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Psychological Type, Learning Styles and Teaching Strategies: Student and Faculty Implications in an Online Environment

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This session will investigate how students with different psychological preferences adapt to the online learning environment and how teachers may adapt teaching styles to accommodate these different learning styles. The session begins with an overview of the adaptation of Carl Jung’s work into the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®). Next, there will be a synopsis of some of the research on the interrelationship of personality preferences and learning styles. Finally, participants will consider strategies that CDL instructors may employ in our online learning environment to enhance the learning of our students.

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  • Jung’s Type Theory suggests: All people have preferences Preferences are dichotomous - people will prefer one preference to its opposite The theory emphasizes the need for balance between the dichotomous preferences •We have the potential to develop the skills related to all the preferences. •Preferences are innate They don’t change over the life span All preferences and types are equally valuable The expression of type may vary in accordance with different stages of life, and different circumstances (Harold Grant’s work broke it down into life stages: 0-6; 6-12; 13-20; 21-35; 36-55; over 55) The environment becomes extremely important - it can foster or discourage the development of natural preferences. Jung’s Type Theory suggests: All people have preferences Preferences are dichotomous - people will prefer one preference to its opposite The theory emphasizes the need for balance between the dichotomous preferences •We have the potential to develop the skills related to all the preferences. •Preferences are innate They don’t change over the life span All preferences and types are equally valuable The expression of type may vary in accordance with different stages of life, and different circumstances (Harold Grant’s work broke it down into life stages: 0-6; 6-12; 13-20; 21-35; 36-55; over 55) The environment becomes extremely important - it can foster or discourage the development of natural preferences.
  • Review History of Type Theory and the MBTI Three main developers of Type Theory: Carl Jung, Kathering Briggs and her Daughter, Isabel Myers Carl Jung • Born in Switzerland in 1875 • In 1900, decided to specialize in psychiatry when he was certified in medicine • In 1921, publishes the book, “Psychological Type” after 25 years of developing his ideas based on the study of literature, his relationship with other psychiatrists such as Freud, his patients and other work done on topological schemes. 4. Katherine Briggs • Born 1875 (died 1968) • 1897 Daughter Isabel was born • 1923 Reads Jung’s English translation of “Psychological Type” • 1926-1928 - her writings on personality type and her writings on education are published. 5. Isabel Briggs Myers • Home schooled by Katherine • 1923-1942 - Works with her mother Katherine and studies type in the Myers Family • 1944- WWII - Both decided that an indicator needed to be created to help with the effective placement in wartime jobs • Development of MBTI and supporting research become the major focus of her life.
  • Katherine- Mother; Isabel- Daughter
  • 1. Just a fun slide. Let class know that this does not mean all of these people have taken the MBTI. Many of these individuals’ type was determined from their actions and public speeches. Therefore the accuracy of the chart cannot be confirmed.
  • Esc cdl 4

    1. 1. Psychological Type, Learning Styles & Teaching Strategies Center for Distance Learning Richard J. Pilarski Adjunct/Mentor and Instructor Development Specialist
    2. 2. Workshop Objectives <ul><li>Psychological Type </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung and The MBTI ® ( Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ®) </li></ul><ul><li>Research on Type and Individual Student Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Matching Teaching Strategies to Learning Preferences </li></ul>
    3. 3. Sources Anne L. Russell, Faculty School of Education Case Study at Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Georgia State University Master Teacher Program MBTI Manual: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1998 NYS Governor’s Office of Employee Relations Management Development Programs People Types and Tiger Stripes , 3rd edition, Gordon Lawrence, 1993 Valerie N. Williams, Director: Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center Faculty Leadership Program
    4. 4. RE: Type, Learning Styles & Teaching Strategies Some Personal Experience & Qualifications 1991-97: Adjunct Faculty: FORUM East Management Education Program 1997-2006: Appointed Part-time Mentor: FORUM East and International Programs 2007- Present: CDL Adjunct Faculty/ Mentor & Instructor Development Specialist 2000 – Qualified Psychological Type/M BTI Seminar Facilitator (B.A. Psychology) 2000 – Present: Seminars and Consulting in applied MBTI for Leadership, Communications, Team Building, Problem Solving, Management Competencies, etc.
