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"NewPop"

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  • Quote from Week 8 reading- Ray Hudson.
  • http://blackboard.newcastle.edu.au/courses/1/061686.2010.S1/content/_1078162_1/Brown%20local%20global.pdf?bsession=37540231&bsession_str=session_id=37540231,user_id_pk1=2219071,user_id_sos_id_pk2=1,one_time_token=

C:\users\imogen\documents\uni 2010\new pop C:\users\imogen\documents\uni 2010\new pop Document Transcript

  • To whom it may concern,Music For the Populace is excited to share with you a proposal for diversifying and emboldening the current spread of popular music in the Newcastle area. We believe popular music is at the core of the Newcastle life and spirit and see our proposal as a fresh and exciting way to explore a diverse range of styles and flavours that Newcastle is currently keeping well-hidden. Our "fusion"-themed project outlines key markers in the desire to strengthen the social and cultural well-being of our great town.In the true essence of Newcastle, we believe togetherness is key in providing a well-rounded, culturally-infused web of social events to explore our towns potential. We recognise the diverse network of cultures that make up our community, and have developed a theme-based event to explore this. We also recognise the ability of popular music hold the attention of a wide range of people and have developed our proposal based on a meeting of these two ideas.
  • Please read on as we demonstrate how our proposed fusion-themed event - "The NewPop Festival" - will capitalise on the strength and talent of a host of local musicians, allowing Novocastrian acts and artists to steer the direction of their own music scene. To assist in advertising and raising awareness, as well as securing an ideal location, we request funding to the amount of $______. By successfully engaging in a multi-cultural exploration of pop music, we believe "The NewPop Festival" will allow Newcastle to experience a unique sense of togetherness that will both enlighten our people to the diversity that surrounds them, as well as celebrate the talent of our local artists and bring about a long-term passion for the wonder of music.We appreciate you considering our proposal and look forward to hearing from you. Please do not hesitate to call if you require any further information regarding anything found within the proposal.Regards,
    OGC
    Music for the Populace
  • NewPop:calling all musicians
    OGC is calling for submissions for a brand new community musical festival with the theme of fusion.
    “New”- in and for Newcastle.
    “Pop”- celebrating the true genre of the people, popular music.
    “NewPop”- A bold ambition to change the face of pop music and encourage experimentation and innovation.
    We welcome all musical genres and styles. This festival is for everyone. There will be workshops, lectures, live performances, debates and competitions.
    For those looking to compete, the brief is simple: fuse your style with something different and make it POP!
    See www.newpop.org.au for details on how to get involved.
  • Pop Fusion InspirationsSome performances that capture out theme.
    Faith No More cover Lady Gaga (Hard Rock Pop)
    True Live (Classical Hip Hop)
    Portishead (Trip-Hop)
    The Pogues (Folk Punk)
  • Fusion Through Time
    50's Ray Charles - I Got A Woman - Rhythm and Blues
    60'sJoe Cuba - Bang Bang - BoogalooCream - Sunshine of Your Love - Blues-rock
    70'sThe Ramones - Blitzkrieg Bop - Punk rock
    80'sUB40 - Red Red Wine - Reggae Fusion
    90'sPortishead- Wandering Star - Trip-HopLamb - Gorecki - trip-hop/drum and bass/dance electronica
    00'sCiara- Goodies - Crunk&B
  • What is popular music, and why is it important?
    By definition, it is “any genre of music having wide appeal (but usually only for a small amount of time)” (Princeton WordNet)
    It could be argued that its tendencies to be “short-lived” make popular music a less valuable investment, but we believe that although singular artists and songs may not achieve longevity, the musical styles stem from decades of popularity and have become hugely ingrained in our culture. This project would further assist local acts in being far more than a flash in the pan.
    Popular music encourages people, especially youths, to express themselves with more creative liberty than more rigid classical styles. The Newcastle Conservatorium has started to really see the value in this, with new courses focuses- in the last five years they have started comprehensively offering jazz and contemporary as majors.
    Popular music has a huge function socially and culturally...
