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Genocide Presentation Weeks 3&4

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  • 1. Genocide
    What is Genocide?
    • Deliberate extermination of a national, ethnical, religious, or racial group
    • 2. EIGHT genocides were committed in the 20th century:
    • 3. Namibia 1904
    • 4. Armenia 1915
    • 5. Ukraine 1932
    • 6. The Holocaust
    • 7. Cambodia 1975
    • 8. Guatemala 1982
    • 9. Rwanda 1994
    • 10. Bosnia 1995
  • Namibia 1904
    Before the genocide:-
    In the 19th century, white Europeans began their occupations in Africa, why?
    New trade
    Strategic location
    New treasures and riches
    Namibia’s Geography
    The Namib Desert lies on its west coastline, sand dunes and barren rocks are found there.
    Water is the scarcest commodity, river don’t always run in Namibia.
    BUT the sand of the Skeleton Coast is extremely RICH.
    Uranium
    Tin In Central Namib Desert
    Tungsten
    Copper in North Namib Desert
    Diamonds in South Namib Desert
  • 11. Namibia 1904
    In 1880, Germany arrived into South West Africa
    Major Theodor Leutwein, a military governor who knew nothing about Africa, started playing off the Nama and Herero tribes against each other
    More white settlers arrived, pushed tribes off their land by bribes and unreliable deals
    Diamonds were discovered --> attracted more incomers with the desire for wealth
  • 12. Namibia 1904
    The Genocide:-
    German Emperor replaced Leutwein and assigned Lieutenant-General Lothar von Trotha
    Trotha was known for his brutality and violence, he brought 10,000 armed Germans and a plan of war
    German troops under Trotha’s command surrounded the Herero tribes from 3 sides and only opened the side lying on the Kalahari Desert. Even the water holes in the desert were poisoned and anyone who returned from the desert was killed.
    On October 2, 1904 ,Trotha’s decision announced: “All Hereros must leave German region. If they refuse, I will force them by big guns. And Herero found within German territory will be shot. No prisoners will be taken.”
    The Hereros rebelled but their uprising was extinguished
    Shooting
    Death in desert from starvation/thirst/disease
    Anyone remaining was banned from owning land/cattle + sent to work in labour camps for Germans --> died of overwork/starvation/disease
    By 1907, Trotha’s orders were cancelled. The Hereros decreased in number after the brutal massacres.
    Before uprising --> 80,000 After uprising --> 15,000
    During period of colonization and oppression, women were used as sex slaves , in Herero labour camps, many babies were born to abused women
    The Nama tribe also suffered
    They rebelled after the Hereros defeat, however Trotha quickly controlled them
    During the Nama uprising, 10,000 were killed and those left were confined in concentration camps.
  • 13. Namibia 1904
    After the genocide:-
    After WWI, South West Africa was under the South African control. South Africa imposed harsh apartheid, racial segregation system in the west.
    Late 1940s – a movement called SWAPO (South West African People’s Organization) fought for independence.
    1968 – The UN recognized Namibia as an independent country, however it wasn’t before 20 years later that Namibia really gained its independence, after South Africa withdrew from Namibia by then it was devastated by war.
    Today, most of Namibia’s 1.7 million people are poor, living in crowded, tribal areas.
    Descendants of the Hereros live in Botswana but 8% of the Namibian population is made up of Hereros.
    Many are cattle herders but some are political opposers however they don’t get much support.
    Namibia receives huge aid from Germany more than any country, as Germany admits that the Herero massacres were “a burden on the conscience of every German”, however most of the money doesn’t go to the Hereros but the Ovambo tribe (Namibia’s main tribe today) who led the struggle for independence in 1990.
    Today, 25,000 German settlers in Namibia deny the genocide fearing the loss of their valuable land.
  • 14. Armenia 1915
    Before the genocide
    At the end of the 19th century, Russia and Turkey just recovered from war. Western Armenia (2.5 million) was governed by Turks and eastern Armenia was under Russian control.
