1]

  1. 1. National and Regional Direction of the Stormwater Program KAMM/KSA Conference April 21, 2010
  2. 2. Recent Stormwater Program Activity <ul><li>National Research Council Report </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Independence and Security Act Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Effluent Guideline Limits for Construction and Development </li></ul><ul><li>TMDL to Stormwater Permits Handbook </li></ul><ul><li>Stormwater Rulemaking </li></ul><ul><li>MS4 Permit Improvement Guide </li></ul>
  3. 3. Water Quantity Impacts: Changes in Land-Water Linkages
  4. 4. Large Storm Small Storm Higher Baseflow Higher and More Rapid Peak Discharge More Runoff Volume Lower and Less Rapid Peak Gradual Recession Pre - development Post - development Large Storm Small Storm Higher Baseflow Higher and More Rapid Peak Discharge More Runoff Volume Lower and Less Rapid Peak Gradual Recession Pre-development - Post-development Water Quantity Impacts: Changes in Stream Hydrographs
  5. 5. <ul><li>Stream widening and down-cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased baseflow </li></ul><ul><li>More flooding </li></ul>Water Quantity Impacts: Changes to Stream Channels
  6. 6. <ul><li>Water quantity impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased discharge/reduced infiltration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to stream geomorphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts to aquatic habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced aquatic habitat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased stream temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excess sediment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metal bioaccumulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced dissolved oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Water quality impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased pollutant delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& sedimentation </li></ul></ul>Impacts of Urban Development
  7. 7. Impacts to Receiving Waters <ul><li>Urban runoff is the primary source of water quality impairments in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13% of rivers and streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18% of lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% of estuaries </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2008 National Research Council Stormwater Study <ul><li>In 2006, EPA commissioned the NRC to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review its current permitting program for stormwater discharge under the CWA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide suggestions for improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NRC study released Urban Stormwater Management in the United States in October 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Key Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current approach is unlikely to produce an accurate picture of the problem and is unlikely to adequately control stormwater’s contribution to waterbody impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements leave a great deal of discretion to dischargers to set their own standards and ensure compliance  inconsistency across the nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor accountability and uncertain effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Key NRC Report Recommendations <ul><li>“ Even though ‘pollutant’ is defined broadly in the Act to include virtually every imaginable substance added to surface waters, including heat, it has not traditionally been read to include water volume .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A more straightforward way to regulate stormwater contributions to waterbody impairment would be to use flow or a surrogate, like impervious cover, as a measure of stormwater loading ….” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Efforts to reduce stormwater flow will automatically achieve reductions in pollutant loading. Moreover, flow is itself responsible for additional erosion and sedimentation that adversely impacts surface water quality.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stormwater control measures that harvest, infiltrate, and evapotranspirate stormwater are critical to reducing the volume and pollutant loading of small storms.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Chapters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Challenge of Regulating Stormwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologic, Geomorphic, and Biologic Effects of Urbanization of Watersheds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stormwater Management Approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative Stormwater Management and Regulatory Permitting </li></ul></ul>NRC 2008 Report www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nrc_stormwaterreport.pdf
  11. 11. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) <ul><li>“ Sec. 438. Storm Water Runoff Requirements for Federal Development Projects. The sponsor of any development or redevelopment project involving a Federal facility with a footprint that exceeds 5,000 square feet shall use site planning, design, construction, and maintenance strategies for the property to maintain or restore, to the maximum extent technically feasible, the predevelopment hydrology of the property with regard to the temperature, rate, volume, and duration of flow .” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Objectives of Green Infrastructure <ul><li>Reduce, retain, and treat runoff on-site </li></ul><ul><li>Promote infiltration and evapotranspiration, as well as storage </li></ul><ul><li>Mimic pre-development hydrology </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common Green Infrastructure Practices <ul><li>Disconnectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Bioretention (Rain Gardens, Infiltration Trenches) </li></ul><ul><li>Permeable and Porous Pavements </li></ul><ul><li>Green Roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Planter Boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Open Swales </li></ul><ul><li>Rain Barrels </li></ul>
  14. 14. Why Initiate Stormwater Rulemaking? <ul><li>Stormwater is a significant contributor to water quality impairment </li></ul><ul><li>The NRC found that the current approach is unlikely to adequately control stormwater and recommended using green infrastructure practices to reduce discharge volume and pollutant loading </li></ul><ul><li> Primary impetus is to protect waterbodies from stormwater impacts of urbanization </li></ul>
  15. 15. Schedule for Rulemaking EPA expects to take final action Late 2012 EPA expects to propose a rule to be published in the FR for public comment Late 2011 EPA expects to publish a final FR ICR notice with 30-day comment period and distribute questionnaires in the summer Spring 2010 Listening Sessions input on preliminary rulemaking on preliminary rulemaking considerations (FR Notice published December 28, 2009) January to March 2010 <ul><li>Federal Register (FR) notice announcing EPA’s intent to distribute questionnaires (Information Collection Request (ICR) seeking data to inform the rulemaking from the following groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Owners, operators, developers, and contractors of developed sites </li></ul><ul><li>- Owners or operators of MS4s </li></ul><ul><li>- States and territories </li></ul>Oct 30, 2009
  16. 16. Stakeholder Input on Rulemaking <ul><li>Stormwater Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design, performance, operation and maintenance, capital and lifetime cost for stormwater retention practices used to control discharges from new development, redevelopment, and retrofit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost comparisons of different stormwater management approaches for specific sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring information that may have been collected to show the impacts of stormwater control measures on water quality and/or flow rates in the receiving waterbody </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Considerations </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Current Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Permits require Phase I & II MS4s to have a post construction program </li></ul><ul><li>MS4s enforce their post construction standards within their jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>No long term (post-construction) stormwater requirements for discharges not covered by an MS4 permit, unless the discharges are designated </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Specific requirements, including standards, for stormwater discharges from new and redevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements to promote sustainable practices that mimic natural processes to (1) infiltrate and recharge, (2) evapotranspire, and/or (3) harvest and reuse precipitation </li></ul>1. Establish substantive post-construction requirements for new and redevelopment