  • Aims of NewPop
    In the creation and execution of the NewPop festival, we aim to:
    Raise the profile of Newcastle as a musical centre of Australia.
    Encourage all people to participate in and enjoy music and related activities whilst expanding their horizons. We want to highlight the fact that anyone can influence the future face of popular music.
    Promote popular music as a valuable and important avenue in our music industry- on the level with, or perhaps beyond, high culture.
    Offer the public a fresh and exciting way to see both their city and the extraordinary talent that lies within. We want to celebrate Newcastle and the many gifted people in its music industry!
  • The Role of Popular Music in Society and Culture
    Popular music is one of the main leisure resources used in our modern society today. “The sound of popular music permeates people’s lives in a variety of different ways” (Bennett, 2001). From nightclubs, to music festivals, in movies or commercials or even more recently through mobile listening devices such as Ipods and stereo systems.
    Popular music plays a defining role as a socialisation agent. It allows people to understand their surroundings by providing a symbolic categorisation “into which fans can organise the ongoing stream of events that constitute their personal, social and cultural life” (Kibby, 2000 p.92).
    Popular music is a significant form of social and cultural communication, it “is the expression of something real - a person, an idea, a feeling, a shared experience, a Zeitgeist” (Frith quoted in Dolfsma, 1999 p. 1038) Popular music enables humans to artistically express their social and cultural values through musicality.
  • The Role of Popular Music in Society and Culture
    Popular music has the ability to construct individual identity. Popular music is an individualising form that enables audiences to choose music that reflects their values (Dolfsma, 1999). Showing a like for a certain types of music communicates the values and beliefs that we as an individual adhere to and therefore plays a significant role in identifying one’s self in a social and cultural context.
    Popular music also functions as a tool for constructing a collective identity. As Frith suggests “music works materially to give people different identities, to place them in different social groups” (1996, p. 124). As well as being a tool for self-definition, popular music can act as a cohesive element that collectively identifies social groups or sub-cultures through cultural activity, shared musical tastes, aesthetic judgments and social values.
    Popular music is an artistic-cultural construction, where our personal acts of music listening involve “complex cognitive construction processes which also operate in relation to our social-cultural beliefs” (Elliot, 1995 par. 8)
  • The benefits of popular culture over high culture
    The Government grants would be much more suited to go towards the NewPop Festival as opposed to a ‘high culture’ event.
    A popular music event such as NewPop would aim to dissolve barriers between the social classes in Newcastle as well as other structurally determined differences such as gender and race. (Bennett, 2005) A high culture event may re-entrench these differences in the community, whereas popular music has the ability to cut across typical indicators such as social class, age and education. (Lewis, 1992) There really is something at NewPop for everyone.
    Contrary to popular belief pop music is not an exclusive domain of youth. The proportion of pop music listens in the over 40’s demographic is continually growing. (Bennett, 2005)
    Attracting a crowd to a high culture event may prove difficult in Newcastle, as a large division of the population are blue collar workers and University students.
    Studies have shown that high-status people, while still more likely than others to consume the fine arts, are also more likely to be involved in a wide range of low-status activities. (Peterson, 1996) Therefore, an event such as NewPop would attract the largest percentage of Newcastles population, appealing to both high, and low status persons.
  • Events:
    What do we propose?
    There will be a multitude of events, providing a creative avenue for everyone. These will include:
    Opening & Closing Parties (including music awards)
    A series of lectures & debates
    Workshops
    Live events
    Competitions
  • Lecture/Debate topics
    We would like to see academic discussion, in an entertaining format, on the following topics:
    Pop vs. Highbrow: Why pop music is just as valuable (if not more so) than high culture. (see sample)
    Power to the Popular: Pop music that changed the world (from the Sex Pistols to Bob Marley).
    Pop and Place: How music shapes cities
    Pop Fusion: How the internet has dismantled cultural barriers and united communities through popular music.
    Pop Art: Pop music and its influence on the visual arts (see sample)
    Ultimately we would like musicians, comedians, local personalities and scholars to facilitate lively and interesting conversation in these public forums.
  • Pop Art: Popular Music and its influence on the visual arts.