    Nationalist movements and reformers rose which annoyed both Turkish and Russian sides. Therefore both sides suppressed any opposition, in Turkish Armenian areas huge massacres took place from 1894 – 1896, as for Russian Armenian areas, Tsar (former Russian emperor) closed hundreds of schools and libraries and in 1903 confiscated the property of Armenian Church.
    In 1909 --> the Ottoman sultan was overthrown by a new political group called “Young Turks” who pursued a modernized government. When WWI broke out, Young Turks supported Germany --> which brought Turkey back into conflict with Russia. Young Turks expected the Turkish Armenians to conspire with the Christian Russians against them.
  • 15. Armenia 1915
    The Genocide
    1915 --> under the cover of war, the ottoman government decided to expel Turkey’s Armenian population entirely (1.75 million)
    Their plans to banish the Armenians
    Deportation to deserts of Syria and Mesopotamia
    Hundreds of thousands were massacred or forced to march into deserts till death
    From 1915 – 1923: western Armenia was emptied of its Armenians
    1,000,000 died and who didn’t die fled to Russia, USA, or Middle East
  • 16. Armenia 1915
    After the genocide
    After WWI, efforts failed to restore the Armenian territories. Finally in 1920, Turkey gave up its claim to the Armenians.
    Time was taken until boundaries were sorted out and by 1922 Armenia became part of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), where it remained there for 71 years
    Armenia was protected from neighboring hostility but the Soviet government was harsh, especially Stalin.
    Suppression of politicians and churchmen
    Workers on land were forced to follow communist policies, like the known “collectivization” (become badly paid labourer on land they don’t own)
    1920s --> Turkish officials denied all evidence presented by western or Armenian witnesses
    Armenia called for the 1915 massacres to be acknowledged as genocide and asked the Turks to apologize for it. However, the Turks claimed that the statistics reached were false, the true figures were not only 300,000 Armenians killed but thousands of Turks killed, too.
    Today, 70,000 Armenians live in Turkey but stay away from the arguments.
  • 17. Ukraine 1932
    Before the genocide
    Now Ukraine is a bigger country lying between Russia in the eat and Poland in the west
    Ukraine’s borders changed many times, control over it was disputed between Poland and Russia over centuries
    Ukraine’s natural riches --> its black earth ( fertile soil, coal, and ivory) in addition to the huge cornfields which formed Russia’s Granary (grain growing region)
    In 1921 – 1922, orders were made that the cornfield farmers should adopt communist policies. This order clashed with the seizing of Ukrainian food by force and natural drought which led to --> FAMINE (1,000,000 died)
    In 1924, Stalin becomes leaser of USSR, he decides to crush Ukrainian nationalism and break the Kulaks ( farmers who made profit )
    Market followed communist policies
    Collectivization: state owns land and its products and pays workers basic wages
    It was a good step towards equality but in real life and practically it wasn’t followed and many peasants hated and resisted it
    Stalin’s government ruled by force and fear with cruel party activists and brutal secret police
    In 1928 the Kulaks found out that their taxes were raised and they were asked to provide more grain plus their farms were confiscated by force for collectivization
    Therefore many rebelled violently by slaughtering their animals before handing in their farms or destroying their machinery and many were shot
  • 18. Ukraine 1932
    The Genocide
    Government asked for huge quantities of grain forcing farmers to use the next season’s grain seeds, although the leaders knew this would result in a food shortage later, so borders were closed, food stores were locked up and guarded by police, which created a man made famine to starve political resistors to death
    7 million in ethnic regions dies out of hunger and some were shot
  • 19. Ukraine 1932
    After the genocide
    It took years for Ukraine to recover and Russian settlers were called to replace and bury the dead and revive the barren farms
    1941 --> during WWII Germany invades Ukraine and exploits its lands and farmers brutally
    At the end of war, all areas were given back to Ukraine (areas held by Russia and Poland) and all Ukrainian land was back in one Soviet Republic
    1980s --> revival of nationalism and religion
    1991 --> Ukraine declares independence, transform from Soviet government to democratic parliament