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The Scramble For Africa

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  • 1. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    1
    The Scramble for Africa
    Chapter 25 section 2
  • 2. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    2
    Topics
    The Scramble for Africa
    The Heart of Africa
    North Africa
    South Africa
    African resistance
  • 3. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    3
  • 4. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    4
    The Scramble for Africa
    Why Africa???
    Exploration to Competition
    The Belgian Congo
    The Berlin Conference
  • 5. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    5
  • 6. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    6
  • 7. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    7
    A. Why Africa???
    Close to Europe.
    Europe valued African trade.
    Long history.
    Many established trading posts.
    African empires did not expect relationship to change.
  • 8. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    8
    B. Exploration to Competition
    Early 1800’s Europeans began limited exploration of interior of Africa.
    Malaria
    Limited military power
    As science and military power improved, Africa became more vulnerable
    David Livingstone explored Central Africa for 30 years
  • 9. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    9
    C. The Belgian Congo
    King Leopold II became interested in colonies by 1870’s
    Declared Congo region of Africa to be under Belgian control.
    Henry Stanley had helped Leopold to secure treaties with Africans to dominate region.
    This alarmed other European Nations and began a scramble for colonies.
  • 10. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    10
  • 11. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    11
    D. The Berlin Conference 1884
    European countries feared war from competition.
    European countries could claim African land if they controlled strategic points.
    No African rulers were present.
    Europe also agreed to bring “Commerce, Christianity and Civilization” to Africa
    end slavery in Africa.
  • 12. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    12
    II. The Heart of Africa
    King Leopold II
    Bring civilization to Africa
    Diplomacy to indirect control
    Abuses in the Congo
  • 13. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    13
    A. King Leopold II
    Wanted to “civilize” Africa
    End the slave trade
    Really wanted the resources
    Had Henry Stanley sign 450 Treaties with African leaders to create a trade zone for Belgium
    This became known as the Congo free State
  • 14. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    14
    B. Bring civilization to Africa
    King Leopold advocated the “Commerce, Christianity and Civilization” plan
    Adopted at Berlin Conference
  • 15. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    15
    C. Diplomacy to indirect control
    Belgium passed laws claiming unused land as European
    Europe convinced African leaders to pass laws forcing African workers into mines and plantations.
    Taxes were used to force Africans into mines and plantations.
  • 16. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    16
    D. Abuses in the Congo
    Pacification campaigns
    Forced taxes on Africans
    To build infrastructure for European business
    Change from food to cash crops
    Rubber instead of food
    Mass starvations
    Other human atrocities
  • 17. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    17
    III. North Africa
    France in Algeria
    The Suez canal
    Britain and the Suez
  • 18. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    18
    A. France in North Africa
    Took control of Algeria
    Large migration of French population
    Led to direct control
    Also led to brutal revolts in the 1950’s
    France also built Suez Canal
    Britain viewed canal as essential to their interests
  • 19. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    19
    B. The Suez canal
  • 20. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    20
  • 21. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    21
    C. Britain and the Suez
    Civil fighting broke out in 1882 in Egypt.
    Supported by British
    Britain stepped in and established order.
    Made Egypt a protectorate
    Forced France out
    Britain and Egypt will invade the Sudan and make it into a condominium.
    To protect southern access to canal
  • 22. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    22
    IV. South Africa
    The Boers
    British Interest
    The Boer War
    Second Class Citizens
  • 23. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    23
    A. The Boers
    Boers came to South Africa.
    Strict Dutch , Calvinist Settlers.
    Believed they were a chosen people.
    Britain seized control in 1806.
    Boers disliked British rule.
    Began Great Trek into interior of Africa.
    Boers create 3 states.
    Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free state.
    Defeated Zulu groups to create them.
  • 24. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    24
    B. British Interest
    Originally interested in ports for trade
    Gained control of coastline and port towns
    Content to leave Boers to interior
    Discovery of Diamonds will change this
  • 25. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    25
  • 26. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    26
    C. The Boer War
    Diamonds were discovered in Boer territory.
    Cecil Rhodes and other Brits enter interior.
    Boers resent this and hostilities increase.
    War breaks out.
    Britain wins the war but at great cost.
    South Africa will be part of the British empire.
    Boers will be able to govern themselves.
  • 27. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    27
    D. Second Class Citizens
    Boers have home rule
    Become known as Afrikaners
    Despise ad hate local Black population
    African population forced to follow Apartheid
    Think Segregation
  • 28. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    28
    V. African Resistance.
    Samouri Toure’ and the Mandingo Empire
    Menelik II and Ethiopia
    Liberia
  • 29. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    29
    A. Samouri Toure’ and the Mandingo Empire
    Purchased weapons from European traders.
    Built his own weapon factory.
    Defended his territory for 6 years.
  • 30. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    30
    B. Menelik II and Ethiopia
    Many European nations attempted treaties with Ethiopia.
    Menelik pitted them against each other.
    Also got European weapons.
    Mountains also protected Ethiopia.
  • 31. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    31
    C. Liberia
    Was populated by former American slaves.
    European nations left it alone.
    Feared U.S. involvement in Africa.
  • 32. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    32
    Terms To Know
    Berlin Conference of 1884
    King Leopold II
    Suez Canal
    Menelik II
    Liberia
    Zulu
    Boers
    Great Trek
    Condominium
  • 33. 11/3/2009
    10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa
    33
    Summary
    What event started the scramble for Africa?
    Describe King Leopold II’s motivations.
    What were the interests of the French and the British?
    What happened to the rights of Africans?