    This lecture will inspire and entertain as we take a walk through the history of Pop music’s influence on art forms.
    The art and pop music affair started back in the 60’s with artists such as Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton and Andy Warhol designing LP covers for pop groups such as the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. (Osterwold, 2003)
    Since then the number and diversity of pop-themed art works has risen significantly. Many of the major turning points in pop music were paralleled by turning points in the evolution of art.
    However, the influence of pop music on the art scene is hardly surprising considering the enormous impact of various genres of contemporary popular music on society as a whole. (Bennett, 2005) It is so embedded in everyday life that it is difficult to think of a social context in which it does not exist. (Bennett, 2005)
    And while living at a time when all cultural forms draw on the same resources and are implicated in multi-media tie ups, we can only expect to see the influence of music on art grow, and vice-versa. (Firth, 1987)
    Art critic Barbera Pollock says "From making sculptures out of melted LPs, to creating album covers and music videos, to playing in their own bands, a new generation of artists is blurring the distinction between the worlds of pop music and fine art (2002)”
  • The Great Debate: Popular Culture vs. High Culture
     Is ‘pop culture’ undervalued in our current society? Is ‘high culture’ losing it’s relevance? Are the lines between what is considered ‘pop culture’ and what is considered ‘high culture’ beginning to blur?
    The onus for the ‘pop culture’ team will be to define exactly what is considered ‘pop culture’ and explain, using relevant sources and information, it’s relevance and prevalence in modern society.
    The onus for the ‘high culture’ team will be to define what can be constituted as ‘high culture’ (or high art) and to defend and explain why high culture is still a relevant player within modern society.
    Both teams will be given approximately 2 hours to prepare before the debate with a single laptop as their means of research.
    We ask that both teams consider the following statements when preparing their material for the debate:
    To cope with the challenges of modernity, which is what any society must do if it is to survive today, you require a 'high culture'. (Smith, 1996)
    “Pop Culture (is) culture made by the people, for the people” (De Cleen, 2010)
    ‘The situation with live music and theatre is very much related to the boundaries of art and popular culture. It is easier to attract a larger audience if the stage show is entertaining and the artists and repertoire are frequently broadcast in the media.” (Holt, 2010)
    Fascination with live music in the media is related to festive moments: shows, parties, club nights, festivals, and so on. The association with such moments among younger people underpins the freshness and coolness that the words ‘live’ and ‘performance’ connote in popular culture. (Holt, 2010)
    “Popular Culture is an instrument for maintaining class privilege, its heavy use of kitsch panders to peoples infantile wishes for how the world ought to be, and it does not present to its audience a vision of the world that is different, and morally better than the one in which we live. Only the art of the avant-garde can do this” (Cobb, 2005)
  • Power to the Popular
    The social function of music is a particularly pertinent one. Recent modern life criticisms concern a loss of a physical community, communication break down and cultural genocide through globalisation and technology. These are serious issues that should be addressed, however rather than bemoan globalisation influences, Music for the Populace are hoping to celebrate the positive aspects. Our goal is to create new cultures, educate each other about old ones and provide a general harmonising experience for the city of Newcastle.
    Throughout history music has proven to be a powerful medium to UNITE people and encourage solidarity. Below are some pertinent examples from a variety of popular music genres.
    Pakistani-American Punks
    Alright, so everyone knows how the Sex Pistols challenged the highly entrenched British Class system and brought attitude to the youth unemployment phenomenon. But what about the Kominas, a Hindu/ Muslim Pakistani-American punk rock band? Although their Music is forbidden of “haraam” by fundamentalists and their highly traditional older counterparts; Kominas have been attributed to breaking down cultural barriers and providing a place for second generation immigrants from South Asia and the Middle East. They’re lyrical fodder captures the identity crisis and cultural clashes experienced by the immigrant cultures, such as feminist rights and homosexuality. (Contreras, 2010)
    Welsh Indie Rockers help Cuban International Relations
    In 2001 the Manic Street Preachers charmed Cuban leader Fidel Castro and helped repair relationships between Cuba and Western Nations. Having denounced Western Music as decadent and therefore unsuitable for the Communist country, it took Welsh rockers with an anti consumerism, anti-Americanisation message to win the heart of the dictator. They performed songs such as “The Masses Against the Classes” and “Baby Elian” about a boy returning home to Cuba to an audience of 5000 Cubans; earning them a standing ovation (from Fidel himself) and an opportunity to share their message with Cuba that not all Westerners are capitalists. (BBC News, 2008) 
    Hip Hop brings attention to Indigenous Issues.
