Glee Fn 110 Report
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  • 1. Nutrition in Adolescence Edition
  • 2.
    • Adolescence is a challenge to health professionals when it comes to providing nutritional needs, because this period is characterized by…
  • 3.
    • Accelerated Growth
    • Changes in lifestyle, including food habits
    • Involvement in social and physical activities
  • 4.
    • 4. Emotional problems associated with increased personal and academic responsibilities; and psychological concern
    • 5. Problems with some teenagers that demand special nutritional needs: smoking drug and alcohol abuse, pregnancy, and eating disorders
  • 5. Adolescence
    • Defintion:
      • transition period between childhood
      • marked by the beginning of secondary sex characteristics and the end of somatic growth (with girls maturing earlier than boys)
  • 6. Stages of Adolescence
  • 7. Pre-puberty (Pre-pubescence)
    • 10-12 years old
    • Endocrine changes start
    • Menarche (for girls) – onset of menses
  • 8. Puberty (Pubescence)
    • 13-15 years old
    • Maturation of total body: gains about 20% of adult height and 50% of adult weight
    • Hip width increases in the girls
    • Girls start puberty 2 years ahead of boys
  • 9. Puberty (Pubescence)
    • Girls: gain more fat than boys; boys: gain more lean tissues than girls
    • Other indications of sexual maturation: pubic hair growth, development of the genitals, change in voice
    • Growth Spurt – 18-24 month period when growth rate is fastest
  • 10. Post-puberty (Post-pubescence)
    • 16-19 years old
    • Maturation of the function of the sex organs
    • Cessation of growt h in females
    • Beginning of adult hood
  • 11. Psychological Changes During Adolescence Emotional mental and social changes that affect the total personality and food habits of the teenager
  • 12. Early Adolescence (10-12 years old)
    • Aware of peer relationships
    • Starts to be conscious of the body parts and body image
    • Trusts parents and adults
  • 13. Mid-adolescence (13-15 years old)
    • More peer pressure
    • More independence from parents and less trustful of adults
    • Significant cognitive development
  • 14. Late Adolescence (16-19 years old)
    • Established a body image
    • Definitely shows independence
    • Makes plans for the future
    • Establishes more intimacy and permanent relationships with others
    • More interest given on healthcare and careers
  • 15. Nutritional Needs of Adolescents
  • 16. ENERGY
    • Energy needs of adolescents are influenced by activity level, basal metabolic rate and increased requirements to support pubertal growth and development.
    B. Adolescent males higher caloric requirements
  • 17. ENERGY
    • C. Adolescent growth spurt is sensitive to energy and nutrient deprivation
    • D . Insufficient energy intake may occur due to:
      • 1) Restrictive dieting
      • 2) Inadequate monetary resources
      • 3) Secondary factors (substance abuse, chronic illness, etc.)
  • 18. 2050 kcal 2840 kcal 16-18 y/o 13-15 y/o 10-12 y/o 2250 kcal 1920 kcal Females 2800 kcal 2140 kcal Males Energy
  • 19. PROTEIN
    • Correlates with growth pattern rather than chronological age
    • B. Maintenance of existing lean body mass
    • C. Accumulation of additional lean body mass during growth spurt
  • 20. PROTEIN
    • D. Protein supplies about 15-20% of total Calories/day
    • E. Years of highest protein requirement per unit of height:
    • 1) Females: 11-14 years
    • 2) Males: 15-18 years
    • * Peak height velocity
  • 21. PROTEIN 7 mg 8.9 mg 16-18 y/o 13-15 y/o 10-12 y/o 7.9 mg 6 mg Females 9 mg 6.8 mg Males PROTEIN
