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Pandemics Week 3 Presentation Summary 1 D
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    Pandemics Week 3 Presentation Summary 1 D Pandemics Week 3 Presentation Summary 1 D Presentation Transcript

    • Pandemics 
      Malaria
      Malak Saleh
      Week 3 (summary 1)
    • Malaria in the United States
      1,337 cases of malaria, including 8 deaths, were reported for 2002 in the united states
      2 types of mosquitoes that were in charge of transmitting the disease were; quadrimaculates in the east and freeborni in the west
      They are still available in the U.S that is why the probability of getting malaria in the U.S is still high.
    • Malaria Worldwide
      41 percent of the world’s population live in areas where malaria is transmitted
      Each year about 350-500 cases of malaria occur worldwide, and over 1 million people die, most of them in Africa
      In areas of Africa with high malaria transmission, an estimated 990,000 people died of that disease in 1995-over 2700 deaths per say, or 2 deaths per minute.
    • Prevention and treatment
      Two important currently used antimalarial drugs are derived from plants whose medicinal value had been noted for centuries.
    • What is malaria ?
      Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by parasites that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans.
      People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu lie illness.
      Although malaria can be a deadly disease, illness and death from malaria can usually be prevented.
      Because malaria causes so much illness and death, the disease is a great drain to many national economies.
    • How malaria is transmitted
      Usually people get malaria by being bitten by a female mosquito.
      Only female mosquitoes can transmit the disease and they must have taken it from a previous blood meal taken on an infected person.
      Because the malaria parasite is found in red blood cells of an infected person, malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared using of needles
      And malaria is not a contagious disease it is not transmitted from a person to person.
    • Who is at risk?
      Anyone can get malaria
      The people that are most exposed to the female mosquito bites than these people are the ones most likely to die from malaria.
      People that have no immunity towards malaria what so ever like pregnant women or children are most likely to get sick and die from malaria.
      Poor people that are uneducated and have no money or they lack the access to health care are at greater risk in getting the disease.
    • Symptoms and Diagnostics
      Symptoms include fever, flu-like illness, shaking chills, headaches, muscle aches, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may cause anemia.
      For some people symptoms begin 10 days to 4 weeks after the infection. However people might feel it as early as 7 days or as late as 1 year.
      The only way you can actually know whether you have malaria is to have a diagnostic test.
    • Malaria and children and infants
      Children and infants can be give antimalarial drugs, however not all the time. Because some antimalarial drugs aren’t good for children
      And doses are based on the child’s weight too.
    • Pregnancy and breastfeeding
      CDC advices pregnant women to not travel to places that are possibly containing malaria.
      The amount of antimalarial drug transferred from the nursing mother to her infant is not thought to be harmful to the infant.
      Based on experience with other antimalarial drugs, the quantity of drug transferred in breast milk is not likely to be enough to provide protection against malaria for the infant.
    • Other preventive measures
      You and your family can prevent malaria by:
      Keeping mosquitoes from biting you, especially at night
      Taking antimalarial drugs to kill the parasites
      Spraying insecticides on your home’s walls to kill adult mosquitoes that come inside.
      Sleeping under bed nets-especially effective if they have been treated with insecticide.
      Using insect repellent and wearing long-sleeved clothing if out of doors at night.
    • Treating malaria
      The disease should be treated early in its course, before it becomes serious and life-threatening.
      The most important step is to think about malaria if you are presently in, or have recently been in, an area with malaria, so that the disease is diagnosed and treated in time.
      Malaria can be cured with prescription drugs.
      You don’t necessarily have malaria for the rest of your life if you get it as it is treatable.
      In general, if you are correctly treated for malaria, the parasites are eliminated and you are no longer infected with malaria.
    • Geographic Distribution
    • The history of malaria (part 1)
      The symptoms of malaria were described in ancient Chinese medical writings.
      Malaria became extremely recognized in Greece by 4th century BCE, and it was the reason behind the decline of many of the city-state population.
      Alphonse Laveran was the first to notice parasites in the blood of a patient suffering from malaria
      This occurred on the 6th of November 1880.
      For his discovery he was awarded a Nobel prize I 1907
    • The history of malaria (part 2 )
      Camilla Golgi established that there were at least two forms of the disease.
      Ronald Ross was the first to demonstrate that a mosquito could transmit a (bird) malaria parasite.
      The construction of the Panama Canal was made possibly only after yellow fever and malaria were controlled in areas
      MCWA was established to control malaria around military training bases in the southern United States and its territories, where malaria was still problematic.
      CDC’s mission to combat malaria began at its inception on July
      Eradication efforts worldwide started showing as they started making stamps highlighting malaria eradication.
    • The impact of malaria
      Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected.
    • Areas where malaria is NOT endemic
      In countries where malaria transmissions has never existed or has eliminated, such as the United States, the great majority of cases occur in returning travelers or in migrants arriving from areas where malaria is transmitted.