    5. 5. “ What appears to be random behavior in people is actually quite orderly and predictable .” Carl Jung Swiss Psychologist
    6. 6. Psychological Type and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® One of Many Distinctive Ways of Perceiving People
    7. 7. Psychological Type and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® One of Many Distinctive Ways of Perceiving People
    8. 8. Psychological Type and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® One of Many Distinctive Ways of Perceiving People
    9. 9. Psychological Type and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® One of Many Distinctive Ways of Perceiving People
    10. 10. Psychological Type and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® One of Many Distinctive Ways of Perceiving People
    11. 11. Jung’s Theory of Type <ul><li>All people have preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Preferences are dichotomous </li></ul><ul><li>We develop skills related to all preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Preferences are innate </li></ul><ul><li>All preferences and types are of equal value </li></ul><ul><li>The environment is extremely important to type </li></ul>
    12. 12. History of MBTI ® <ul><li>Carl Jung - Born in Switzerland (1875- 1961) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1921 publishes the book “Psychological Type” </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Briggs (1875-1968) </li></ul><ul><li>• 1926-1928 Her writings on personality type and her writings on education are published. </li></ul><ul><li>Isabel Briggs Myers (1897- 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>• Development of MBTI ® and supporting research became the major focus of her life. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Mental Processing <ul><li>Perceiving </li></ul><ul><li>Information intake </li></ul><ul><li>Judging </li></ul><ul><li>Information organization; drawing conclusions </li></ul>Jung theorized preferences in how we use our minds by one of two mental activities: Sensing Feeling Thinking Intuition
    14. 14. “ Attending” to the World… <ul><li>We use the essential mental processes daily though an external or internal focus on the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External focus on people, things, experience and external events is Extraversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal focus on inner processes, thoughts and reflections is Introversion </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>We attend to the world with a focus of </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion or Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>and we receive information through </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing or Intuition . </li></ul><ul><li>We process the data and evaluate how we </li></ul><ul><li>Think or Feel </li></ul><ul><li>about it, in terms of our attitude of </li></ul><ul><li>Perceiving and Judging . </li></ul>Considered together…
    16. 16. Learning style: “An individual’s preferred way of gathering, interpreting, organizing, and thinking about information.” Davis, B.G., 1993, Tools for Teaching
    17. 17. <ul><li>The Relationship Between Psychological Preferences and Learning Styles </li></ul>
    18. 18. Four Preference Pairs <ul><li>E xtraverting or I ntroverting are the ways we get our energy </li></ul><ul><li>S ensing or I N tuiting describes how we prefer to gather information </li></ul><ul><li>T hinking or F eeling are how we organize information and make judgments about that information </li></ul><ul><li>J udging or P erceiving are about our lifestyle and how we prefer to organize and relate to the world around us </li></ul>
    19. 19. EXTRAVERSION and INTROVERSION COMPLEMENTARY ATTITUDES TOWARD THE WORLD Both Attitudes Are Used By Everyone But One Is Usually Preferred And Better Developed <ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>An Extravert’s Essential Stimulation is From The </li></ul><ul><li>Environment- The Outer World of People and Things . </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>An Introvert’s Essential Stimulation is From Within- </li></ul><ul><li>The Inner World of Thoughts and Reflections. </li></ul>
    20. 20. HOW “E” AND “I” PREFERENCES AFFECT LEARNING <ul><li>“ E” </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style : The extraversion preference is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by talking and physically engaging the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Letting attention flow outward toward objective events </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to help thoughts to form and become clear </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through interactions, verbal and non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>“ I” Introversion Cognitive Style: The introversion preference is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping one's thoughts inside until they are polished </li></ul><ul><li>Letting attention flow inward </li></ul><ul><li>Being engrossed in inner events: ideas, impressions, concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in private, individual ways </li></ul>
    21. 21. SENSING and INTUITION ARE WAYS OF TAKING IN INFORMATION Both Ways of Perceiving And Taking In Information Are Used By Everyone But One Is Usually Preferred And Better Developed <ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>The Sensing Function Takes In Information By Way of The Five Senses-Sight, Sound, Touch, Taste, and Smell </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>The Intuiting Function Takes In Information By Way of a “Sixth Sense” or Insight. </li></ul>
