Laws Of The Teacher

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This is a compilation of all of my research assessments on studies I found relating to the Laws Of The Teacher.

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Laws Of The Teacher

  1. 1. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Revising General Education: Assessing a Critical Thinking Instructional Model In The Basic Communication Course. Authors: Joseph P. Mazer, Stephen K. Hunt, and Jeffrey H Kuznekoff Publication: The Journal Of General Education, Vol. 56, No. 3-4, 2007 Type Of Study: Qualitative Participants: 324 students from basic communication course in a General Education program. There were 155 in the experimental group (92% first year) and 169 (96% first year) in control group. Experimental Group = Prestest/Posttest Control Group = Prestest/Posttest Methodology: Critical Thinking Self-Assessment (CTSA) Control Group exposed to basic CT instruction periodically throughout the semester. Control Group also watched videos on speeches throughout the semester and asked to critique some of theme and emulate others. Students worked in groups to complete these tasks. At the end they were asked to evaluate their improvement, make an argument for their claim and provide. evidence of their claim. The Experimental Group went through the same activities, but, were given direct instruction on Critical Thinking such as a glossary of terms, discussion on CT and Bloom’s “Critical Thinking Objectives for Public Speaking”. Students in this group also completed an activity where they critiqued arguments made in the movie Monty Python and the Holy Grail. They were also offered Toulmin’s Argument Model in a powerpoint. Students completed peer evaluations which allowed them to apply argumentation concepts. Both groups completed CTSA and CT test as part of the posttest. Sample Design: “Anticipating Objections” Activity, Sample excerpt that violated components of the tests of evidence that students had to critique “According to a survey conducted for Honda Motor Co., most people prefer cars produced by Honda to that of Ford Mazda, Toyota and even Hyndai.”
  2. 2. Statistics: Mean: C Group X Group CT Self Assessment CT Self Assessment Pretest=64.12 Posttest=67.4 Pretest=62.86 Posttest=66.21 CT Test CT Test Pretest=5.5 Posttest=5.76 Pretest=5.26 Posttest=6.29 Standard Deviation: C Group X Group CT Self Assessment CT Self Assessment Pretest=6.92 Posttest=5.78 Pretest=6.86 Posttest=7.15 CT Test CT Test Pretest=1.68 Posttest=1.43 Pretest=1.48 Posttest=1.61 -Strongest Reported: CTSA and CT Test results were strongest because they gave a thorough explanation of the tests. -Weakest Reported: The statistics on the individual test items were weak because they were not thoroughly explained. Main Findings: Direct instruction of Critical Thinking resulted in a substantive improvement in the experimental students’ CT Test scores. Limitations: Students were only examined during 16-week course. Students examined over longer periods of time could have different results.
  3. 3. Research Assessment Sheet Title: A study of modularized instruction and it’s role in the technology education curriculum at Southern Door Schools Authors: Lebrum, David C. Publication: Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements fo the Master of Scirence Degree With a Major in Vocational Education, August, p18, 2001 Type Of Study: Qualitative Participants: Six different public school districts (Jr./Sr. high school )in the local(Brussels, WI) area that utilize modular instruction. Methodology: Contacted technology educators from six schools and asked if they would participate in a study of their modular instruction programs. At that time they were informed what questions they would be asked during the on-sight observation so they could prepare themselves accordingly. Directs observation of modules being used during class was studied. Instructors were interviewed to obtain their perceptions of individualized modular systems. Interviews were recorded via audio tape. Each class was observed for 1-1/2 hours. Sample Design: Statistics: -Strongest Reported: 1-Overall appearance widely varied; traditional technology education curriculums were being used not used; When modules used groups of 2 or more, learning went down; most allotted 45 mins. 2-Most instructors reported having a more positive environment with modular labs; Nearly all schools reported an increase in enrollment for two years and then, back to normal -Weakest Reported: Make up of modular labs. Means, ranges, standard deviations, variances, etc. were not given. Main Findings: If carefully planned to fit a given technology education curriculum, modules can enhance student learning. Limitations: School districts studied were all within located in Georgia; Study done by a Graduate Student.
