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Medical Term Presentation 2

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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

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  • 1. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4. DERMATOFIBROSIS
    • DEFINATION
    • PICTURE OF DERMATOFIBROSIS
    • Dermatofibroma is defined as a benign skin growths, found especially on the legs. They can grow up to about 1 cm (less than a half inch) in diameter. The skin growth is mostly consist of fibrous tissue. Also called sclerosing hemangioma
  • 5. CAUSES OF DERMATOFIBROSIS
    • The exact cause of dermatofibroma is unknown because of its persistent nature. Initially the lesion develops as a firm papule or a button-like tumor. Lesions may be slightly tender and their size may vary slightly over time.
    • The possible causes of dermatofibroma are as :-
    • Injury : A minor injury to the skin such as a prick from a thorn, may lead to the dermatofibroma.
    • Dermatofibroma, can be produced by an insect bite.
    • Sex: Women are more likely to develop this condition than men
    • Age: Middle-aged adults. It is rarely found in childrens.
    • Heredity: A family history of dermatofibroma, may become the cause of it.
  • 6. SYMPTOMS OF DERMATOFIBROMA
    • The important symptoms of dermatofibroma are as:-
    • They are usually found on the lower legs, but may appear on the arms or trunk
    • Raised from the skin and may bleed if damaged
    • The size of dermatofibroma is vary as - small as a BB pellet but can grow larger than a fingernail
    • Usually dimple inward when pinched.
    • They are darker for individuals with darker skin
    • The color may change over time
    • Occasionally itchy or sensitive when touched
    • The red, pink, purplish, gray or brown patches may be seen on the affected area of skin.
    • It is usually painless but may be tender, painful or itchy
  • 7. TREATMENT OF DERMATOFIBROMAS
    • Treatment of dermatofibromas should be considered when they get in the way of shaving or become irritated by clothing.
    • Dermatofibroma are best ignored. If the diagnosis is uncertain, a piece may be removed for tissue analysis.
    • Dermatofibroma can be removed surgically, but since they are deep, this usually leaves a scar.
    • Liquid nitrogen freezing destroys only the upper part of the growth. Therefore, the dermatofibroma, after some years, may again become noticeable. Usually any re growth is slight and can be handled by another freezing.
    • These treatments only destroy the upper part of the growth, and after a few years it may again become noticeable. If this happens, the treatment could be repeated again if desired.
  • 8. MELANOMA
    • MELANOMA OVERVIEW
    • PICTURE OF MELANOMA
    • Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease.
    • It involves cells called melanocytes, which produce a skin pigment called melanin. Melanin is responsible for skin and hair color.
    • Melanoma can also involve the colored part of the eye.
  • 9. SYMPTOMS
    • The primary symptom of any skin cancer is usually a mole, sore, lump, or growth on the skin. Any change in appearance of a pigmented skin sore over time is a warning sign. Also, watch for any bleeding from a skin growth.
    • The ABCD system may help you remember features that might be symptoms of melanoma:
    • Asymmetry: One half of the abnormal area is different from the other half.
    • Borders: The lesion or growth has irregular edges.
    • Color: Color changes from one area to another, with shades of tan, brown, or black (sometimes white, red, or blue). A mixture of colors may appear within one sore.
    • Diameter: The trouble spot is usually (but not always) larger than 6 mm in diameter -- about the size of a pencil eraser.
    • The key to treating melanoma is recognizing symptoms early. You might not notice a small spot of concern if you don't look carefully, so perform thorough self-examinations monthly, and schedule a formal skin exam with a dermatologist yearly.
  • 10. TREATMENT
    • The cancerous skin cells and a portion of the normal surrounding skin usually have to be surgically removed. A procedure called surgical lymph node biopsy may be necessary to check if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. If it has, these lymph nodes may also need to be removed. A skin graft may be necessary after the surgery if a large area of skin is affected.
    • Only the smallest and most shallow melanomas can be cured by surgery alone, so early diagnosis is very important. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy (use of medications that stimulate the immune system, such as interferon) may be recommended in addition to surgery.
    • If the skin cancer is deeper than 4 mm or the lymph nodes have cancer, there is a high risk of the cancer spreading to other tissues and organs. Treatment with interferon after surgery may be useful for these patients. Studies have suggested that interferon improves the overall chance of cure by approximately 10%.
  • 11. CAUSES
    • There are four major types of melanoma:
    • Superficial spreading melanoma is the most common type of melanoma. It is usually flat and irregular in shape and color, with varying shades of black and brown. It may occur at any age or body site, and is most common in Caucasians.
    • Nodular melanoma usually starts as a raised area that is dark blackish-blue or bluish-red, although some are without color.
    • Lentigo maligna melanoma usually occurs in the elderly. It is most common in sun-damaged skin on the face, neck, and arms. The abnormal skin areas are usually large, flat, and tan with intermixed areas of brown.
    • Acral lentiginous melanoma is the least common form of melanoma. It usually occurs on the palms, soles, or under the nails and is more common in African Americans
  • 12. RISK FACTORS
    • Risk factors include the following:
    • Family history of melanoma
    • Red or blond hair and fair skin
    • Presence of multiple birthmarks
    • Development of precancerous sores
    • Obvious freckling on the upper back
    • Three or more blistering sunburns before age 20
    • Three or more years spent at an outdoor summer job as a teenager
    • High levels of exposure to strong sunlight
  • 13. PREVENTION
    • Protect yourself from the sunlight's damaging ultraviolet rays. This includes the following:
    • Apply a sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher, every day (during winter months as well)
    • Wear protective clothing, including a hat and sunglasses
    • Avoid lying in the sun or using tanning devices
    • Minimize sun exposure
      • Especially during the summer
      • Particularly between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.
