The Scramble For Africa

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The Scramble For Africa

  1. 1. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />1<br />The Scramble for Africa<br />Chapter 25 section 2<br />
  2. 2. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />2<br />Topics<br />The Scramble for Africa<br />The Heart of Africa<br />North Africa<br />South Africa<br />African resistance<br />
  3. 3. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />3<br />
  4. 4. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />4<br />The Scramble for Africa<br />Why Africa???<br />Exploration to Competition<br />The Belgian Congo<br />The Berlin Conference<br />
  5. 5. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />5<br />
  6. 6. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />6<br />
  7. 7. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />7<br />A. Why Africa???<br />Close to Europe.<br />Europe valued African trade.<br />Long history.<br />Many established trading posts.<br />African empires did not expect relationship to change.<br />
  8. 8. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />8<br />B. Exploration to Competition<br />Early 1800’s Europeans began limited exploration of interior of Africa.<br />Malaria<br />Limited military power<br />As science and military power improved, Africa became more vulnerable<br />David Livingstone explored Central Africa for 30 years <br />
  9. 9. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />9<br />C. The Belgian Congo<br />King Leopold II became interested in colonies by 1870’s<br />Declared Congo region of Africa to be under Belgian control.<br />Henry Stanley had helped Leopold to secure treaties with Africans to dominate region.<br />This alarmed other European Nations and began a scramble for colonies.<br />
  10. 10. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />10<br />
  11. 11. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />11<br />D. The Berlin Conference 1884<br />European countries feared war from competition.<br />European countries could claim African land if they controlled strategic points.<br />No African rulers were present.<br />Europe also agreed to bring “Commerce, Christianity and Civilization” to Africa<br />end slavery in Africa.<br />
  12. 12. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />12<br />II. The Heart of Africa<br />King Leopold II<br />Bring civilization to Africa<br />Diplomacy to indirect control<br />Abuses in the Congo<br />
  13. 13. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />13<br />A. King Leopold II<br />Wanted to “civilize” Africa<br />End the slave trade<br />Really wanted the resources<br />Had Henry Stanley sign 450 Treaties with African leaders to create a trade zone for Belgium<br />This became known as the Congo free State<br />
  14. 14. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />14<br />B. Bring civilization to Africa<br />King Leopold advocated the “Commerce, Christianity and Civilization” plan<br />Adopted at Berlin Conference<br />
  15. 15. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />15<br />C. Diplomacy to indirect control<br />Belgium passed laws claiming unused land as European<br />Europe convinced African leaders to pass laws forcing African workers into mines and plantations.<br />Taxes were used to force Africans into mines and plantations.<br />
  16. 16. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />16<br />D. Abuses in the Congo<br />Pacification campaigns<br />Forced taxes on Africans<br />To build infrastructure for European business<br />Change from food to cash crops<br />Rubber instead of food<br />Mass starvations<br />Other human atrocities<br />
  17. 17. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />17<br />III. North Africa<br />France in Algeria<br />The Suez canal<br />Britain and the Suez<br />
  18. 18. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />18<br />A. France in North Africa<br />Took control of Algeria<br />Large migration of French population<br />Led to direct control<br />Also led to brutal revolts in the 1950’s<br />France also built Suez Canal<br />Britain viewed canal as essential to their interests<br />
  19. 19. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />19<br />B. The Suez canal<br />
  20. 20. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />20<br />
  21. 21. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />21<br />C. Britain and the Suez<br />Civil fighting broke out in 1882 in Egypt.<br />Supported by British<br />Britain stepped in and established order.<br />Made Egypt a protectorate<br />Forced France out<br />Britain and Egypt will invade the Sudan and make it into a condominium.<br />To protect southern access to canal<br />
  22. 22. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />22<br />IV. South Africa<br />The Boers<br />British Interest<br />The Boer War<br />Second Class Citizens<br />
  23. 23. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />23<br />A. The Boers<br />Boers came to South Africa.<br />Strict Dutch , Calvinist Settlers.<br />Believed they were a chosen people.<br />Britain seized control in 1806.<br />Boers disliked British rule.<br />Began Great Trek into interior of Africa.<br />Boers create 3 states.<br />Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free state.<br />Defeated Zulu groups to create them.<br />
  24. 24. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />24<br />B. British Interest<br />Originally interested in ports for trade<br />Gained control of coastline and port towns<br />Content to leave Boers to interior<br />Discovery of Diamonds will change this<br />
  25. 25. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />25<br />
  26. 26. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />26<br />C. The Boer War<br />Diamonds were discovered in Boer territory.<br />Cecil Rhodes and other Brits enter interior.<br />Boers resent this and hostilities increase.<br />War breaks out.<br />Britain wins the war but at great cost.<br />South Africa will be part of the British empire.<br />Boers will be able to govern themselves.<br />
  27. 27. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />27<br />D. Second Class Citizens<br />Boers have home rule<br />Become known as Afrikaners<br />Despise ad hate local Black population<br />African population forced to follow Apartheid<br />Think Segregation<br />
  28. 28. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />28<br />V. African Resistance.<br />Samouri Toure’ and the Mandingo Empire<br />Menelik II and Ethiopia<br />Liberia<br />
  29. 29. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />29<br />A. Samouri Toure’ and the Mandingo Empire<br />Purchased weapons from European traders.<br />Built his own weapon factory.<br />Defended his territory for 6 years.<br />
  30. 30. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />30<br />B. Menelik II and Ethiopia<br />Many European nations attempted treaties with Ethiopia.<br />Menelik pitted them against each other.<br />Also got European weapons.<br />Mountains also protected Ethiopia.<br />
  31. 31. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />31<br />C. Liberia<br />Was populated by former American slaves.<br />European nations left it alone.<br />Feared U.S. involvement in Africa.<br />
  32. 32. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />32<br />Terms To Know<br />Berlin Conference of 1884<br />King Leopold II<br />Suez Canal<br />Menelik II<br />Liberia<br />Zulu<br />Boers<br />Great Trek<br />Condominium<br />
  33. 33. 11/3/2009<br />10.4 European Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa<br />33<br />Summary<br />What event started the scramble for Africa?<br />Describe King Leopold II’s motivations.<br />What were the interests of the French and the British?<br />What happened to the rights of Africans?<br />

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