  4. 4. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Computer-mediated instructional video: a randomized controlled trial comparing a sequential and a segmented instructional video in surgical hand wash Authors: M. Shcittek Janda, A. Tani Botticelli, N. Mattheos, D. Nebel, A. Wagner, A Nattestad and R. Attstrom Publication: Blackwell Munksgaard, 2005 3 December 2004 Type Of Study: Qualitative/Quantitative Participants: 28 dental students in their second semester Methodology: Students were split into two groups, Experimental (N=15) and control (N= 13). Experimental group watched the garmented video clips. Control group watched complete video. Both groups were videotaped washing their hands after watching the video. Students also performed a written test on the video. Sample Design: *see table 1 and 2 for samples Statistics: Mean: *see table 2 for means on results in the different steps of the evaluation Variance: *see table 2 for variances on results in the different steps of the evaluation Range: * see table 2 for ranges on results in the different steps of the evaluation Standard Deviation: *see table 2 for standard deviation on results in the different steps of the evaluation -Strongest Reported: Responses from students on written test -Weakest Reported: Means, variances, ranges and deviations Main Findings: There are significant differences in learning outcome in the written test from viewing instructional films as one complete video or as divided into segments. The students demonstrated positive attitudes and acceptable learning outcome from viewing CAL videos as part of their pre-clinical training. Videos that are segmented seem to give a better learning outcome and are watched longer. Limitations: Students may have enough prior knowledge of hand washing and not even need the video.
  5. 5. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Revising General Education: Assessing a Critical Thinking Instructional Model In The Basic Communication Course. Authors: Joseph P. Mazer, Stephen K. Hunt, and Jeffrey H Kuznekoff Publication: The Journal Of General Education, Vol. 56, No. 3-4, 2007 Type Of Study: Qualitative Participants: 324 students from basic communication course in a General Education program. There were 155 in the experimental group (92% first year) and 169 (96% first year) in control group. Experimental Group = Prestest/Posttest Control Group = Prestest/Posttest Methodology: Critical Thinking Self-Assessment (CTSA) Control Group exposed to basic CT instruction periodically throughout the semester. Control Group also watched videos on speeches throughout the semester and asked to critique some of theme and emulate others. Students worked in groups to complete these tasks. At the end they were asked to evaluate their improvement, make an argument for their claim and provide. evidence of their claim. The Experimental Group went through the same activities, but, were given direct instruction on Critical Thinking such as a glossary of terms, discussion on CT and Bloom’s “Critical Thinking Objectives for Public Speaking”. Students in this group also completed an activity where they critiqued arguments made in the movie Monty Python and the Holy Grail. They were also offered Toulmin’s Argument Model in a powerpoint. Students completed peer evaluations which allowed them to apply argumentation concepts. Both groups completed CTSA and CT test as part of the posttest. Sample Design: “Anticipating Objections” Activity, Sample excerpt that violated components of the tests of evidence that students had to critique “According to a survey conducted for Honda Motor Co., most people prefer cars produced by Honda to that of Ford Mazda, Toyota and even Hyndai.”
  6. 6. Statistics: Mean: C Group X Group CT Self Assessment CT Self Assessment Pretest=64.12 Posttest=67.4 Pretest=62.86 Posttest=66.21 CT Test CT Test Pretest=5.5 Posttest=5.76 Pretest=5.26 Posttest=6.29 Standard Deviation: C Group X Group CT Self Assessment CT Self Assessment Pretest=6.92 Posttest=5.78 Pretest=6.86 Posttest=7.15 CT Test CT Test Pretest=1.68 Posttest=1.43 Pretest=1.48 Posttest=1.61 -Strongest Reported: CTSA and CT Test results were strongest because they gave a thorough explanation of the tests. -Weakest Reported: The statistics on the individual test items were weak because they were not thoroughly explained. Main Findings: Direct instruction of Critical Thinking resulted in a substantive improvement in the experimental students’ CT Test scores. Limitations: Students were only examined during 16-week course. Students examined over longer periods of time could have different results.