  • 22. MINERALS: Calcium
    • *Calcium and iron – two minerals often lacking in Filipino teenagers
    • A. Calcium
      • 1) Great need for calcium - increase in skeletal growth
      • 2) 45% of peak bone mass - attained during adolescence; by around 17 y/o, adolescents have attained approximately 90% of their adult bone mass
    • Adolescence – “ window of opportunity ” for optimal bone development
  • 23. MINERALS: Calcium 1000 mg 1000 mg 16-18 y/o 13-15 y/o 10-12 y/o 1000 mg 1000 mg Females 1000 mg 1000 mg Males CALCIUM
  • 24. MINERALS: Iron
    • 1) Transporting oxygen in the bloodstream
    • 2) Prevention of anemia
    • 3) Need increases due to rapid growth and expansion of blood volume and muscle mass
    • Menstruation – additional iron needs for females
    • Iron needs are highest:
      • a. Males: Growth spurt
      • b. Females: After menarche (compensation for blood loss during periods)
  • 25. MINERALS: Iron 27 mg 14 mg 16-18 y/o 13-15 y/o 10-12 y/o 21 mg 19 mg Females 20 mg 13 mg Males IRON
  • 26. MINERALS: Zinc
    • 1) Associated with more than 100 specific enzymes
    • 2) Protein formation
    • 3) Gene expression
    • 4) Growth and sexual maturation
    • Serum zinc levels decline
    • during adolescence – rapid
    • growth and hormonal changes
  • 27. MINERALS: Zinc 7 mg 8.9 mg 16-18 y/o 13-15 y/o 10-12 y/o 7.9 mg 6 mg Females 9 mg 6.8 mg Males ZINC
  • 28. MINERALS: Phosphorus and Magnesium
    • Phosphorus and Magnesium
      • works with calcium for bone development
  • 29. VITAMINS
    • Needs for thiamine, niacin and riboflavin correlate with energy intake; these B-vitamins are needed to release energy from carbohydrates
    • Males from 16-19 y/o have higher vitamin needs for A, C and B-complex
  • 30. VITAMINS
    • Vitamin A – normal vision; reproduction, growth and immune function
    • Vitamin E – antioxidants become more important as body mass expands during adolescence
    • C. Vitamin C – synthesis of collagen and other connective tissues
    • D. Folate – DNA, RNA and protein synthesis
  • 31. WATER
    • Needed for accelerated growth and development of body cells; increased energy utilization and other metabolic processes, active exercise
  • 32. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
    • Depression, swollen breasts, water retention, feeling tired and being moody the week before the period
    • Tips to avoid/alleviate PMS
      • o Eat less salt and salty foods
      • o Eat less coffee, tea, colas and chocolates
      • o Have 5-6 meals a day composed of foods from the Food Guide
      • o Exercise
  • 33. WEIGHT CONCERNS
    • Lack of exercise
    • Misinformation about some foods
    • Tips to lose weight for teenagers:
      • o Cut down on soft drinks, cakes, pies, candy, chips, mayonnaise, salad dressings and gravies
      • o Choose baked or broiled food rather than fried
      • o Exercise
  • 34. Feeding Problems During Adolescence Various factors such as lifestyle, emotional and social influences affect the eating habits and nutrient intake of nutrients
  • 35. Irregular Meals and Snacking
    • Skipping meals caused by poor time management
    • 2. Fast foods and junk foods eaten to satisfy hunger
  • 36. Establishing Body Image
    • Eating disorder - an obsession with food and weight that harms a person's well-being and health
      • a. Anorexia nervosa have an extreme fear of weight gain and a distorted view of their body size and shape
  • 37. Establishing Body Image
        • Bulimia - eating a lot of food at once (also known as bingeing), then throwing up or using laxatives to remove the food from the body (called purging).