    22. 22. HOW “S” AND “N” PREFERENCES AFFECT LEARNING <ul><li>“ S” </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing Cognitive style: The sensing preference is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>being careful to get the facts right </li></ul><ul><li>memory of facts </li></ul><ul><li>observing specifics, absorbing data </li></ul><ul><li>starting with concrete experience, then moving to the abstract </li></ul><ul><li>staying connected to practical realities around oneself </li></ul><ul><li>attending to what is in the present moment </li></ul><ul><li>“ N” </li></ul><ul><li>iNtuition Cognitive Style: The intuition preference is expressed in cognitive style that prefers: </li></ul><ul><li>being caught up in inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>moving quickly toward seeing meanings and associations </li></ul><ul><li>reading between the lines </li></ul><ul><li>relying on easy use of words more than memory of facts </li></ul><ul><li>focusing on general concepts more than details and practical facts </li></ul><ul><li>relying on insight more than careful observation </li></ul>
    23. 23. THINKING and FEELING ARE WAYS OF MAKING DECISIONS Both Ways of Deciding And Evaluating Are Used By Everyone But One Is Usually Preferred And Better Developed <ul><li>T </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Is The Mental Process That Decides on The Basis </li></ul><ul><li>of Logical Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>F </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling Is The Mental Process That Decides on The Basis of Evaluating Relative Worth. </li></ul>
    24. 24. HOW “T” AND “F” PREFERENCES AFFECT LEARNING <ul><li>“ T” </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: A preference for thinking is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>making impersonal judgments </li></ul><ul><li>aiming toward objective truth </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing experiences to find logical principles underlying them </li></ul><ul><li>keeping mental life in order through logical principles </li></ul><ul><li>staying cool and free of emotional concerns while making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>naturally critiquing things, finding flaws to fix, aiming toward clarity and precision </li></ul><ul><li>“ F” Cognitive style: A preference for feeling is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>making caring judgments </li></ul><ul><li>taking into account people's motive and personal value </li></ul><ul><li>attending to relationships between people, seeking harmony </li></ul><ul><li>personalizing issues and causes that have high priority </li></ul><ul><li>staying tuned to emotional aspects of life </li></ul><ul><li>naturally appreciating people and things </li></ul>
    25. 25. JUDGMENT and PERCEPTION ARE COMPLEMENTARY LIFESTYLES Both Attitudes Are Part of Everyone’s Lifestyle But One Is Usually Preferred And Better Developed <ul><li>J </li></ul><ul><li>A Judging Lifestyle is Decisive, Planned, </li></ul><ul><li>and Orderly. </li></ul><ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>A Perceiving Lifestyle is Flexible, Adaptable, and Spontaneous. </li></ul>
    26. 26. HOW “J” AND “P” PREFERENCES AFFECT LEARNING <ul><li>“ J” </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: Running one's outer life with a judgment process is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>having a clear structure in a learning situation from the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>aiming toward completions and getting closure </li></ul><ul><li>having life organized into an orderly plan </li></ul><ul><li>looking for consistency, wanting to be able to predict how things will come out </li></ul><ul><li>“ P” Cognitive style: The perceiving preference is associated with a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>open exploration without a preplanned structure </li></ul><ul><li>staying open to new experiences </li></ul><ul><li>managing emerging problems with plans that emerge with the problems </li></ul><ul><li>having the stimulation of something new and different </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul>
    28. 28. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “E” EXTRAVERTS <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style : The extraversion preference is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by talking and physically engaging the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Letting attention flow outward toward objective events </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to help thoughts to form and become clear </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through interactions, verbal and non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li> Teaching Strategies Opportunities to think out loud; e.g., one-to-one with the teacher, classroom discussions, working with another student, action projects involving people </li></ul><ul><li>Learning activities that have an effect outside the learner, such as visible results from a project </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who manage classroom dialogue so that extraverts have ways to clarify their ideas aloud before they add them to class discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments that let them see what other people are doing and is regarded important </li></ul>
    29. 29. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “I” INTROVERTS <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style: The introversion preference is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping one's thoughts inside until they are polished </li></ul><ul><li>Letting attention flow inward </li></ul><ul><li>Being engrossed in inner events: ideas, impressions, concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in private, individual ways </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Work internally with their own thoughts: listening, observing, lab work, reading, writing </li></ul><ul><li>Process experiences at own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Present the results of their work in forms that let them keep privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Have ample time to polish their work inside before needing to present it </li></ul><ul><li>Have time to reflect before answering the teacher's questions </li></ul><ul><li>Tie their studies to their own personal interests, their internal agenda </li></ul>