  • 14. COMPLICATIOS & WHEN TO CONTACT A DOCTOR
    • Complications of melanoma include the following:
    • Spread to other organs
    • Damage to deep tissue
    • Side effects of treatment
      • Nausea
      • Hair loss
      • Fatigue
      • Pain
    • When to contact a doctor
    • Call your health care provider if you notice any symptoms of melanoma, particularly the following:
    • If any existing skin growth changes in color, size, or texture
    • If an existing lesion develops pain, swelling, bleeding, or itching
  • 15. LEUKODERMA
    • WHAT IS LEUKODERMA
    • PICTURE OF LEUKODERMA
    • Leukoderma (or leucoderma) appears as white patches on the skin that result from the partial or total loss of pigmentation. While the white spots themselves are not contagious, painful, or harmful, they can be quite noticeable, especially on people with dark complexions, and may cause discomfort or embarrassment. Vitiligo is a specific type of leukoderma. The term vitiligo is often, although incorrectly, used interchangeably with leukoderma .
  • 16. CAUSES OF LEUKODERMA
    • There are a wide variety of syndromes that can cause leukoderma, some serious, others not. Some say leukoderma is caused by excessive worry, chronic or severe gastric disorders, jaundice, worms or other parasites, typhoid, a defective perspiratory system, and more. Here’s a roundup of what often causes leukoderma:
    • Congenital issues, such as tuberous sclerosis, partial albinism, piebaldism, and Waardenburg syndrome
    • Immunological issues such as vitiligo and halo moles
    • Postinflammatory conditions, such as thermal burns, dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, and some forms of lupus
    • Infections such as leprosy, syphilis, and others
    • Occupational/chemical exposure to depigmentation agents
    • Hereditary factors
  • 17. TREATMENT
    • Immuno suppressive treatment
    • Non- surgical treatment:
    • phototherapy
    • photo chemotherapy
    • PUVA treatment
    • Surgical treatment
    • Bleaching treatment
  • 18. TREATMENT CONTINUE
    • No person has brought more attention to vitiligo and its treatment possibilities than the erratic performer Michael Jackson; Jackson was born black but claims to suffer from vitiligo, causing his skin to become extremely pale. Despite many repigmenting therapies, Jackson assumedly chose a bleaching treatment to rid his skin of remaining pigment as you can see in this pictures.
  • 19. ONYCHOLYSIS
    • DEFINATION
    • PICTURE OF ONYCHOLYSIS
    • Onycholysis refers to the detachment of the nail from the nail bed , starting at its distal and/or lateral attachment. It is said to occur particularly on the ring finger but can occur on any of the fingernails. It can occur in thyrotoxicosis and is thought to be due to sympathetic over activity.
  • 20. MORE PICTURE OF ONYCHOLISIS
  • 21. CAUSES OF ONYCHOLYSIS
    • Onycholysis is a loosening of the exposed portion of the nail from the nail bed, usually beginning at the free edge and continuing to the lunula.
    • This nail disorder is often linked to an internal disorder, trauma, infection, nail fungi, allergy to nail enhancement products or to the side effects of drugs taken by the afflicted person.
    • Onycholysis is a very common problem and involves a painless separation of the nail from the nail bed.
    • Onycholysis is a warning sign of skin disease , an infection or the result of injury, but most cases are seen in women with long fingernails.
  • 22. SYMPTOMS OF ONYCHOLYSIS
    • One way of determining Onycholysis has set in to check for signs of discoloration underneath the nail since this may occur as a result of secondary infection.
    • The painless and spontaneous separation of the nail plate starts at the distal free margin and gradually progresses proximally.
    • Larger portion of the nail may become opaque, get whitened or discolored to yellow or green and this calls for medical attention.
  • 23. TESTS FOR DETERMINING ONYCHLYSIS
    • If the cause of Onycholysis is fungal infection, merely examination alone will not be enough to tell it apart and a test for fungus may be called for. Use of strong medications like Tetracycline
    • , Minocycline, Naproxen make a person abnormally sensitive to light and such persons are at risk of getting sunburn under the nails, which causes Onycholysis. In extremely rare cases, all the nails are affected and then it can be a sign of iron deficiency or thyroid over-activity.
    • If there is noticeable discoloration underneath the nail, the cause may be a secondary infection and this may require the people to take some antibiotics to rid themselves of the underlying cause. Since Onycholysis is usually painless and the separation occurs gradually, it is only in rare cases that a person may experience severe discomfort. This is linked to trauma or the setting in of active infection.
  • 24. TREATMENT & CURE OF ONYCHOLYSIS
    • Some of the remedial measures one can take for Onycholysis at home include regular trimming of nails to ensure they remain short and clean (manageable too) and using a skin softening hand cream to nourish the nails and hands.
    • If Onycholysis has set in due to nail biting, picking or tearing, the person can consider seeking psychological counseling to get the necessary encouragement and guidance to underlying problems to stop this behavior.
    • Persons suffering from Onycholysis should wear light cotton gloves under vinyl gloves for wet work and avoid keeping their hands immersed for prolonged periods in water.
    • If Onycholysis has set in on the feet, one should avoid wearing tight shoes and trim the nails straight across the top only.
  • 25. THE END