    For a genre that is often associated by the media with crime, Hip Hop has become a voice for Australia’s most disenfranchised people. Young Rappers such as Morganics are using the medium to attract youth away from delinquency by providing community based hip hop workshops with strong spiritual and community focus. Hip Hop is also providing opportunities for social mobility and helping resolve identity issues suffered by many Aboriginal youth, who suffer constant discrimination and alienation. Lyrics raise issues of Indigenous plight such as chronic health conditions, poverty and deaths in custody. Hip Hop has certainly been a voice for the exploited around the word (Stavrias, 2005).
  • Workshops
    Our aims are to showcase, educate and celebrate. By offering workshops, we give people a chance to embrace a new skill, thereby unifying the community. Workshops would include:
    • A World Music instrument fair where people can see/hear demonstrations of ouds, tablas etc and have a go .
    Pop art lessons/exhibition  (art inspired by music). (Submission categories: primary school, highschool, Tafe/ University/ Professional/ Open)
    How to break into the music industry- a guide to getting started.
    Mash Up workshop: Learn how to create mash ups and create original music through fusing songs.
    East Meets West: A panel discussion covering the influence that Western and Asian cultures have on each other.
    A new genre is born: So many genres of music have become successful, that are the fusing of two seemingly incompatible genres (rap-metal, trip hop, Folk-punk)- representatives from all different subcultures come together to try and create a brand new genre).
    Fused media: how to use and fuse different media to get attention for your band.
  • Live Events
    At the core of the proposed festival is live music, in varying forms. These include:
    The ultimate covers festival: local acts take a cover and make it their own.
    Pop Trivia: celebrity host and live musical accompaniment.
    Fused: A host of established groups/ soloists (African drumming circles, pup rock cover bands, a ukulele group, one man bands, death metal groups, divas, string quartets) and match them up. They are given a song on opening night, which they must then perform together by the Sunday night. Our aim is to throw people really out of their comfort zones- by mixing incredibly diverse groups and watching them achieve harmony.
  • Popular Music Festivals:Significant Social and Cultural Activities in Newcastle
    Live festivals are a great social and cultural activity where “music consumption is mixed with relaxation and socialising as people forge new friendships and associations based around common tastes in music, fashion and lifestyle” (Bennett, 2001 p. 1). This illustrates the importance of live popular music as a means of socialisation and collective identification.
    The benefits of a community music festival such as NewPop, is that it can be an effective tool for promoting a community’s identity (Duffy, 2000). This is because there is a sense of the local at various levels, “through performances, the audience and how the festival is organised” and because of this “the community music festival can be seen as an articulation of local connections between identity and place” (Duffy, 2000 p. 51).
    It is criticised within many academic journals that festivals are often “organised around an art form that catered to the values of the cultural elite” (Sharpe, 2008 p.219) with emphasis on high cultural activities. However, this does not effectively represent the core values of community in Newcastle, and thus The NewPop festival is designed as a welcoming and inclusive to a variety of segments of the community.
  • Popular Music Festivals:Significant Social and Cultural Activities in Newcastle
    By establishing live events within the festival, Music for the Populace wishes to emphasise the importance of music as a form of social expression and identity for artists. When performing within the context of the music festival, “participants use this aesthetic to create, and reconnect to, their sense of place and to others” (Duffy, 2000 p.62) within the community.
    Music festivals such as NewPop are culturally significant to the Novocastrian community because they reproduce the dominant values of a community in that they celebrate and conserve the “overt values recognised by the community as essential to its ideology” (Waterman, 1998, p. 57).  