    30. 30. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “S” Sensers <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: The sensing preference is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>being careful to get the facts right </li></ul><ul><li>memory of facts </li></ul><ul><li>observing specifics, absorbing data </li></ul><ul><li>starting with concrete experience, then moving to the abstract </li></ul><ul><li>staying connected to practical realities around oneself </li></ul><ul><li>attending to what is in the present moment </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>instruction that allows them to hear and touch or see (not only read about) what they are learning </li></ul><ul><li>relevant films and other audio-visuals </li></ul><ul><li>computer-assisted instruction </li></ul><ul><li>first hand experience that gives practice for the skills and concepts to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>teachers who provide concrete experiences first in any learning sequence, before textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>not moving &quot;too quickly&quot; through material, touching just the high spots and jumping from thought to thought </li></ul><ul><li>assignments that allow them to start with facts before having to imagine possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>skills and facts they can use in their present lives </li></ul>
    31. 31. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “N” iNtuitors <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style: The intuition preference is expressed in cognitive style that prefers: </li></ul><ul><li>being caught up in inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>moving quickly toward seeing meanings and associations </li></ul><ul><li>reading between the lines </li></ul><ul><li>relying on easy use of words more than memory of facts </li></ul><ul><li>focusing on general concepts more than details and practical facts </li></ul><ul><li>relying on insight more than careful observation </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>assignments that put them on their own initiative </li></ul><ul><li>real choices in the ways they work out their assignments </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities for self-instruction individually or with a group </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities to be inventive and original </li></ul><ul><li>fascinating new possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>experience rich with complexities </li></ul><ul><li>work that stays fresh by calling for new skills, not just repetition of existing skills </li></ul><ul><li>teachers with brisk pace, who don't go &quot;too slowly&quot; </li></ul>
    32. 32. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “T” THINKERS <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: A preference for thinking is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: making impersonal judgments </li></ul><ul><li>aiming toward objective truth </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing experiences to find logical principles underlying them </li></ul><ul><li>keeping mental life in order through logical principles </li></ul><ul><li>staying cool and free of emotional concerns while making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>naturally critiquing things, finding flaws to fix, aiming toward clarity and precision </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>material that is logically organized </li></ul><ul><li>subjects that show cause and effect relationships </li></ul><ul><li>clear relevance of course material to practical experiences </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities to critique course content and other students </li></ul><ul><li>feedback that shows them specific objective achievement </li></ul>
    33. 33. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “F” FEELERS <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: A preference for feeling is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>making caring judgments </li></ul><ul><li>taking into account people's motive and personal value </li></ul><ul><li>attending to relationships between people, seeking harmony </li></ul><ul><li>personalizing issues and causes that have high priority </li></ul><ul><li>staying tuned to emotional aspects of life </li></ul><ul><li>naturally appreciating people and things </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>teachers who value personal rapport with students </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities for engagement with other students </li></ul><ul><li>assignments that have a goal of contributing to others </li></ul><ul><li>receiving appreciation for them as persons </li></ul><ul><li>harmonious small-group work </li></ul>
    34. 34. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “J” JUDGERS <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: Running one's outer life with a judgment process is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>having a clear structure in a learning situation from the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>aiming toward completions and getting closure </li></ul><ul><li>having life organized into an orderly plan </li></ul><ul><li>looking for consistency, wanting to be able to predict how things will come out </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>preplanned structure, and a teacher who carefully provides it </li></ul><ul><li>predictability and consistency </li></ul><ul><li>formalized instruction that moves on orderly sequences </li></ul><ul><li>prescribed tasks, milestones, completion points, ceremonies to honor successful completions </li></ul>