  7. 7. Research Assessment Sheet Title: The Classroom Check-Up: A Classwide Teacher Consultation Model for Increasing Praise and Decreasing Disruptive Behavior Authors: Wendy M. Reinke of University of Missouri-Columbia and Teri Lewis-Palmer and Kenneth Merrel from Universtiy of Oregon Publication: School Psychology Review, 2008, Volume 37, No. 3, pp. 315-332 Type Of Study: Qualitative/Quantitative Participants: Four White female general education elementary teachers. Teachers selected base on their request for support with classroom management difficulties. Teacher experience varied. Methodology: Dependent variables = occurrences of teacher praise and occurrences of teacher reprimands also one student variable-occurrences of student disruptive behavior. Teacher praise was primary dependent variable. 10 minute observations collected data on frequency of praise. Behaviors were counted using the real-time Multi-Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) software. Data was downloaded onto a spreadsheet for daily analysis. Sample Design: Classroom Check-Up (CCU); Single subject, multiple baseline across classrooms design was used to determine the functional relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables. Stage 1: assessing the classroom environment through direct observation and completion of a teacher interview and brief classroom ecology checklist by the consultant. Step 2: visual performance feedback session provided to teacher daily. Step 3: Menu of options. Step 4: Choose interventions Step 5: teacher self-monitoring of treatment integrity. Statistics: -Strongest Reported: Correlations between Praise and disruptions. -Weakest Reported: Statistics on reprimands were not discussed thoroughly. Main Findings: Teachers’ rate of praise increased after monitoring and feedback treatments. Behavior-specific praise increased significantly in all classrooms. Teachers’ use of reprimands did not vary significantly during the treatment. Disruptions decreased during treatment in all classrooms. Limitations: Small sample size limits the generalizbility; teacher participants were all voluntary; study occurred during the same instruction period; a ethnic and racial diversity of the sample was limited.
  8. 8. Research Assessment Sheet Title: University Students’ Knowledge and Attitude about Genetic Engineering Authors: Senol Bal, Nilay Keskin Smanci and Orcun Bozkut Publication: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 2007, 3(2), 119- 126 Type Of Study: Qualitative/Quantitative Participants: Junior and senior students from science education program, senior students from biology education program and seniors biology majors from the Faculty of Arts and Sciences Methodology: A questionnaire with 2 open ended questions and 3 of Likert type of attitude scale with 12 statements, give to students. Open ended questions intended to analyze students’ prior knowledge of genetic engineering. 12 Likert-Type questions intended to analyze students’ attitude about statements presented on genetic engineering. Sample Design: Sample survey given in Appendix. Attitude question groups, -The statements about the studies of genetic engineering, The statements about the studies of genetic engineering with animals, The statements about the studies of genetic engineering with plants and the statements about the studies of genetic engineering with microorganisms. Statistics: Confidence Interval: Reliability=.81 ANOVA: One-way ANOVA and Seheffe calculated by SPSS. P>.05 -Strongest Reported: Student answers to attitude questions -Weakest Reported: Student answers to open-ended questions Main Findings: Genetics education does not focus enough on genetic engineering and its implications. Students risk perception and negative suspects decrease while their knowledge level about this subject increase. Limitations: Sample size was not given. Therefore, it is hard to figure out the generalizability of the study.