    Together with this, the NewPop festival aims to facilitate the public’s best interests through popular music, which can be seen as a significant tool in “creating and affirming leisure lifestyle identities” (Matheson, 2008 p.57).
    Popular music “can be interpreted as a reflection of place” (Matheson, 2008 p.59). and because of this NewPop festival will incorporate localised live music in an attempt effectively represent the culture and community from which it springs.
  • Festivals for Social Change
    Sharpe contends that music festivals are a powerful source of social change. Festivals serve as a venue for alternative lifestyle discussion and the furthering of political agendas. Far from conforming to everyday norms and social rules, the festival offers a site of resistance and a mechanism to compel political beliefs. “They provide an opportunity for members of the movement to build networks and celebrate solidarity” (Sharpe, 2008: 219)
    The act of combining entertainment with a political agenda is a new phenomenon. Entertainment and leisure serve as an enticement to attract more people to participate in the given cause and political rallies are often accompanied by artistic expression (Sharpe 2008). For example music festivals in the 1960’s served as a venue for youth rebellion, anti-war protest rallies, sexual revolution and feminist principles. More modern examples include LiveAid, The Tibetan Freedom Concert, NoNukes and Hope for Haiti.
    In the case of the NewPop Festival, out political agenda is one of inclusion and community. There is a strong focus on local talent, local venues and local economic growth. A criticism of many modern festivals is their capitalist agenda and reproduction of power relations (Sharpe, 2008). However, these ideals run counter to Music For The Populace ideals as a grassroots movement, hoping to elevate the status of Newcastle as an artistic Mecca. Another criticism raised is that subcultural events appeal to niche groups and simply “preach to the choir”. NewPop hopes to overcome this phenomena through its fusion theme (and encouragement of artists and consumers to have new experiences) and it’s wide reach of appeal. Rather than a few small groups NewPop will be reaching out to:
    Refugee & migrant centres
    Newcastle’s Musical Community (via the Newcastle Music Guide particularly their links page, Reverb, The Loft, Octapod, Newcastle Community Arts Centre)
    Educational institutions (Tafe, University, Schools)
    Newcastle City Council has a directory of community organisations that we would be contacting.
  • CompetitionsNewPop: Exposing New Talent
    The aim of our competition is to take something as common as a ‘Battle of The Bands’ format and transport it into something fresh and exciting.
    We would invite all types of performers (bands, groups, solo acts) from different musical backgrounds to compete against each other in the ultimate ‘fusion’ contest.
    NewPop is all about getting the ‘populace’ involved, so part of our competition would involve a section based on school bands. We would invite all schools from the Newcastle region to compete. Each school can have more than one performer with a limit of 5 per school. Unlike normal school-based musical competitions, NewPop will encourage and welcome all forms of bands/groups – from hip-hop to classical. We want Newcastle’s future musical talent to show us what they can do.
    The winner of the main competition will win a chance to perform as part of our closing ceremony.
    The heats of the event will be held at different locations around Newcastle each week leading up to the NewPop festival. This encourages maximum exposure and knowledge of our event which we believe will increase the attendees of our festival.
  • Locations
    “There is no doubt that music – in both its production and consumption – can be an important influence in shaping the typically hybrid identities of people and places, of engendering a sense of place and deep attachment to place.” (Hudson, p. 633)
    Many buildings/complexes at the heart of Newcastle have, in recent years, fallen into disuse and dilapidation. Others are still used, but their historical importance is long-forgotten. Here, we have an opportunity, thanks to popular music, to once again bring these places alive. It is our goal to incorporate local music with important local geography. Thus, some of our preferred locations include:
    Honeysuckle Railway Sheds
    The Store
    Wheeler Place
    Civic Park
    King Edward Park
    Hunter Street Mall
    The Foreshore
    The Old Post Office
    Nobby’s Headland
    Local surfhouses etc
    These places are our heritage, and reflect the heart and soul of all Novocastrians. For nearly as long as these buildings have been around, we have had popular music running in our veins. In the words of Starship, we built this city on rock and roll...
