A Look at Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Art and Movements
ROMANTICISM Appreciating the “impulse from a vernal wood”
O man, of whatever country you are, and whatever your opinions may be, behold your history, such as I have thought to read it, not in books, written by your fellow- creatures, who are liars, but in nature, which never lies.” --- Rousseau Rousseau and his Social Contract
Features of Romanticism
Emphasis on the Imagination
Emphasis on the Rights of the Individual, the Common Man
Emphasis on Nature
Emphasis on Exotic Locales
Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare , 1781.
Oil on canvas
William Blake, Ancient of Days , 1794. Metal relief etching.
Francisco Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters , ca. 1798. Etching and aquatint.
Francisco Goya, The Third of May , 1808. Oil on canvas.
Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring One of His Children , 1819-23. Detail of a detached fresco on canvas.
Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus , 1826. Oil on canvas.
The Rights of the Individual, of the Common Man
Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People , 1830. Oil on canvas.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa , 1818-19. Oil on canvas.
Theodore Gericault, Insane Woman , 1822-23. Oil on canvas.
Nature and Exotic Locales
John Constable, The Haywain , 1821. Oil on canvas.
J.M.W. Turner, The Slave Ship , 1840. Oil on canvas.
The Hudson River School in America
Thomas Cole, The Oxbow , 1836. Oil on canvas.
Albert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California , 1868. Oil on canvas.
Frederic Edwin Church, Twilight in the Wilderness , 1860’s. Oil on canvas.
Thomas Cole, Kaaterskill Falls, 1826
Asher B. Durand, Kindred Spirits, 1849 Painter Thomas Cole with his friend poet William Cullen Bryant
Components of the Realism Movement
Realism seeks to present the world as it is in its present time
Dialect is important; regionalism grows out of the realism movement
Details about the everyday lives of the common man become important
First criticized as grotesque and uncouth
Becomes socially critical
Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers , 1849-50. Oil on canvas.
Jean-Francois Millet, The Gleaners . Oil on canvas.
Honore Daumier, Rue Transnonain , 1834. Lithograph.
Honore Daumier, The Third-Class Carriage , ca. 1862. Oil on canvas.
Eduoard Manet, Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863. Oil on canvas .
Winslow Homer, The Veteran in a New Field , 1865. Oil on canvas.
Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free , 1867. Marble, 3’5 1/4 “ x 11” x 7”
Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic , 1875. Oil on canvas.
Timothy O’Sullivan, A Harvest of Death , Getysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863 . Negative by Timothy O’ Sullivan.
Frederic Remington, The Cavalry Charge, 1907. Oil on canvas.
Frederic Remington, Radisson and Groseilliers , 1905. Oil on canvas.
Frederic Remington, The Bronco Buster , 1905. Bronze.
Features of Impressionism, 1880’s
Seeks to present life in its present moment
As such, very concerned with effects of light
Impressionist absorption with light on color also deepened and encouraged by new color theories of late 19 th century
Impressionist movement also seen at first in a negative light
Claude Monet, Impression: Sunrise 1872 . Oil on canvas.
Claude Monet, Terrace at Sainte-Adresse , 1866-67. Oil on canvas.
Claude Monet, Haystack , 1891. Oil on canvas.
Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral (Full Sunlight) , 1893. Oil on canvas.
Claude Monet, Water Lilies , 1906. Oil on canvas.
Winslow Homer, The Fog Warning , 1885 Even in Impressionism, American artists still stress the rugged individual
One of America’s Most Famous Impressionist Paintings: Winslow Homer, Snap the Whip , 1872.
Modernism: 1900-1950 “You are all a lost generation.” -- Gertrude Stein to Ernest Hemingway
Features of Modernism
Loss of values and deep sense of alienation from and disillusionment with the world as a result of:
World War I
Rise of science
“God is dead.”—Nietzsche
The Origin of Species : Man did not come from God, but from monkeys
Increased urbanization of the world and subsequent loss of small-town caring and values
The Armory Show, 1913 Officially known as The International Exhibition of Modern Art
The show’s purpose was to question the boundaries of art as an institution
The show took place at New York’s 69 th Street armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25 th and 26 th Streets
It was home to approx. 1250 paintings, sculptures and decorative works by over 300 European and American artists
Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase , 1912
One of the most controversial works from the Armory Show, Duchamp’s painting gave rise to many spoofs, such as Rude Descending a Staircase and Food Descending a Staircase
One critic offered prize money to anyone who could find the nude
From Gallery I of the show
Europeans at The Armory Show One third of the show’s artists were European, and movements such as Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism and Cubism were represented in the show
THE MOST FAMOUS CUBISTS: Georges Braques, Mozart Kubelick, 1912. Influence of the Jazz Age
PABLO PICASSO: THE OTHER FAMOUS CUBIST Head of a Woman, 1909 Woman with a Mustard Pot
The First Cezanne in an American Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Hill of the Poor or, as it’s now known, View of the Domain St. Joseph
Americans at The Armory Show Most of the American artists in the show belonged to the Ashcan School, whose most influential members were known as The Eight
John Sloan, Night Windows, 1910
John Sloan, Sunday, Women Drying Their Hair , 1912
George Bellows Circus, 1912, at the Armory Show Stag at Sharkey’s , 1909, one of Bellows’ most famous paintings
Robert Henri: Founder of the Ashcan School
Name was derogatory
Given because subject matter of artists seemed to be ashcans
Subject matter was of lower class people going about ordinary tasks of life
Brought attention to injustices done to lower classes . . .
Injustices such as the Sex Trade Abastenia St. Leger Eberle, White Slave , 1910
America During the Modernist Era War, the Depression, Immigration, Racism and Urbanization
Stieglitz is one of the most famous 20 th -century American photographers
He also helped organize the Armory Show and launched the careers of many American artists
One of them was Georgia O’Keefe, a woman who also became his lover
The Steerage , a print from 1907, shows Stieglitz’s interest in capturing human feeling and repeating shapes and patterns
ICONIC WORKS SHOW THE MISERY OF MODERN LIFE
Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, Nipomo Valley, 1935. Gelatin silver print.
Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942.
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of the Negro , panel 1 and then panel 3, 1940-1. 60-painting series depicting the flight of Black people from South to North
Grant Wood, American Gothic , 1930.
One of the most famous American paintings ever, this work is iconic and highly parodied and reproduced
People mostly thought the work dignified the life of rural Americans
In fact, Wood was considered a Regionalist and focused on Iowa in particular
Abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock dripped paint onto canvases to create works like this one: Number 1, 1950 (Lavendar Mist), 1950.
POP ART returned to representational art but used consumer culture and mass media as inspirations Roy Lichtenstein Left: Hopeless, 1963 Right: Maybe , 1963
The Most Famous Pop Artist
Andy Warhol, Campbell Soup, 1964
Have we reduced art to mass merchandise or have we elevated mass merchandise into art?
Andy Warhol, Value Print War Cans
Andy Warhol, Marilyn Monroe, 1967 Green Coca Cola Bottles , 1962
Superrealist Duane Hanson mocks American overconsumption Supermarket Shopper , 1970
FEMINIST ART Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party , 1979
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face) , 1981