Namibia 1904 Before the genocide:- In the 19th century, white Europeans began their occupations in Africa, why? New trade Strategic location New treasures and riches Namibia’s Geography The Namib Desert lies on its west coastline, sand dunes and barren rocks are found there. Water is the scarcest commodity, river don’t always run in Namibia. BUT the sand of the Skeleton Coast is extremely RICH. Uranium Tin In Central Namib Desert Tungsten Copper in North Namib Desert Diamonds in South Namib Desert
Namibia 1904 In 1880, Germany arrived into South West Africa Major Theodor Leutwein, a military governor who knew nothing about Africa, started playing off the Nama and Herero tribes against each other More white settlers arrived, pushed tribes off their land by bribes and unreliable deals Diamonds were discovered --> attracted more incomers with the desire for wealth
Namibia 1904 The Genocide:- German Emperor replaced Leutwein and assigned Lieutenant-General Lothar von Trotha Trotha was known for his brutality and violence, he brought 10,000 armed Germans and a plan of war German troops under Trotha’s command surrounded the Herero tribes from 3 sides and only opened the side lying on the Kalahari Desert. Even the water holes in the desert were poisoned and anyone who returned from the desert was killed. On October 2, 1904 ,Trotha’s decision announced: “All Hereros must leave German region. If they refuse, I will force them by big guns. And Herero found within German territory will be shot. No prisoners will be taken.” The Hereros rebelled but their uprising was extinguished Shooting Death in desert from starvation/thirst/disease Anyone remaining was banned from owning land/cattle + sent to work in labour camps for Germans --> died of overwork/starvation/disease By 1907, Trotha’s orders were cancelled. The Hereros decreased in number after the brutal massacres. Before uprising --> 80,000 After uprising --> 15,000 During period of colonization and oppression, women were used as sex slaves , in Herero labour camps, many babies were born to abused women The Nama tribe also suffered They rebelled after the Hereros defeat, however Trotha quickly controlled them During the Nama uprising, 10,000 were killed and those left were confined in concentration camps.
Namibia 1904 After the genocide:- After WWI, South West Africa was under the South African control. South Africa imposed harsh apartheid, racial segregation system in the west. Late 1940s – a movement called SWAPO (South West African People’s Organization) fought for independence. 1968 – The UN recognized Namibia as an independent country, however it wasn’t before 20 years later that Namibia really gained its independence, after South Africa withdrew from Namibia by then it was devastated by war. Today, most of Namibia’s 1.7 million people are poor, living in crowded, tribal areas. Descendants of the Hereros live in Botswana but 8% of the Namibian population is made up of Hereros. Many are cattle herders but some are political opposers however they don’t get much support. Namibia receives huge aid from Germany more than any country, as Germany admits that the Herero massacres were “a burden on the conscience of every German”, however most of the money doesn’t go to the Hereros but the Ovambo tribe (Namibia’s main tribe today) who led the struggle for independence in 1990. Today, 25,000 German settlers in Namibia deny the genocide fearing the loss of their valuable land.
Armenia 1915 Before the genocide At the end of the 19th century, Russia and Turkey just recovered from war. Western Armenia (2.5 million) was governed by Turks and eastern Armenia was under Russian control. Nationalist movements and reformers rose which annoyed both Turkish and Russian sides. Therefore both sides suppressed any opposition, in Turkish Armenian areas huge massacres took place from 1894 – 1896, as for Russian Armenian areas, Tsar (former Russian emperor) closed hundreds of schools and libraries and in 1903 confiscated the property of Armenian Church. In 1909 --> the Ottoman sultan was overthrown by a new political group called “Young Turks” who pursued a modernized government. When WWI broke out, Young Turks supported Germany --> which brought Turkey back into conflict with Russia. Young Turks expected the Turkish Armenians to conspire with the Christian Russians against them.
Armenia 1915 The Genocide 1915 --> under the cover of war, the ottoman government decided to expel Turkey’s Armenian population entirely (1.75 million) Their plans to banish the Armenians Deportation to deserts of Syria and Mesopotamia Hundreds of thousands were massacred or forced to march into deserts till death From 1915 – 1923: western Armenia was emptied of its Armenians 1,000,000 died and who didn’t die fled to Russia, USA, or Middle East
Armenia 1915 After the genocide After WWI, efforts failed to restore the Armenian territories. Finally in 1920, Turkey gave up its claim to the Armenians. Time was taken until boundaries were sorted out and by 1922 Armenia became part of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), where it remained there for 71 years Armenia was protected from neighboring hostility but the Soviet government was harsh, especially Stalin. Suppression of politicians and churchmen Workers on land were forced to follow communist policies, like the known “collectivization” (become badly paid labourer on land they don’t own) 1920s --> Turkish officials denied all evidence presented by western or Armenian witnesses Armenia called for the 1915 massacres to be acknowledged as genocide and asked the Turks to apologize for it. However, the Turks claimed that the statistics reached were false, the true figures were not only 300,000 Armenians killed but thousands of Turks killed, too. Today, 70,000 Armenians live in Turkey but stay away from the arguments.
Ukraine 1932 Before the genocide Now Ukraine is a bigger country lying between Russia in the eat and Poland in the west Ukraine’s borders changed many times, control over it was disputed between Poland and Russia over centuries Ukraine’s natural riches --> its black earth ( fertile soil, coal, and ivory) in addition to the huge cornfields which formed Russia’s Granary (grain growing region) In 1921 – 1922, orders were made that the cornfield farmers should adopt communist policies. This order clashed with the seizing of Ukrainian food by force and natural drought which led to --> FAMINE (1,000,000 died) In 1924, Stalin becomes leaser of USSR, he decides to crush Ukrainian nationalism and break the Kulaks ( farmers who made profit ) Market followed communist policies Collectivization: state owns land and its products and pays workers basic wages It was a good step towards equality but in real life and practically it wasn’t followed and many peasants hated and resisted it Stalin’s government ruled by force and fear with cruel party activists and brutal secret police In 1928 the Kulaks found out that their taxes were raised and they were asked to provide more grain plus their farms were confiscated by force for collectivization Therefore many rebelled violently by slaughtering their animals before handing in their farms or destroying their machinery and many were shot
Ukraine 1932 The Genocide Government asked for huge quantities of grain forcing farmers to use the next season’s grain seeds, although the leaders knew this would result in a food shortage later, so borders were closed, food stores were locked up and guarded by police, which created a man made famine to starve political resistors to death 7 million in ethnic regions dies out of hunger and some were shot
Ukraine 1932 After the genocide It took years for Ukraine to recover and Russian settlers were called to replace and bury the dead and revive the barren farms 1941 --> during WWII Germany invades Ukraine and exploits its lands and farmers brutally At the end of war, all areas were given back to Ukraine (areas held by Russia and Poland) and all Ukrainian land was back in one Soviet Republic 1980s --> revival of nationalism and religion 1991 --> Ukraine declares independence, transform from Soviet government to democratic parliament