  18. 18. 1. Establish substantive post-construction requirements for new and redevelopment <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Require on-site stormwater controls, such that post-development hydrology must mimic pre-development hydrology </li></ul><ul><li>Options for meeting the requirement could be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site retention of specific size storm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit on amount of effective impervious area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site-specific calculators to determine predevelopment hydrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State/regional standards to reflect local circumstances </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 2. Universe of Regulated Discharges <ul><li>Current Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Current MS4 requirements apply to only 2% of land area </li></ul><ul><li>Excludes areas outside of the MS4 facing development pressure and direct discharges not covered by MS4 permit </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2. Universe of Regulated Discharges <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Expand MS4 coverage, options include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify appropriate jurisdictional boundaries (municipal, county, watershed district, other) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percent impervious surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projected development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States determine coverage criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulate discharges from new and redevelopment of a certain size that are not already covered </li></ul>
  21. 21. 6. Develop consistent framework for MS4 permits <ul><li>Current Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Many Phase I & II MS4 permits address issues that are similar, but the regulatory requirements are different </li></ul><ul><li>Phase I medium and large MS4 regulations are primarily application requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II small MS4 regulations include more specific permit requirements that specify six “minimum measures” </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a single set of consistent requirements for all MS4s that includes, at a minimum, the six minimum measures. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Federal Stormwater Regulations Phase I <ul><li>Finalized in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates small MS4s located in an “urbanized area” (UA) as defined by the Bureau of Census </li></ul><ul><li>Additional MS4s outside of UAs designated by the NPDES permitting authority </li></ul><ul><li>Active construction activities disturbing between one and five acres </li></ul><ul><li>MS4 SWMP must include 6 minimum control measures: </li></ul><ul><li>Public Education & Outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Public Participation/Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Illicit Discharge Detection & Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Site Runoff Control </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Construction Runoff Control </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>General Permit </li></ul><ul><li>Finalized in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates medium and large MS4s (defined as areas that serve 100,000 or more people) </li></ul><ul><li>10 categories of industrial operations </li></ul><ul><li>Active construction sites of 5 acres or more </li></ul><ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><li>MS4s to develop and implement a stormwater management plan (SWMP) to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>find and eliminated illicit discharges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control discharges from its system by addressing runoff from active construction sites, new development and redevelopment, industrial program, monitoring program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construction and Industrial stormwater dischargers to develop and implement Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Permit </li></ul>Phase II
  23. 23. 4. Water quality enhancement plan to retrofit existing development <ul><li>Current Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Stormwater discharge from developed areas is a significant contributor to water quality impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Some MS4 permits and CSO cities already implement retrofit practices that infiltrate or otherwise retain stormwater </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate options for retrofitting discharges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require MS4s to develop and implement retrofit plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation could occur over a time period consistent with an MS4’s retrofit plan or other factors </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 7. A dditional requirements for sensitive areas <ul><li>Possible Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Propose additional requirements to further reduce stormwater impacts in the Chesapeake Bay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should these provisions be applied to other sensitive areas? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific structural and nonstructural stormwater control measures </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>For additional information, EPA’s website on rulemaking: </li></ul><ul><li>www.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/rulemaking </li></ul>
  26. 26. EPA Region 4 Expectations
  27. 27. MS4 Permit Improvement Guide <ul><li>Intended to aid permit writers in issuing better MS4 permits </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable for Phase I and Phase II MS4s </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes importance of requirements that are clear, specific, measurable, and enforceable </li></ul><ul><li>Finalized April 15, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/ms4permit_improvement_guide.pdf </li></ul>
  28. 28. MS4 Permit Improvement Guide (continued) <ul><li>Includes sample MS4 permit language for specific program elements with supporting rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of Stormwater Management Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education and outreach / Public involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illicit discharge detection & elimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-construction or permanent / Long-term SW control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution prevention / Good housekeeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring, evaluation and reporting </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Region 4’s Expectations for MS4 Permits <ul><li>Region expects clear, specific, measurable, and enforceable permit requirements </li></ul><ul><li>MS4 Guide includes examples that reflect the type of requirements that are expected </li></ul><ul><li>Specific performance standards and required actions will vary, but permits must be explicit in required MEP-level controls </li></ul><ul><li>Letter to Kentucky dated April 15, 2010 </li></ul>
  30. 30. Region 4 Areas of Focus <ul><li>(1) TMDL Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WLA applicability, BMP identification and implementation, monitoring and assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TMDL implementation permit language drafted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site plan review process, inspection frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(3) Post-Construction </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination </li></ul>
  31. 31. Future Outlook… <ul><li>Most Phase II municipalities in 2 nd /3 rd permit cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Certain MS4 data and information should be available to help inform permit writers develop stronger requirements </li></ul><ul><li>2010 Census likely to result in additional Phase II MS4s, expanding the universe of permittees </li></ul>