Introductory Pp Models

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  • Introductory Pp Models

    1. 1. CUIN 6371 Models of Teaching Fall, 2003 Howard L. Jones
    2. 2. Teaching <ul><li>Making and following decisions which when implemented will increase the probability of learning </li></ul>
    3. 3. A Beginning Teacher to Bruce Joyce, December 1995 <ul><li>Last September, 100 years ago, I thought teaching was one job with a few variations. I had an image of the one kind of teaching I could do well, with the one kind of student I could see myself teaching well. It turned out that it is 20 jobs to do with 20 different personalities. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Culture of Education Jerome Bruner
    5. 5. Culture of Education <ul><li>Assumption 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mind is a computational device and knowing how this device works will help in teaching the human mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumption 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mind exists but is shaped by the culture that it inhabits </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Jerome Bruner <ul><li>A correct theory of education lies at the intersect of the two </li></ul>Mind as a computational device Culture Psycho-cultural approach
    7. 7. Behavior is a Function of Person .......................Environment B = f (P, E) Kurt Lewin, 1938
    8. 8. Models of Mind and Teaching <ul><li>Imitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In traditional classrooms learners are expected to master skills and imitate what the teacher does </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Models of Mind and Teaching <ul><li>Didactic Exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners are shown or told rules and concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply Them </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Models of Mind and Teaching <ul><li>Learner as Thinker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners think about – reflect upon - what they do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Models of Mind and Teaching <ul><li>Learner as Knowledgeable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building beliefs about beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question what culture considers as true and compare with own reality </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The verb “to teach” <ul><li>Originally meant “to show” </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Most Common Teaching Pattern <ul><ul><ul><li>• Providing Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Verification of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Application of Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(after Renner) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Guided Tour Approach
    14. 14. A Place Called School John Goodlad “ Elementary teachers use 3-4 strategies almost exclusively; secondary teachers 1 or 2 .”
    15. 15. <ul><li>Once Block scheduling was implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers continued to use the lecture method…. </li></ul><ul><li>George & McEwin (1998) </li></ul>
    16. 16. On the Other Hand… Perspective 1 <ul><li>Effective Teachers have an extensive array of alternative approaches to use in teaching. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many approaches are practical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are sufficiently different … that different outcomes will result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (see Joyce and Weil 1996) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Curriculum Requirements <ul><li>Introducing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts/Labels/Vocabulary/Discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuring Mastery of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Expression/Inventiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Understanding and Social Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Curriculum Requirements <ul><li>Encouraging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Decision Making </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Perspective Two … <ul><li>Methods make a difference in what is learned as well as how it is learned. </li></ul><ul><li>- The difference is probabilistic: particular methods boost certain outcomes and diminish others, but rarely do they guarantee some while obliterating the rest. </li></ul>Effect Size
    20. 20. Perspective Three … <ul><li>Students are a powerful part of the learning experience being created, and they react differently to any given teaching method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- A combination of personality, aptitudes, interpersonal skills, and previous achievement contributes to configurations of learning styles, so that no two people react exactly the same way to any one model of teaching. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Teaching Contexts <ul><li>Changes in Worldwide and local society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The recognition that different types of learning require different types of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of research-based teaching patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Etc....(TAAS Concerns, Parental Issues) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Teaching Contexts <ul><li>Changes in Worldwide and local society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of schooling </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Agrarian Society Industrialized Society Information Society
    24. 24. Teaching Contexts <ul><li>Changes in Worldwide and local society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Transitions in Lifestyle <ul><li>Not too long ago… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much family sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive basic life training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More homogeneous values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many required tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much family work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended families nearby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few broken homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present Norms </li></ul>
    26. 26. Transitions in Lifestyle <ul><li>Not too long ago… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much family sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive basic life training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More homogeneous values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many required tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much family work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended families nearby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few broken homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little family sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited basic life training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge surplus of info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few required tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little family work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended families far away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many broken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- General anonymity </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. At-Riskness
    28. 28. Resiliency Among Learners <ul><li>“ heightened likelihood of success in school and other life accomplishments despite environmental adversities brought about by early traits, conditions, and experiences” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1994) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Resilient Learners are more <ul><li>optimistic, responsible and goal-setting, inquisitive, and able to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>autonomous and purposeful yet social </li></ul><ul><li>punctual, flexible, and energetic </li></ul><ul><li>Other studies have shown more heightened senses of humor , to be in service to others , and somewhere to have a supportive adult relationship </li></ul>