        • c. Binge Eating Disorder consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating
  • 38. Establishing Body Image
    • 2. Right and healthy way to get in a good physical shape: Proper nutrition combined with regular exercise or physical activities
  • 39. Food Dislikes and Food Idiosyncrasies
    • Factors that influence the food dislikes and idiosyncrasies
      • 1. Influence of elders during the teenagers’ childhood
      • 2.Media and other advertisements
      • 3. Peers
      • 4. Psychological factors
  • 40. Conditioning Factors of Inadequate Dietary Intake
    • Poverty
        • Inadequate intake of essential nutrients is caused by lack of budget for nutritional foods
        • Solution: Home garden, proper budgeting
    • Parasitism
        • Causes interference or holdup in the nutrient utilization of the host or human
        • Solution: Keep surroundings clean, practice personal hygiene, safeguard public water supply
  • 41. Adolescents with Special Nutritional Needs
  • 42. The Pregnant Adolescent
    • Increased nutrient needs from both the pregnancy state, as well as for her growth and development
    • Family support and guidance counselling
    • Educate and encourage the pregnant adolescent to gain the recommended amount of weight
  • 43. The Athlete Adolescent
    • Energy need and water needs are the most critical
    • Vulnerable to food fads and myths that say would enhance their performance
      • Inappropriate use of nutritional supplements and other “ergogenic aids” will do more harm than good.
  • 44. Substance Abuse
    • Taking drugs, heavy smoking and alcoholic drinking certainly causes loss of appetite.
    • The addict would rather spend more time and money on them than on good food.
  • 45. Acne
    • Since it is hormonal, serious cases should be medically treated. Effective medication includes oral antibiotics and topical ointments.
    • Severity of the acne problem varies among teenagers, but diet is not a big causative factor
    • -It is initiated by the influence of testosterone on the sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin.
  • 46. References:
    • Adolescent Nutrition - Feeding your Teenager. (n.d.). Keep Kids Healthy - free pediatric parenting advice . Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/adolescent/adolescentnutrition.html
    • Adolescent Nutrition. (n.d.). Pediatrics Clerk . Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/adolescentNutrition.html
    • Claudio, V. S., Dirige, O. V., & Jamorabi-Ruiz, A. (2002). Basic nutrition for Filipinos . Manila: Manila Merriam School & Office Supplies.
    • Nutrition for School Age Children - Keep Kids Healthy. (n.d.). Keep Kids Healthy - free pediatric parenting advice . Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/Schoolage/schoolagenutrition.html
    • Nutrition: School-Age. (n.d.). University of Virginia Health System . Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/UVAHealth/adult_pediatrics/nutrschoolage.cfm
    • Eating Disorders. (2010). KidsHealth - the Web's most visited site about children's health . Retrieved February 25, 2010, from http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/problems/eat_disorder.html#
    • Eating Disorders: Facts for Teens -- familydoctor.org. (n.d.). familydoctor.org Home -- familydoctor.org . Retrieved February 25, 2010, from http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/children/teens/eating/277.html
    • Story, M., & Stang, J. (2005). Guidelines for Adolescent Nutrition Services. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from Epidemiology and Community Health - University of Minnesota: http://www.epi.umn.edu/let/pubs/adol_book.shtm
  • 47. Time for the QUIZ! :)
  • 48. QUIZ!!  FN 110 Group 4 NAME: ____________________________ All About Nutrition in School Age and Adolescence Across 1(stage) maturation of the function of the sex organs (2 words) 5onset of menses 7 6-12 years of age (2 words) 8 one of the two most important minerals during school age 9 a condition resulting from insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients 10 state of malnutrition in which there is excessive accumulation of depot fat Down 2taking drugs, heavy smoking and alcoholic drinking (2 words) 3 a skin condition common in adolescents marked by the eruption of pimples or pustules, especially on the face 4 transition period between childhood 6 eating a lot of food at once then throwing up or using laxatives to remove the food from the body
  • 49. ANSWER KEY
  • 50. QUIZ!!  FN 110 Group 4 NAME: ____________________________ All About Nutrition in School Age and Adolescence Across 1(stage) maturation of the function of the sex organs (2 words) 5onset of menses 7 6-12 years of age (2 words) 8 one of the two most important minerals during school age 9 a condition resulting from insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients 10 state of malnutrition in which there is excessive accumulation of depot fat Down 2taking drugs, heavy smoking and alcoholic drinking (2 words) 3 a skin condition common in adolescents marked by the eruption of pimples or pustules, especially on the face 4 transition period between childhood 6 eating a lot of food at once then throwing up or using laxatives to remove the food from the body