    35. 35. SOME STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE LEARNING FOR “P” PERCEIVERS <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: The perceiving preference is associated with a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>open exploration without a preplanned structure </li></ul><ul><li>staying open to new experiences </li></ul><ul><li>managing emerging problems with plans that emerge with the problems </li></ul><ul><li>having the stimulation of something new and different </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>they can pursue problems in their own way </li></ul><ul><li>they have genuine choices in assignments, as with a system of individual contracts in which the student can negotiate some of the activities </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments that hold their interest </li></ul><ul><li>their work feels like play </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Some Personal Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Regarding </li></ul><ul><li>ONLINE </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul>
    37. 37. AN EXAMPLE OF AN EXTRAVERT IN A CDL MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP COURSE <ul><li>Observed Discussion Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Typically the first to open discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant comments to virtually every student in her group </li></ul><ul><li>Short undeveloped thoughts that eventually emerged into a conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging inquiry that led to disclosures of details about personal and professional lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement and comments that bordered on Instructor roles </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style : The extraversion preference is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by talking and physically engaging the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Letting attention flow outward toward objective events </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to help thoughts to form and become clear </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through interactions, verbal and non-verbal </li></ul>
    38. 38. AN EXAMPLE OF AN INTROVERT IN A CDL BUSINESS ETHICS COURSE <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style: The introversion preference is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping one's thoughts inside until they are polished </li></ul><ul><li>Letting attention flow inward </li></ul><ul><li>Being engrossed in inner events: ideas, impressions, concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in private, individual ways </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Discussion Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Only one submission in Critical Comment activity where a minimum of two comments are required </li></ul><ul><li>The postings were submitted just prior to the due date </li></ul><ul><li>The single extensive and comprehensive submission very effectively covered several essays with clearly articulated critique and conclusions </li></ul>
    39. 39. AN EXAMPLE OF A SENSER IN A CDL BUSINESS ETHICS COURSE <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: The sensing preference is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>being careful to get the facts right </li></ul><ul><li>memory of facts </li></ul><ul><li>observing specifics, absorbing data </li></ul><ul><li>starting with concrete experience, then moving to the abstract </li></ul><ul><li>staying connected to practical realities around oneself </li></ul><ul><li>attending to what is in the present moment </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Essay Format </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on factual details of the case study at expense of analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Fitting case issues to pre-determined personal position </li></ul><ul><li>Logical inductive process to align facts with position </li></ul><ul><li>Limited required references to ethical theories, relying on past experiences instead. </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted extension of factual details to broader principles of moral philosophy </li></ul>
    40. 40. AN EXAMPLE OF AN INTUITOR IN A CDL BUSINESS ETHICS COURSE <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style: The intuition preference is expressed in cognitive style that prefers: </li></ul><ul><li>being caught up in inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>moving quickly toward seeing meanings and associations </li></ul><ul><li>reading between the lines </li></ul><ul><li>relying on easy use of words more than memory of facts </li></ul><ul><li>focusing on general concepts more than details and practical facts </li></ul><ul><li>relying on insight more than careful observation </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Essay Format </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of various possible relevant ethical theories </li></ul><ul><li>Moving beyond factual details to potential hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative introduction of remotely related websites and other sources </li></ul><ul><li>Rather prolific and articulate essays </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching for other possible conclusions at the expense of a clear and concrete decision </li></ul>