  9. 9. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Classroom interactions: Exploring the practices of high-and low-expectations teachers Authors: Christine M. Rubie-Davies Publication: British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2007, 77, 289-306 Type Of Study: Participants: 12 primary school teachers from eight schools who had been identified as having either high or low expectations for their students. They were split into three groups: high- expectation teachers, low-expectation teachers and average-progress teachers. Methodology: Participants were observed twice in the academic year during half-hour reading lessons. Two people observed each lesson, one completing a structured observation protocol and the other a running record and audiotape. Teachers were observed once in June-July and another time in September-August. Student teachers in their final year of educational program did the observing, but, were not told the intent of the study. Audio taping of all lessons together with the running record enabled a full transcription to be obtained for each lesson. Sample Design: The author used videos to train the observers in the use of the observation protocol. Statistics: Mean: *see tables 2-7 for means in teacher statements to students, teacher feedback to students, teacher questioning of students, teacher responses to student answers and teacher procedural comments Median: *see tables 2-7 for medians in teacher statements to students, teacher feedback to students, teacher questioning of students, teacher responses to student answers and teacher procedural comments Range: * see tables 2-7 for ranges in teacher statements to students, teacher feedback to students, teacher questioning of students, teacher responses to student answers and teacher procedural comments ANOVA: one-way post-hoc Tukey between groups 1&2=.001 and between groups 2&3=.007- Strongest Reported: Statistics on statements, feedback, questioning, responses and procedures of the teachers in each group.-Weakest Reported: Background, ethnicity, demographics of the participants Main Findings: high-expectation teachers spent more time providing a framework for students’ learning, provided their students with more feedback, questioned their students using more higher-order questions, and managed their students behavior more positively. Limitations: The size of the teacher groups was small and only two lessons were observed for each teacher. Because of small size of the groups, it was not possible to account for some variables that could have influenced the teachers’ expectations and thus the results.
  10. 10. RESEARCH ASSESSMENT SHEET TITLE: Cognitive and social help giving in online teaching: an exploratory study AUTHORS: Joan L. Whipp, R. A. Lorentz PUBLICATION: Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 2008 TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative/Quantitative PARTICIPANTS: Three adjunct online instructors teaching graduate education courses provided course discussions and postings, and participate in an interview at the end of the semester. METHODOLOGY (explain what they did as exactly as possible): A comparative cross-case study design using naturalistic and descriptive methods of inquiry was used. Primary Data Sources: All instructor course postings, interviews with course instructors, weekly field notes taken by the authors while observing course discussions, student interviews and final student grades. 916 postings in course discussions and on the instructors’ announcement pages were copied. SAMPLE DESIGN (how did the pick their population): Instructors offered their data STATISTICS (what statistics are reported): Means, Ranges, Standard Deviations, etc. were not given Strongest statistic reported: Statistics on discussion postings were supported with qualitative and quantitative data. Coding of teacher postings, responses and questioning was thorough and revealing Weakest Statistic reported: Final test score grades were briefly and vaguely reported in one column. No means, deviations or variances given for test scores. Strongest “qualitative” data reported: Teachers offered a variety of social supports to students: consistent public and
  11. 11. private student interactions, attention to group dynamics and processes, use of welcoming language Weakest “qualitative” data reported: Data on test results were not discussed thoroughly. MAIN FINDINGS: Reaffirms the importance of the instructor in supporting student satisfaction and learning online courses. Instructors use of questioning, task structure, attention to group dynamics may have caused differences in student perceptions of support, student help seeking and final grades. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size limits generalizability. Also, since there was no pre-test there was no basis for assessing student gain or achievement.
  12. 12. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Applying motivational analysis in a Web-based course Authors: Lih-Juan ChanLin Publication: Qualitative/Quantitative Type Of Study: Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Vol. 46, No. 1, February 2009, 91-103 Participants: 40 junior Students from a library and information science major background. 17 males and 23 females Methodology: Students spent 12 weeks completing lesson in a web-based learning module. The lessons were Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Repetitive Stress Injury, Computer Vision Syndrome, Ergonomics in Library and Accessibility in Library. A group task was assigned during each unit. Each group wrote a research paper at the end of the course. Research project was used as the assessment for student achievement. Sample Design: *See table 1 Statistics: Mean: *see table 5 for means on assessment of students performance Standard Deviation: *see table 5 for standard deviation on assessment of students performance Correlations: between performance and number of postings r=.608 p=0.00 -Strongest Reported: Qualitative data on student performance -Weakest Reported: Quantitative data on student performance Main Findings: Students who were more involved in the web-based discussions were more likely to perform better in the course. Students learning achievements relate to their level of involvement. Limitations: Small sample size limits the generalizability of this study.