    30. 30. Question? Have Schools Really Changed That Much in 50+ Years?
    31. 31. <ul><li>General Motors Assumptions Pre-1988 (Mitroff, 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>GM is in the business of making money, not cars </li></ul><ul><li>Cars are primarily status symbols; styling is therefore more important than quality </li></ul><ul><li>The American car market is isolated from the rest of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Workers do not have an important impact on productivity or product quality </li></ul><ul><li>All connected with the system has no need for more than a fragmented, compartmentalized understanding of the business </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>General Motors Assumptions Pre-1988 (Mitroff, 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>GM is in the business of making money, not cars </li></ul><ul><li>Cars are primarily status symbols; styling is therefore more important than quality </li></ul><ul><li>The American car market is isolated from the rest of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Workers do not have an important impact on productivity or product quality </li></ul><ul><li>All connected with the system has no need for more than a fragmented, compartmentalized understanding of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Present Assumptions About Schooling in the U.S... (Jones) </li></ul><ul><li>Schools sort learners based on relative achievement within a fixed calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching is the delivery of information to passive students </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on content </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is the acquisition of information </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers do the best they can with those students who are willing to learn </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Present Assumptions About Schooling in the U.S... (Jones) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Home effect” is responsible for differences in achievement </li></ul>
    34. 34. Teaching Contexts <ul><li>Changes in Worldwide and local society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in technology </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Arthur Clarke’s Third Law <ul><li>Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>CYBERPHOBIA </li></ul>
    37. 37. Teaching Contexts <ul><li>Changes in Worldwide and local society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The recognition that different types of learning call for different types of teaching </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>* Direct Outcomes - there are research- based instructional strategies that will bring about predicted outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>* Incidental Outcomes - these strategies also have some quite pleasant – or unpleasant – side effects </li></ul>Curriculum Drives Everything
    39. 39. A Teaching Model <ul><li>Strong philosophic or psychological base </li></ul><ul><li>Generates significant gains in student knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Is applicable in the “real world” </li></ul>
    40. 40. Teaching is the creation of environments in which students’ cognitive structures can emerge and change
    41. 41. A Model of Teaching <ul><li>* Instructional Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small group work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory-like activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill/Practice/Recitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-Oriented Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Belief Systems </li></ul><ul><li>- How Do People Learn? </li></ul><ul><li>- What Should the Educational Environment Do? </li></ul>
    42. 42. Belief Systems <ul><li>How Do People Learn? What are Influences Over Learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Freud Skinner Gagne’ Bruner Piaget Becker Gordon </li></ul><ul><li>Engleman Wolpe Ausubel Bloom Levin Atkinson Bandura Maslow Rogers Glasser Kohlberg Vygotsky … </li></ul>
    43. 43. Belief Systems <ul><li>What Should the Educational Environment Do? </li></ul><ul><li>Plato Aristotle Locke Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Kierkegaard Buber Dewey Kirkpatrick Johnson Slavin Thelen Page Taba Schwab Brandwein Social and/or Religious Conservatives… </li></ul>Ecologists
    44. 44. Teaching Contexts <ul><li>Changes in Worldwide and local society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The recognition that different types of learning require different types of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of research-based teaching patterns </li></ul>
    45. 45. Bruce Joyce & Marsha Weil Model “Families” <ul><li>* Information Processing </li></ul><ul><li>* Social Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>* Personal Growth </li></ul><ul><li>* Behavioral Systems </li></ul>
    46. 46. Information Processing <ul><li>Inductive - Jerome Bruner/ Hilda Taba </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive - David Ausubel </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry - J. J. Schwab/J. Richard Suchman </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget/ L. Kohlberg </li></ul><ul><li>Memory - R. Atkinson/J. Levin/J. Lucas </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity - W. J. J. Gordon </li></ul>
    47. 47. Social Interaction <ul><li>Teaching About Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisprudential Oliver and Shaver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Playing/Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching Social Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Training Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching Academic Content </li></ul><ul><li>& Social Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various Forms of Cooperative Learning </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Personal Growth <ul><li>Awareness of Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness Training - F. Perls, et al. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhancing Personal Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Directive - Carl Rogers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Meeting - William Glasser </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Behavioral Systems <ul><li>Operant Conditioning - B. F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Counter Conditioning - Wolpe and others </li></ul><ul><li>Training - Robert Gagne’, </li></ul><ul><li>A. Bandura, et al. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Where Did They Come From? <ul><li>Original Theory/Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Application of Original Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model of Teaching </li></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Teaching Contexts <ul><li>Changes in Worldwide and local society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The recognition that different types of learning require different types of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of research-based teaching patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Etc....(TAAS Concerns, Parental Issues) </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Teachers have an extensive array of alternative approaches to use in teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods make a difference in what is learned as well as how it is learned. The difference is probabilistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are a powerful part of the learning experience being created, and they react differently to any given teaching method. </li></ul>Three Perspectives
    53. 53. Bruce Joyce “ These are really models of learning . They each empower students to cope with situations that they will encounter well beyond their school days.”
    54. 54. The Message? Many models to explore… many to master
    55. 55. We Start With <ul><li>National Training Laboratory …a precursor to Cooperative Learning and a few other teaching models of this century </li></ul>

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