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What Is The Future For Bioplastics?
What is a Bioplastic?


To be classified as biobased, the material must be
organic and contain some percentage of recently...
Definitional Clarification


        Renewable does not mean compostable
        Nylon 11, Brazchem PE

        Non renewa...
Why the Drive to Use Renewable Feedstocks?

Oil Independence
Environmental Pollution
Global Warming
Human Health Concerns....
Plastics Trends - Facts
                  Feedstocks




Non Renewable                  Renewable


                    Pr...
Facts or Wishful Thinking?
Global demand for bioplastics will increase more than
fourfold to 900,000 metric tons in 2013. ...
Facts or Wishful Thinking?

Increasing demand for biobased, durable products in electronics
and automotive applications.

...
Key Compostable Bioplastics -The First
                 Generation

Starch/PLA/ECOFLEX          Polylactic Acid -PLA
     ...
Compostable Bioplastics –Second Generation

                           Poly Hydroxy Alkanoates
                           ...
Biobased Polymer Capacities for Major Players
Product      Company            Location   Capacity/mt   Price/#
PLA        ...
Major Markets for Compostable Bioplastics

Starch Blends
   Starch Blends          PLA        SCL-PHA’s
Compostable Bioplastics Do Not Meet the
               Needs for Durables
                           Areas of Concern
Star...
Traditional Path to Maturity For Plastics




                                                                   Copolymer...
Will Biopolymers Follow the Traditional Path to Maturity?-
                           Yes




                            ...
Blends of PHBV/ PLA Already Occurring -
                Why?

  Improved Temperature Performance over PLA

  Improved proc...
Heat Distortion Properties of PHBV/PLA Blends
                                                    100%PLA

               ...
Heat Distortion Temperatures of PHBV/PLA Blends

      Sample        Load MPa                   HDT oC

     100% PLA     ...
PHBV/PLA Blended Product




    Courtesy of Peter Holland BV
Will this Path Serve Durable Markets ?

Not Likely with Only 100% Renewable Products.

Renewable/Petro based Blends are De...
Bioplastics – Present and The Future?
                                                          Biobased Durables
        ...
The New Frontier Landscape
Succinic acid - (DSM, Bioamber, Roquette, Mitsubishi Chemical)
3-hydroxy propionic acid - (Carg...
The Future For Bioplastics Will Depend On…