  13. 13. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Online Computer Games As Collaborative Learning Environments: Prospects And Challenges For Tertiary Education Authors: Marina Papastergiou Publication: J. Educational Technology Systems, Vol. 37(1) 19-38, 2008-2009 Type Of Study: Qualitative Empirical Research Study Participants: Undergraduate Students Methodology: Literature searches in major bibliographic databases with a view to identify articles relevant to the use of educational online games in TE. Sample Design: FINESSE (Finance Education in a scalable Software Environment); Breast Cancer Detective; Planet Oit; FSS (Financial System Simulator); Age of Computers; Simulation Game on Data Bases; PIDstop; Simulation Game on Artificial Intelligence; Virtual Computer; Mustakarhu Statistics: Students’ responses to the games were overwhelmingly positive; Students have greatly valued game-based learning; The games improved students academic knowledge and skills; The games improved students’ self-efficacy with regard to the subject matter; The games greatly improved teamwork; The games had a modest contribution to teamwork. Instructors’ responses to the games were very positive; Instructors have greatly valued game-based learning; The games decreased the instructors’ workload; The games either did not change or increased the instructors’ workload -Strongest Reported: Impact of educational Online Games on Students -Weakest Reported: Impact of online games on the instructor Main Findings: Educational online games should constitute engaging virtual environments that offer students authentic, goal-oriented, challenging, exploratory, experiential, collaborative problem- solving learning experiences that reflect real-life situations that scientists or professionals of the respective field encounter in their everyday practice. Limitations: Cost of online games make it an unrealistic alternative for teachers. Online games must be comparable to commercial games in terms of graphics and audio quality, friendliness of the user interface and storyline sophistication while maintaining pedagogically sound learning activities.
  14. 14. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Research on psychosomatic complaints by senior high school students in Tokyo and their related factors Authors: Yriko Takata, MC Publication: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (2001), 55, 3-11 Type Of Study: Qualitative Participants: Survey 1: First Grade students (58 males and 110 females) Methodology: Survey 1: Pre-survey to assess students health and relationship between psychosomatic complaints and recognition from family, friends and teachers. Survey 2: A Longitudinal study to explain psychosomatic complaints was done over a 3-year period at the school. Sample Design: Survey 1: psychosomatic complaints, cognition to the schoolwork, lifestyle habits; 0-3 scale of ‘never’, ‘rarely’ & ‘sometimes’. Statistics: Mean: Factors of complaints Males Females Depressive symptoms 11.28 15.66 Physical symptoms 9.48 12.27 Neurotic symptoms 1.84 2.95 Digestive Symptoms 1.03 1.20 Standard Deviation: Factors of complaints Males Females Depressive symptoms 7.65 7.84 Physical symptoms 6.29 6.21 Neurotic symptoms 2.32 2.71 Digestive Symptoms 1.68 1.24
  15. 15. Correlations: Males=.47 Depressive Symptoms to Cognition to Schoolwork and .41 for Digestive symptoms to Cognition to schoolwork -Strongest Reported: Scores for the factors of psychosomatic complaints; Correlations between psychosomatic complaints scale score and students’ cognition; Correlations between psychosomatic complaints scale and students’ lifestyle habits These statistics were supported throughout the study -Weakest Reported: Statistics on student health in the introduction were cited, but, the studies on these statistics were not discussed. Main Findings: Females had significantly higher score for depressive symptoms than the males. Females had significantly higher score for physical symptoms than the males. Females had significantly higher scores for neurotic symptoms than the males. Limitations: Factors of allergic symptoms were excluded because of found low correlation.
