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  1. 1. Summary week 4<br />Malak saleh : ) <br />Influenza<br />
  2. 2. Key facts<br />Spreads easily from person to person<br /> Influenza circulates worldwide and can affect anybody in any age group.<br />It causes annual epidemics that peak during winter in temperature regions.<br /> Is a serious public health problem that causes severe illnesses and deaths<br />An epidemic can take an economic too through lost workforce productivity<br />Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection <br />
  3. 3. Overview <br />There are 3 types of seasonal influenza, type A, B, C.<br />Type A, are further typed into subtypes according to different kinds and combinations of virus surface proteins.<br />Ex: H1N1, H3N2, these circulate among humans<br />Type C, occurs less often than A and B, that’s why only influenza A and B are included in seasonal influenza vaccines.<br />
  4. 4. Signs and symptoms<br />It is characterized by a sudden onset of high fever, cough (usually dry), headache, muscle and joint pain, severe malaise (feeling unwell), sore throat and runny nose.<br />The period of incubation is about 2 days.<br />
  5. 5. Who is at risk?<br />It can affect any age group<br />The highest risk occur among children younger than the age of 2 and adults 65 or older<br /> As well as people who have severe medical conditions such as; chronic heart, lung, kidney, liver, blood or metabolic diseases, or weakened immune system<br />
  6. 6. Transmission <br />It spreads easily and can sweep through schools, nursing homes, businesses or towns.<br />When an affected person coughs, infected droplets get into that air and another person can breathe them in and get expose<br /> This virus can also be spread by hands affected with the virus<br /> To prevent transmission people should cover their mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing, and wash their hands regularly <br />
  7. 7. Treatment <br />Antiviral drugs for influenza are available in some countries and effectively prevent and treat the illness<br />There are 2 classes of such medicines 1) adamantanes 2) inhibitors of influenza neuraminidase<br />
  8. 8. Seasonal epidemics<br />They occur yearly during autumn and winter in temperature regions<br />Illnesses result in hospitalizations and deaths mainly among high risk groups.<br />Worldwide, these annual epidemics result in about three to five million cases of severe illness, and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths.<br />
  9. 9. Disease effects<br />Influenza can cause serious public health and economic problems.<br />In communities, clinics and hospitals can be overwhelmed when large numbers of sick people appear for treatment during peak illness periods.<br />Little is known about the effects of influenza epidemics in developing countries<br />
  10. 10. Prevention: <br />The most effective way to prevent the disease or severe outcomes from the illness is vaccination.<br /> Safe and effective vaccines have been available and used for more than 60 years.<br />Vaccines in adults can prevent 70-90% of specific illness. In elders it prevents 60-80%<br />Influenza vaccines are most effective when circulating viruses are well-matched with vaccine viruses.<br />
  11. 11. Avian influenza (in birds)<br />It is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus.<br /> The virus can cause 2 distinctly different forms of disease- one common and mild, the other rare and highly lethal.<br />In the mild outbreaks can be so mild they escape detection unless regular testing for viruses is in place.<br />In the second you cannot miss the symptoms and the bird is classified straight away. <br />Highly pathogenic viruses can survive for long periods in the environment, especially when temperatures are low.<br />The logistics are usually very straightforward when applied to large commercial farms, where birds are housed indoors.<br />The use of poor quality vaccines or vaccines that poorly match the circulating virus strain may accelerate mutation of the virus.<br /> During 2005 scientists are increasingly convinced that at least some migratory waterfowl are now carrying H5N1 in its high pathogenic form<br />To date, 9 Asian countries have reported outbreaks of the disease: Korea, Viet Nam, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, China, and Malaysia.<br />
  12. 12. The disease in Humans<br /> Influenza viruses are normally highly species-specific<br /> Of the hundreds of strains of avian influenza only 4 are known to have caused human infection: H5N1, H7N3, H9N2, H7N7<br /> The virus of H5N1 transmissibility can improve among 2 principal mechanisms <br />1) Reassortment: in which the genetic material is exchanged. <br />2) Adaptive mutation: small clusters of human cases with some evidence to human –to-human transmission. <br />The incubation period is different than that of a normal influenza.<br />Ranging from 2-8 days and sometimes as long as 17 days.<br />
  13. 13. 10 concerns if the disease became a pandemic<br />Pandemic influenza is different than avian influenza<br />Influenza pandemics are recurring events<br />The world may be on the brink of another pandemic<br />All countries will be affected<br />Widespread illness will occur<br />Medical supplied will be inadequate<br />Large numbers of deaths will occur<br />Economic and social disruption will be great<br />Every country must be prepared<br />WHO will alert the world when the pandemic threat increases<br />