Moving from Single Use Compostable to Durables

Performance and Price improvem...
The Voyage continues


      Thank you
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  1. 1. What Is The Future For Bioplastics?
  2. 2. What is a Bioplastic? To be classified as biobased, the material must be organic and contain some percentage of recently fixed (new) carbon found in biological resources or crops. This definition is the basis of ASTM D6866
  3. 3. Definitional Clarification Renewable does not mean compostable Nylon 11, Brazchem PE Non renewable does not mean non compostable ECOFLEX , polybutylene succinate (PBS) Compostability is a disposal option-not compositionally defined
  4. 4. Why the Drive to Use Renewable Feedstocks? Oil Independence Environmental Pollution Global Warming Human Health Concerns. Legislation
  5. 5. Plastics Trends - Facts Feedstocks Non Renewable Renewable Products Disposables Durables
  6. 6. Facts or Wishful Thinking? Global demand for bioplastics will increase more than fourfold to 900,000 metric tons in 2013. (Freedonia) Global production of bioplastics will increase six-fold to 1.5 million tonnes by 2011, up from 262,000 tonnes in 2007. (European Bioplastics ) Production capacity of bio-based plastics is projected to increase from 360,000 tons in 2007 to about 2.3 million tons by 2013. (European Bioplastics )
  7. 7. Facts or Wishful Thinking? Increasing demand for biobased, durable products in electronics and automotive applications. By 2011 durables are expected to account for almost 40% of bioplastics -compared with 12% today. ( European Bioplastics) Can Today’s Compostable Bioplastics Meet the Durables Needs?
  8. 8. Key Compostable Bioplastics -The First Generation Starch/PLA/ECOFLEX Polylactic Acid -PLA O O HO HO OH OH H H3C CH3 H L-Lactic Acid D-Lactic Acid (0.5%) Compounded Biobased Compostable 100% Renewable and compostable
  9. 9. Compostable Bioplastics –Second Generation Poly Hydroxy Alkanoates (PHA’s) Short Chain Length (SCL) PHB,PHBV SCL-co MCL PHBH,PHBHP, PHBHO,PHBHN ,
  10. 10. Biobased Polymer Capacities for Major Players Product Company Location Capacity/mt Price/# PLA Natureworks USA 150,000 0.85-1.20 PLA Hisun China 5,000 1.25 PHA’s Metabolix/Telles USA 300/50,000 2.50-2.75 (2010) PHBH Meredian/Kaneka USA 150,000? n/a PHBV Tianan China 2,000 2.40-2.50 Materbi Novamont Eu 80,000 2.0-3.0 Cereplast Cereplast USA 25,000 1.50-2.50 HDPE/LDPE/PP Brazchem SA 200,000 0.80-1.00 . (2010)
  11. 11. Major Markets for Compostable Bioplastics Starch Blends Starch Blends PLA SCL-PHA’s
  12. 12. Compostable Bioplastics Do Not Meet the Needs for Durables Areas of Concern Starch Blends PLA SCL PHA’S Hydrolytic stability Hydrolytic Stability Hydrolytic Stability Distortion Temp. Distortion Temp.(amorph.) Vapor transmission Vapor Transmission Shelf Life Shelf Life Shelf Life Impact Resistance Melt Strength Melt Strength Processability Economics “Ageing”
  13. 13. Traditional Path to Maturity For Plastics Copolymers Blends Chemical Resit. Modifiers High Heat Additives Rigid/Flexible Ductile Impact modifiers Low/High Temp Fillers/fibers Rheology Base Polymer Pigments Biobased/Petro Modifiers Lubricants Plasticizers Mold release agents Nucleating agents
  14. 14. Will Biopolymers Follow the Traditional Path to Maturity?- Yes Copolymers Blends Modifiers Isosorbide Additives PLA/Ecoflex 2,5 FDCA Acrylics PLA/PHBV Base Polymer Talc Joncryls Kenaf PLA/PC PLA Citroflex EBS
  15. 15. Blends of PHBV/ PLA Already Occurring - Why? Improved Temperature Performance over PLA Improved processing window over PHBV Wider mechanical property spectrum Almost completely renewable resource based Still Compostable
  16. 16. Heat Distortion Properties of PHBV/PLA Blends 100%PLA 90%PLA/10%PHBV 2Minutes 80%PLA/20%PHBV Deformed 70%PLA/30%PHBV 12Minutes 60%PLA/40%PHBV Not Deformed 50%PLA/50%PHBV Samples Held up to 12minutes at 100 C COURTESY OF PETER HOLLAND BV
  17. 17. Heat Distortion Temperatures of PHBV/PLA Blends Sample Load MPa HDT oC 100% PLA 0.45 52.0 90/10 0.45 53.4 80/20 0.45 54.5 70/30 0.45 54.6 60/40 0.45 63.0 50/50 0.45 66.3 COURTESY OF PETER HOLLAND BV
  18. 18. PHBV/PLA Blended Product Courtesy of Peter Holland BV
  19. 19. Will this Path Serve Durable Markets ? Not Likely with Only 100% Renewable Products. Renewable/Petro based Blends are Developing Low Biobased content Durable Copolymers are Appearing To Cross the Frontier to High Biobased Durables: A New Approach is needed
  20. 20. Bioplastics – Present and The Future? Biobased Durables Biobased Durables High New “C” Content Low New “C” Content PET, NYLON 6 Compostables PET PBT, PMMA,PC Nylon 4.10, Starch 6.10, 10.10, Blends 10. Nylon 11 PLA/PHA PE, PP NYLON 6 PTT PLA TPU’s PHA’s (PBS) Bioplastics Frontier 1994-2009 2010-2015?
  21. 21. The New Frontier Landscape Succinic acid - (DSM, Bioamber, Roquette, Mitsubishi Chemical) 3-hydroxy propionic acid - (Cargill, Codexis) Acrylic acid - (Ceres, Rohm & Haas) Aspartic acid - (China) Levulinic acid - (China) Sorbitol - (Cargill, ADM, Roquette) Ethylene/ethylene glycol - (Brazchem, India Glycols) Propylene/propane 1,3 diol - (Brazchem, DuPont / Tate & Lyle) Butylene/butane diol - (Genomatica) Lysine/caprolactam - (Draths) Terephthalic acid - (Gevo) Adipic acid Isoprene - (Goodyear, Genenco)
  22. 22. The Future For Bioplastics Will Depend On… Moving from Single Use Compostable to Durables Performance and Price improvements for Existing Bioplastics Renewable Building Block Developments Recycling Infrastructure Developments
  23. 23. The Voyage continues Thank you
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