  16. 16. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Designing and implementing a case-based learning environment for enhancing ill- structured problem solving: classroom management problems for prospective teachers Authors: Ikseon Choi, Kyunghwa Lee Publication: 29 March 2008, Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2008 Type Of Study: Qualitative/Quantitative Participants: Study 1: 30 second semester, female, early childhood education students at a state funded university in southern United States. 29 were white, 1 Filipino-American; Spring 2005. Study 2: 58 juniors from a total of 59 from one of two sections of the same required course in Fall 2006. Coursed were in Early Childhood Education at state-funded university in southern United States. Methodology: Study1: Students gave written responses to two questions (what do you think are the problems I the given case situation and why do you think so? What are the solutions to the problems and why do you think so?) Answers were submitted online. Students received orientation on CBL-CMPS. Students then completed an online pre-transfer test. Class then met twice a week for 1 hr and 15 mins. Per class session. During that time students studied two cases dealing with challenges with children and with parents. Students then completed CBL- CMPS stages online and submitted their response to the questions posed at each stage. Student discussed their answers with other class members. Students then revised the pretest dilemma problem essay online. The essay was not discussed in class. Study 2: Two Groups were treatment group and control group. Treatment Group: received orientation on CBL-CMPS. Class had 30 minute pretest session. Students wrote responses to given problems and possible solutions of the case online. Over the next 3 weeks, students endured the same treatment as study 1 and were also given the same posttest at the end. Control Group: Group took pretest with no orientation on CBL-CMPS. Students receive the same study 1 treatment and then took the posttest in the same manner as study 1. Sample Design: Single-group repeated-measures design; Case-Based Learning Environment for Classroom Management Problem Solving (CBL-CMPS) system was used Statistics: -Strongest Reported: Mean changes between changes were discussed thoroughly. -Weakest Reported: Two-way and follow-up repeated measures? Main Findings: CBL-CMPS and its stages facilitated the college students in (a) considering multiple perspectives, (b) critically reviewing situations and solutions in social and historical contests, (c) developing coherent arguments and (d) applying theories to their srguments to a certain degree while solving ill-structured problems Limitations: Limitations of the environment wit a 3-week implementation. Students tended to simplify the problem at first.
  17. 17. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Effects of Web-Based Spaced Repetition on Vocabulary Retention of Foreign Language Learners Authors: Meltem Baturay, Soner Yeldirim, Aysegul Daloglu Publication: Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 34, pp. 17-36, Winter 2009 Type Of Study: Qualitative/Quantitative Participants: 69 participants (39 female, 30 male), spring semester 2007 at Gazi University Preparatory School Methodology: Three web-based modules consisting of tests and exercises. Vocabulary words were presented to students. Then, a pretest was given on the words. Student spent 11 weeks working through the web-based modules. Students then took a post-test on the vocabulary words. Sample Design: WEBVOCLE (Spaced repetitions, Contextual guesswork, Multimedia embedded instruction, Encoding variability) Statistics: Mean: *see tables for means on each test Standard Deviation: *see tables for standard deviation on each test Variance: *see tables for Homogeneity-of-variance ANOVA: one way ANOVA (see tables for specific ANOVA coefficient on each test) -Strongest Reported: Test results from Pre-tests and Posttests from the three modules were thoroughly discussed as well as the ANOVA coefficient and variances. -Weakest Reported: Ethnographic statistics Main Findings: WEBVOCLE proved to be effective in increasing the retention of participants’ vocabulary through spaced repetitions. Limitations: While the limitations were not directly addressed, I found that only studying 69 students does not provide much generalizability. Also, it was done at a Preparatory School and that may not generalize to Public School Students.
  18. 18. Research Assessment Sheet Title: Bridging the Gap Between Media Synchronicity and Task Performance: Effects of Media Characteristics on Process Variables and Task Performance Indicators in an Information Pooling Task Authors: Stefan Munzer and Torsten Holmer Publication: SAGE, Communication Research 2009; 36; 76 originally published online Nov 12, 2008 Type Of Study: Qualitative Participants: Eighty-four high-school students between 15-19 years old. Methodology: Groups of three members each performed a hidden profile task in which the correct solution to a problem could only be detected by pooling unique pieces of information. There were four experimental conditions that corresponded to four different computer- mediated communication tool versions. In each of the four conditions, seven groups performed the task. During the discussion of the problem through the computer-mediated communication tool, participants individually performed a secondary monitoring task (color recognition) that was designed to evaluate cognitive load. Sample Design: Typing speed test, Free recall test, Questionnaire Statistics: Confidence Interval: G*Power 3 Correlations: Mean: Variance: Tukey HSD post hoc tests Median: Range: Mode: Standard Deviation: Probability: T-test: ANOVA: -Strongest Reported: The gourps produced, on average, most of the common information (84%) -Weakest Reported: The relation of mental effort and information integration Main Findings: Task success was low due to the incomplete exchange of unique information in all conditions. Limitations: Lean media are restrictive with respect to feedback channels

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