  • Locations A Visual Guide
    King Edward Park
    Civic Park
    Hunter Street Mall
    The Store Building
  • LocationsA Visual Guide
    Newcastle Foreshore
  • An important connection with local community
    Jean Jenkins states that “every linguistic, geographical or social grouping down to its smallest unit usually possesses several distinct musical traditions” (Quoted in Scott, 2002 p. 10). This notion reins particularly true in Newcastle in regards to it strong pub-rock scene, its heightened enthusiasm for popular music and its long history of diverse musical integration. As a community we must embrace these typically Novocastrian musical traditions in an attempt to celebrate Newcastle’s cultural and social musical diversity.
    “Musical products are enmeshed in and derive their nature and significance from their contexts of creation and use” (Elliot, 1995 par. 3). Therefore by incorporating acts that are localised and uniquely Novocastrian we can embrace our culture through musical celebration. 
    “The existence of local networks and creative talent does not necessarily mean that a local industry is secure.” (Brown et al, 2000 p.13) It is essential as a region that we extend and legitimate our music industry, to ensure its continuing existence and success.
  • Proven Successes
    Newcastle has a reputation for getting behind musical events and supporting both local and international acts. These five festivals not only demonstrate our town’s commitment to popular music but are also evidence that financing NewPop would be a worthwhile investment.
    Newcastle Music Week
    Newcastle Music Week is a week-long event that included themed day events such as ‘Monday Mental Nights’, ‘Boardwalk Sessions’ and ‘Resonate Music Competition’. The 2008 Grand Finale featured an array of acts including local groups and artists Benjalu, Mark Wells and The Understudy as well as other Australian acts such as Melbourne rapper BukkCity. The event ran successfully for three years before taking a break in 2009.
    www.newcastlemusicweek.com.au
    Fat As Butter
    Fat As Butter first began in 2008 and was held at Camp Shortland, opposite the famed Nobby’s Beach. The event secured international act ‘The Dandy Warhols’ as well as Australian acts Faker and The Potbelleez and resulted in being a sell-out event. The event was successful enough for it to return bigger and better in 2009 with a venue change to Wickham Park and featured The Hilltop Hoods and Grinspoon as headlining acts. The 2009 event was labeled a huge success by local media outlets such as NBN Television and the ABC.
    http://www.fatasbutter.com.au/
  • Proven Successes
    Newcastle Jazz Festival
    Newcastle Jazz Week is currently in its 23rd year of operation and traditionally runs for 3 days during the last weekend in August.
    www.newcastlejazz.com.au
    This Is Not Art Festival
    The This Is Not Art Festival incorporates independent music, theatre and artists. The 2009 Festival included the ‘Sound Summit’ which invites independent musical acts to come together and create a unique 5 day festival.
    www.thisisnotart.org
    Groovin’ The Moo
    Groovin ‘The Moo may be based in Maitland but the event still attracts a large percentage of its crowd from the Newcastle area. The 2007 festival featured Newcastle rock-heroes Silverchair. In 2010 Silverchair are returning to the event which is growing bigger each year. Since 2005 the event has expanded from playing in Maitland to include regional towns such as Townsville, Albury and Canberra.
    www.gtm.net.au
  • Future of NewPopIt’s Only The Beginning
    Music For The Populace would ideally like to make NewPop an annual event that encourages and supports music.
    We believe NewPop has the potential to be an ongoing successful and viable event due to its mass appeal. Our event appeals to such a wide variety of demographics that the sustainability and relevance of the festival will not be diminished over time.
    We would like to see the event become to popular music what the Tamworth Country Music Festival is to Tamworth. Due to NewPop’s huge appeal to a large percentage of the population, the event has the potential to attract attendees from outside of the Newcastle area. The event can be turned into a huge tourism boost for the town of Newcastle and generate large amounts of money into our local economy.
    NewPop has many opportunities to expand and grow. From starting as a 4 day event, in future years we would like this to increase to a week-long and to include even more musical acts, more venues, bigger competitions and a greater number of lectures/workshops.
