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Chapter 2 Great Decisions Teacher
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Chapter 2 Great Decisions Teacher


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  • 1. Chapter 2
    Afghanistan and Pakistan
    Great Decisions
  • 2. British India
  • 3. British India
    Tried to take over Afghanistan but couldn’t
    Used it as a buffer zone ( against Russia )
    British established a 3 tiered Border
    First line : areas under direct British rule from areas under Pashtun tribal Control --- Today the lnie that separates the NWFP ( North Western Frontier Province ) and Balochistan from the FATA ( Federally Administered Tribal Areas )
    Durand Line : separating the Tribal areas from the areas under the control of the Afghani emir ( accepted by international community)
  • 4. Pashtunistan
    A group concentrated in Afghanistan, NWFP, and FATA
    The Durand Line cut through the Pashtun Tribal Area
  • 5. The Weakening of British India
    Afghanistan’s full sovereignty 1919
    India’s independence in 1947
    Pakistan was a new state
    Afghanistan claimed that all treaties or borders with British India had lapsed because now Pakistan is a state on its own
    Afghanistan refused to recognize the Durand Line and called for the self determination of Pashtunistan
    The Duran line is the Western International border of Pakistan
  • 6. Afghanistan
    The dynasty fell in 1973
    The king was overthrown by his cousin, Daud– who was murdered by Communist military officers in 1978
    This led to the US, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia supporting the mujahidin against the Soviets
    After the fall of the Soviets – ethnic conflicts amongst tribes increased
  • 7. Pakistan supported the rise to power – Taliban
    The resistance organized the Northern Alliance – opposed the Taliban
    They control the norther and western afghanistan and the capital Kabul
    The Bush administration wanted to destroy al Qaeda’s bases in Afghanistan
    The U.S asked the UN to take charge to sponsor political transition in Afghanistan
    Afghanistan had not had a govt. since 1979
    Interim authority for 6 months
    Must choose and ELJ (emergency LoyaJirga ) or an emergency grand council to choose the next govt.
    Then created a CLJ or a constitution
    Then fair elections
    HamidKarzai was elected president
    September 11, 2001
  • 9. G-8
    G-8 Members were appointed different sectors to reform
    Germany – police
    Japan – demobilization, disarmament
    Britain – Counternarcotics
    Italy – Justice
    U.S- limited involvement in Afghan National Army
  • 10.
  • 11. Insurgency escalated
    2006 – Taliban launched major offenses
    2007 – 2008 – attacks continued to rise
    Taliban gained a lot of support – controlled more than 50 districts out of 365 and government controlled 62 out of 365
  • 12. Pakistan
    Uses the wars in the region to stabilize itself
    Wanted to bring Afghanistan under its influence by supporting Pashtun Islamists
    Supported the US in ending the Taliban movement in Afghanistan and searching for Al Qaeda – because otherwise the US would ally with India
    However this wasn’t true the taliban was still very much supported in Pakistan
    President Bush found out and confronted Prez. Musharaf with it
  • 13. Al - Qaeda
    Located in the FATA region ( Federally administered Tribal Areas) of pakistan on the afghan border
  • 14. Afghan Taliban
    Mullah Mohamed Umar- leader or amir of the Taliban
    He leads the Quetta Shura (directs operations in Southern Afghanistan)
    JalaludinHaqqani – another center of Afghan Taliban
    Collaborate more closely with Al-Qaeda
    Responsible for military activity in Eastern Afghanistan and Kabul
    Islamic party – Mujahidin group – NE afghanistan and NW Pakistan
  • 15.
  • 16. IN Pakistan’s View:
    The US failed to engae the Taliban
    The US has done a poor job in stabilizing Afghanistan
    They signed a nuclear treaty with India ( pakistan’s threat)
    Pakistan will only deliver Al-Qaeda if the US engages Taliban and includes them in the govt of Afghanistan
  • 17. Policy considerations (afghanistan)
    Strengthen government legitimacy
    Differentiating between the Taliban and Al-Qaeda
    International army will only remain to secure the area
    Improvements in security
    ANA, ANP – Afghan National Army, and Afghan National police
    Controlling Drugs – Crop eradication
  • 18. Policy Considerations : Pakistan
    More of a threat towards international community
    International community should work together to eliminate the threats
    This effort should work more with Pakistan
    Highlighting how important it is that Pakistan is stable
    Frank discussion
    Durand Line Issue