    41. 41. AN EXAMPLE OF A THINKER IN A MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP COURSE TEAM EVALUATION <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: A preference for thinking is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: making impersonal judgments </li></ul><ul><li>aiming toward objective truth </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing experiences to find logical principles underlying them </li></ul><ul><li>keeping mental life in order through logical principles </li></ul><ul><li>staying cool and free of emotional concerns while making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>naturally critiquing things, finding flaws to fix, aiming toward clarity and precision </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Evaluation Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>critical analysis of performance based on project outcome </li></ul><ul><li>detached overview of project activities with little reference to team participants </li></ul><ul><li>objective comparison of team behaviors to leadership theories </li></ul><ul><li>assumed his role and duties to perform as opposed to interact </li></ul><ul><li>concluded with extensive review of his plan for improved performance </li></ul>
    42. 42. AN EXAMPLE OF A FEELER IN A MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP COURSE <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: A preference for feeling is expressed in a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>making caring judgments </li></ul><ul><li>taking into account people's motive and personal value </li></ul><ul><li>attending to relationships between people, seeking harmony </li></ul><ul><li>personalizing issues and causes that have high priority </li></ul><ul><li>staying tuned to emotional aspects of life </li></ul><ul><li>naturally appreciating people and things </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Evaluation Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of personal characteristics of each team member </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of individual contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of why she chose follower role as harmonizer </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable discussion of the good relationships among team members </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on leadership traits and characteristics over activities and results </li></ul>
    43. 43. AN EXAMPLE OF A JUDGER IN A MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP COURSE TEAM PROJECT <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: Running one's outer life with a judgment process is expressed as a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>having a clear structure in a learning situation from the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>aiming toward completions and getting closure </li></ul><ul><li>having life organized into an orderly plan </li></ul><ul><li>looking for consistency, wanting to be able to predict how things will come out </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Began contact and interaction immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Broke project down into distinct steps </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned roles and responsibilities to each member </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborated to identify specific intended outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Developed schedule and timing of required contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Persistently aligned actions and pieces of project to intended results </li></ul>
    44. 44. AN EXAMPLE OF A PERCEIVER IN A BUSINESS ETHICS MODULE <ul><li>Learning Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style: The perceiving preference is associated with a cognitive style that favors: </li></ul><ul><li>open exploration without a preplanned structure </li></ul><ul><li>staying open to new experiences </li></ul><ul><li>managing emerging problems with plans that emerge with the problems </li></ul><ul><li>having the stimulation of something new and different </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Late contributor to Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Rotated between discussion and essay and modified postings </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable changes from initial positions in discussion to final written assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to new information that revised early positions </li></ul><ul><li>Last minute submission of both written essays </li></ul>
    45. 45. Questions Suggestions Ideas Next Steps
    46. 46. Realize your own preferences. Embrace them! ۞ Appreciate your students’ preferences. Accommodate them! ۞ Embrace diverse learning styles. Facilitate them!
    47. 47. LEADERS IN THEIR CHOSEN PROFESSION
    48. 48. Comparing Two Learning Style Models <ul><li>Information processing model </li></ul><ul><li>C oncrete E xperience (feeling) </li></ul><ul><li>R eflective O bservation (watching) </li></ul><ul><li>A bstract C onceptualization (thinking) </li></ul><ul><li>A ctive E xperimentation (doing) </li></ul><ul><li>Kolb,D. 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>model </li></ul><ul><li>Four dichotomous preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E xtravert – I ntrovert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I N tuitive – S ensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T hinking – F eeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J udging – P erceiving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16-Types </li></ul>Kolb’s Learning Cycle Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Briggs-Myers, I. 1942 –Form A. 1998 Form M

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