  • Sources
    Academic References
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    BBC NEWS (2008) Musicians who changed the world http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/entertainment/7265114.stm
    Bennett, A. (2005) Editorial: Popular Music and Leisure. Leisure Studies, 24 (4), 333-342
    Bennett, A. (2001). Cultures of Popular Music. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Brown, A, Cohen S, O’Connor, J. (2000) Local music policies within a global music industry: cultural quarters in Manchester and Sheeld. Geoforum 31, p437-451.
    Cobb, K. (2005) The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture, Blackwell Publishing Pty Ltd,p48
    Cattleyard (2010) Groovin’ The Moo History. Groovin The Moo. Retrieved 29 April 2010 from http://www.gtm.net.au/canberra-about-history.html
    Contreras, R (2010) Muslims, Hindus crank up volume in punk bands, Washington Examiner http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/nation/muslims-hindus-crank-up-volume-in-stereotype-smashing-taqwacore-punk-rock-bands-80501787.html#ixzz0mrPtvEZq
    De Cleen B, Carpentier N. Contesting the populist claim on “the people” through popular culture: the 0110 concerts versus the VlaamsBelang. Social Semiotics [serial online]. April 2010;20(2):175-196.. Accessed April, 28, 2010.
    Dolfsma, W. (1999). The Consumption of Music and the Expression of VALUES: A Social Economic Explanation for the Advent of Pop Music . American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58 (4), 1019-1046.
    Duffy, M. (2000) lines of drift: festival participation and performing a sense of place.Popular Music 19 (1), 51–64.
    Elliott, D. (1995). On the Nature and Significance of Music. Retrieved April 21, 2010, from Music Matter: http://www.davidelliottmusic.com/musicmat/nature.htm
    Frith, S. (1996). Music and Identity. In S. Hall & Gay, P.D., Questions of Cultural Identity (pp. 108-128). London: Sage Publications.
  • Firth, S, Horne, H. (1987) Art into Pop. Richard Clay Ltd, Bungay, Suffolk.
    Holt F. The economy of live music in the digital age. European Journal of Cultural Studies [serial online]. May 2010;13(2):243-261. Accessed April 28, 2010.
    Hudson, R. (2006). Regions and Place: Music, Identity and place. Progress in Human Geography 30(5), 626-634. 
    Kibby, M. (2000). Home on the Page: A Virtual Place of Music Community . Popular Music, 19 (1), 91-100.
    Lewis, G, H. (1992) Who do you love? The dimensions of musical taste, in: J. Lull (Ed.) Popular Music and Communication, 2ndedn., pp 44-64 (London Sage)
    Matheson, C. (2008) Music, Emotion and Authenticity: A Study of Celtic Music Festival Consumers, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 6 (1), 57 -74
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    Sharpe, E. (2008) Festivals and Social Change: Intersections of Pleasure and Politics at a Community Music Festival, Leisure Sciences, 30 (3), 217-234
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    Smith, A (1996) Memory and modernity: reflections on Ernest Gellner's theory of nationalism, Nations and Nationalism. Retrieved April 17, 2010 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8219.1996.tb00004.x
    Thisisnotart (2009) 2009 Program. This Is Not Art. Retrieved 29 April 2010 from http://www.thisisnotart.org/assets/Uploads/thisisnotart09_program.pdf
    Waterman, S. (1998). Carnivals for elites? The cultural politics of arts festivals. Progress in HumanGeography, 22(1), 54–74.
  • Graphic Resources
    Cynthia Webb, http://www.hybrid-genesis.com
    Dysfunction, http://community.livejournal.com/_dysfunction/
    DaFont, http://www.dafont.com
    The Herald, http://www.theherald.com.au/
    Mess and Noise, http://m.messandnoise.com/images
    Mulumbinbahttp://mulubinba.typepad.com/photos/
    Newcastle City Council http://www.newcastle.gov.au/
    ABC, http://www.abc.net.au/oztrax
    Blogspot (through google images), http://4.bp.blogspot.com
    Kicking Country, http://www.kickingcountry.net/
  • By Online Group C:
    Joanne Karmas
    Stephanie Pease
    Maxine Petrovic
    Lauren Pollard
    Michael Raschke
    Imogen Thomas
    Suzanne Todd